Ƴancin karamci

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Harsashi scallop yana ba da karimci ga mahajjata akan Hanyar Saint James

Ƴancin karamci ( [hɔs̠ˈpɪt̪iʊ̃] ; Greek: ξενία , xenia, προξενία) shi ne tsohuwar ra'ayin Greco-Roman na karimci a matsayin haƙƙin allahntaka na baƙo da kuma aikin allahntaka na mai masaukin baki. Irin kwatankwacin su sun kasance kuma ana san su a wasu al'adu, kodayake ba koyaushe da wannan sunan ba. A cikin Helenawa da Romawa, masaukin yana da nau'i biyu: na sirri da na jama'a.

Na sirri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A zamanin Homeric, duk baƙi, ba tare da togiya ba, an ɗauke su a ƙarƙashin kariya na Zeus Xenios, allahn baƙi da masu ba da fatawa, kuma suna da haƙƙin karɓar baƙi . (Yana da shakka ko kuma, kamar yadda ake zato,[ana buƙatar hujja]An dauke su a facto ; sun kasance baƙi ne. ) Nan da nan da isowarsa, baƙon ya sa tufafi da nishaɗi, kuma ba a yi tambaya game da sunansa ko magabata ba har sai an cika aikin baƙo. Lokacin da bakon ya rabu da mai masaukin nasa ana yawan ba shi kyauta (ξένια), to Amman Kuma wani lokaci ma mutuwa (ἀστράγαλος) yakan karye a tsakaninsu. Kowannensu ya ɗauki bangare, an kafa alaƙar dangi, kuma mutuwar da aka karye ta zama alamar ganewa; don haka membobin kowane iyali sun samu a cikin sauran runduna da masu tsaro idan akwai bukata.

Rashin cin zarafi daga rundunar ayyukan baƙo yana iya haifar da fushin alloli; amma ba ya nuna cewa akwai wani abu da ya wuce wannan hukumci na addini don kiyaye haƙƙin matafiyi. Irin wannan al'adu da alama sun wanzu a tsakanin mutanen Italiya. [ sautin ] A cikin Romawa, karimci mai zaman kansa, wanda ya wanzu tun farkon zamani, an fi bayyana shi daidai kuma bisa doka fiye da tsakanin Helenawa, ƙulla tsakanin mai masaukin baki da baƙo yana kusan ƙarfi kamar na tsakanin majiɓinci da abokin ciniki. Ya kasance daga yanayin kwangila, wanda aka yi ta hanyar alkawari, manne hannaye, da musayar yarjejeniya a rubuce ( tabula hospitalis ) ko na alama ( tessera ko alama), kuma an mayar da shi gado ta hanyar rabon amsa. Fa'idodin da baƙon ya samu shine, haƙƙin baƙon baƙi lokacin tafiya da kuma, sama da duka, kare mai masaukinsa (wakiltar shi a matsayin majiɓincinsa) a kotun shari'a. Kwangilar ta kasance mai tsarki kuma ba ta da laifi, an yi ta da sunan Jupiter Hospitalis, kuma za a iya rushe ta ta hanyar wani aiki na yau da kullun. [1]

Jama'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan haɗin kai na sirri ya zama al'ada bisa ga wata jiha ta nada ɗaya daga cikin 'yan ƙasar waje a matsayin wakilinta Proxenos (πρόξενος) don kare duk wani ɗan ƙasarta da ke tafiya ko mazaunin ƙasarsa. Wani lokaci mutum ya zo gaba da son rai don yin waɗannan ayyuka a madadin wata jiha etheloproxenos (ἐθελοπρόξενος). Gaba ɗaya ana kwatanta proxenus da ɗan ƙarami na zamani ko mazaunin minista. Ayyukansa sun hada da ba da baki ga baki daga jihar da ya ke zama wakilinsa, gabatar da jakadunta, da ba su damar shiga majalisa da kujeru a gidan wasan kwaikwayo, da kuma kula da muradun kasuwanci da siyasa na jihar da su. an nada shi ofishinsa.

Yawancin lokuta suna faruwa idan irin wannan ofishi na gado ne; Don haka dangin Callias a Athens sun kasance proxeni na Spartans . Mun sami ofishin da aka ambata a cikin rubutun Corcyraean mai yiwuwa daga karni na 7 BC, kuma ya ci gaba da girma mafi mahimmanci kuma akai-akai a cikin tarihin Girkanci. Babu wata hujja da ke nuna cewa an taɓa haɗa kowane nau'i na kai tsaye a ofishin, yayin da kashe kuɗi da matsalar da ke tattare da shi dole ne galibi ya yi yawa sosai. Watakila karamcin da ya zo da shi ya isa lada. Waɗannan sun ƙunshi wani ɓangare a cikin babban girmamawa da daraja da aka biya ga proxenus, kuma wani ɓangare a cikin ƙarin ƙarin girma da yawa da aka ba da umarnin musamman na jihar wanda wakilinsa ya kasance, kamar 'yanci daga haraji da nauyin jama'a, haƙƙin samun dukiya a Attica. shigar da majalisar dattijai da kuma mashahuran majalisa, kuma watakila ma cikakken dan kasa. [1]

Ga alama gidan masaukin jama'a kuma ya kasance a tsakanin jinsin Italiya; amma yanayin tarihinsu ya hana shi zama mai mahimmanci kamar na Girka. To Amman Duk da haka, al'amuran sun faru na kafa karimcin jama'a tsakanin biranen biyu ( Roma da Caere, Livy v. 50), da kuma garuruwan da suka shiga matsayi na abokin ciniki ga wasu fitattun Roman, wanda ya zama majibincin irin wannan gari. Majalisar dattijai ta kan ba baki 'yancin karbar baki daga kasashen waje har zuwa karshen jamhuriyar. Masu masaukin baki na jama'a suna da 'yancin yin nishaɗi a kuɗin jama'a, shigar da sadaukarwa da wasanni, haƙƙin siye da siyarwa akan asusun kansa, da kuma gabatar da wani mataki a doka ba tare da sa hannun wani majiɓincin Romawa ba.

Za a sami cikakken littafin tarihin batun a cikin labarin a Daremberg da Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiqutés, wanda za a iya ƙara Rudolf von Jhering . Die Gastfreundschaft im Altertum (1887); duba kuma Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (ed 3rd., 1890).

Asibitin Medieval[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsohon Hospitium na St Mary's Abbey, York, Ingila

A cikin Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar, an tsawaita kalmar, a duk faɗin Turai, don komawa zuwa ginin ko hadaddun gine-ginen da aka haɗe zuwa gidan sufi, inda mahajjata da sauran ƙananan baƙi za su iya samun baƙi ko masauki, gami da masaukin da aka gina.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Proxeny
  • Xenia (Girkanci)
  • Dokar baƙo
  • Nanwatai
  • Melmastia

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Hospitium". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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