Ƴancin mallakar hannun jari

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Wikidata.svgƳancin mallakar hannun jari

Haƙƙin Mallakar hannun jari, ko ma'aikaci rabon hannun jari, shi ne inda ma'aikatan kamfani ke da hannun jari a cikin wannan kamfani (ko a cikin iyayen kamfanin gungun kamfanoni). Ma'aikatan Amurka yawanci suna samun hannun jari ta hanyar tsarin zaɓin rabo. A Burtaniya, Tsare-tsaren Sayen Raba Ma'aikata ya zama ruwan dare, inda ake cirewa daga albashin ma'aikaci don siyan hannun jari akan lokaci. A Ostiraliya ya zama ruwan dare a sami duk tsare-tsaren ma'aikata waɗanda ke ba wa ma'aikata ƙimar hannun jarin $1,000 akan tsarin haraji. [1] Irin waɗannan tsare-tsaren na iya zama zaɓaɓɓu ko tsare-tsaren ma'aikata duka. Yawancin tsare-tsaren zaɓaɓɓun ana ba da su ga manyan jami'ai kawai. Duk tsare-tsaren ma'aikata suna ba da haɗin kai ga duk ma'aikata (bisa ga wasu sharuɗɗan cancanta kamar ƙaramin tsayin sabis).

Yawancin kamfanoni suna amfani da tsare-tsaren mallakar hannun jari azaman nau'in fa'idar ma'aikaci . Tsare-tsare a cikin kamfanonin jama'a gaba ɗaya suna iyakance jimillar lamba ko yawan adadin hajojin kamfanin da ma'aikata za su iya samu a ƙarƙashin tsari. [2] Idan aka kwatanta da ƙungiyoyin haɗin gwiwar ma'aikata ko ƙaddamarwa, ikon mallakar hannun jari na ma'aikaci bazai ba da wani iko mai ma'ana ko tasiri daga ma'aikata a cikin gudanarwa da gudanar da kamfani ba.

Wasu kamfanoni, musamman ma kamfanoni masu zaman kansu, suna amfani da hannun jari na ma'aikata don tallafawa al'adun kamfani. Mallakar ma'aikata shi ne lokacin da duk ma'aikata tare suka mallaki babban hannun jari kuma suna da murya mai ma'ana a cikin kamfani (ko rukuni) da ke ɗaukar su aiki.

Ƙasashe da yawa sun gabatar da kaso mai fa'ida na haraji ko raba tsare-tsaren zaɓi don ƙarfafa ikon rabon ma'aikata.

Nau'in shirin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Don sauƙaƙe ikon mallaka na ma'aikata, kamfanoni na iya rarraba ma'aikatansu da hannun jari, wanda ƙila ba shi da tsadar farashi ga ma'aikaci, baiwa ma'aikaci damar siyan haja, wanda zai iya kasancewa a ragi, ko baiwa ma'aikata zaɓuɓɓukan hannun jari. Hannun jarin da aka keɓe ga ma'aikata na iya samun lokacin riƙewa kafin ma'aikaci ya mallaki hannun jarin (wanda aka sani da saka hannun jari). Bayar da hannun jari da aikin zaɓin hannun jari na iya kasancewa ƙarƙashin yanayin aikin mutum ɗaya ko kasuwanci.

Daban-daban na tsare-tsaren mallakar hannun jari na ma'aikata sun zama ruwan dare a yawancin masana'antu da wasu ƙasashe masu tasowa. Ana tsare-tsaren zartarwa don ɗauka da ba da lada ga manya ko manyan ma'aikata. A cikin Amurka da Burtaniya akwai al'ada da yawa na raba irin wannan mallakar gabaɗaya tare da ma'aikata ta hanyar tsare-tsaren da ake ba da gudummawa ga duk ma'aikata. Dokokin haraji don mallakar rabon ma'aikata sun bambanta daga ƙasa zuwa ƙasa. Kadan ne kawai, musamman Amurka, Burtaniya, da Ireland suna da manyan dokokin haraji don ƙarfafa ikon mallakar babban ma'aikaci. [3] Misali, a Amurka akwai takamaiman dokoki don Tsare-tsaren Mallakar Ma'aikata (ESOPs). A cikin ƙasar Burtaniya akwai tsare-tsare masu fa'ida na harajin ma'aikata guda biyu waɗanda ke ba wa ma'aikata damar samun hannun jari: Tsarin Raba Incentive Plan da shirin zaɓi na Sharesave .

Daban-daban na shirin rabon ma'aikata (gami da tsare-tsare masu ƙarfafa kuɗi masu alaƙa) sun haɗa da:

Shirye-shiryen siyan kai tsaye[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shirye-shiryen sayan kai tsaye suna ba wa ma'aikata damar siyan hannun jari a cikin kamfani da kuɗin kansu. A cikin ƙasashe da yawa, akwai tsare-tsare na musamman na cancantar haraji waɗanda ke ba wa ma'aikata damar siyan haja ko dai a ragi ko tare da hannun jarin da ya dace da kamfani. Misali, a ƙasar Amurka, tsare-tsaren sayan hannun jari na ma’aikata suna baiwa ma’aikata damar ajiye biyan bayan-haraji na wani lokaci (yawanci watanni 6-12) sannan a yi amfani da kudaden da aka tara don siyan hannun jari har zuwa ragi kaso 15% a ko dai farashin a lokacin saye ko lokacin da suka fara ajiye kuɗin a gefe, ko wanne ya ragu. A cikin Burtaniya, Tsare-tsaren Raba Ƙarfafawa suna ba da damar siyan ma'aikata waɗanda kamfani zai iya daidaitawa kai tsaye.

Zaɓuɓɓukan hannun jari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  Zaɓuɓɓukan hannun jari suna ba ma'aikata 'yancin siyan hannun jari da yawa a farashin da aka kayyade a kyauta na ƙayyadadden adadin shekaru a nan gaba. Zaɓuɓɓuka, da duk tsare-tsaren da aka jera a ƙasa, ana iya ba kowane ma'aikaci ƙarƙashin kowace ƙa'idar da kamfani ya ƙirƙira, tare da iyakancewar keɓancewa a ƙasashe daban-daban na Duniya.

Ƙuntataccen hannun jari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙuntataccen haja da ɓangarorin hannun jari na kusa suna ba ma'aikata haƙƙin mallaka ko karɓar hannun jari, ta kyauta ko siya, da zarar an cika wasu ƙayyadaddun hani, kamar yin wasu adadin shekaru ko cimma burin aiki.

Hannun fatalwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hannun jarin fatalwa yana biyan kari na tsabar kuɗi na gaba daidai da ƙimar takamaiman adadin hannun jari.

Haƙƙoƙin ƙima na hannun jari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Haƙƙin ƙayyadaddun adadin hannun jari, yawanci ana biyan su da tsabar kuɗi amma lokaci-lokaci ana sasantawa a cikin hannun jari (wannan ana kiransa “Sam-Settled” SAR).

Mallakar ma'aikata[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mallakar ma'aikata wata hanya ce ta gudanar da kasuwanci wacce za ta iya yin aiki ga manyan kamfanoni daban-daban a sassa daban-daban.

Mallakar ma'aikata na buƙatar ma'aikata su mallaki wani muhimmin hannun jari mai ma'ana a kamfaninsu. Girman rabon dole ne ya zama mahimmanci. Ana karɓar wannan azaman ma'ana inda kashi 25 ko fiye na mallakin kamfani ke riƙe da kowa ko galibin ma'aikata (ko a madadinsu ta hanyar amana ). Akwai nau'ikan asali guda uku na mallakar ma'aikata:

  • ikon mallakar hannun jari kai tsaye ta duk ma'aikata a matsayin daidaikun mutane;
  • mallakin kai tsaye (ko amana) a madadin duk ma'aikata ta amintaccen amintaccen ma'aikaci ; kuma
  • samfurin matasan wanda ya haɗa duka kai tsaye da kuma mallakin kai tsaye.

Bugu da kari, hannun jarin ma'aikata dole ne ya baiwa ma'aikata damar yin magana mai ma'ana a cikin harkokin kamfanin ta hanyar karfafa tsarin kungiya da ke inganta shigar ma'aikata a cikin kamfanin.

Ana iya ganin ikon mallakar ma'aikata a matsayin tsarin kasuwanci na kansa, sabanin ikon rabon ma'aikata wanda zai iya ba wa ma'aikatan da aka zaɓa kawai hannun jari a cikin kamfaninsu da kuma babban rabon da ba shi da ƙima.

A cikin ƙungiyoyin Burtaniya irin su Ƙungiyar Mallakar Ma'aikata (EOA), Kasuwancin Scottish, Cibiyar Haɗin gwiwar Wales da Ƙungiyoyin Ƙungiyoyin Ƙasar Birtaniya suna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen inganta ikon mallakar ma'aikata.

Kamfanin sarrafa ma'aikata shine mafi yawan ma'aikata mallakar ma'aikata. Wannan na iya tasowa ta hanyar siyan ma'aikaci. Ana iya saita wannan ta hanyar amintaccen mallakar ma'aikaci . Kamfanonin mallakar ma'aikata gabaɗaya ko kuma mahimmanci (kai tsaye ko a kaikaice ne) na ma'aikatansu.

Daban-daban nau'ikan ikon mallakar ma'aikata, da ka'idodin da ke ƙarƙashin su, sun ba da gudummawar fitowar ƙungiyoyin kasuwancin zamantakewa na duniya. Sabis na jama'a, bisa ma'anarsa, yana da ma'ana mai mahimmanci na ikon mallakar ma'aikata, tasiri ko sarrafawa, amma yawancin ma'aikatan jama'a suna bayyana kansu a matsayin kamfanoni na zamantakewa maimakon ma'aikata.

Ƙungiyar ma'aikata ƙungiya ce ta haɗin gwiwar ma'aikatanta kuma suna sarrafa kanta. Wani nau'in kamfani ne na ma'aikaci wanda ke aiki bisa ga ƙimar haɗin kai na kasa da kasa kuma yana bin wani ƙarin lamba, fiye da ainihin ƙa'idodin duniya, mai da hankali kan dimokiradiyya da shiga cikin aiki. Mafi girman bikin (kuma nazari) Kuma shari'ar ƙungiyar kamfanoni gabaɗaya bisa ƙa'idodin haɗin gwiwa shine Kamfanin Haɗin gwiwar Mondragon na Spain. [4] Dokokin Mutanen Espanya, duk da haka, na buƙatar membobin Kamfanin Mondragon su yi rajista a matsayin masu zaman kansu kuma ba ma'aikata ba. Wannan yana ƙara bambanta irin wannan nau'in ikon haɗin gwiwar (wanda masu zaman kansu masu zaman kansu kowannensu ke da rabon kada kuri'a guda ɗaya, ko kuma hannun jarin da wata ƙungiya ta doka ce ke sarrafa shi) daga mallakar ma'aikata (inda galibi ana gudanar da mallakar a matsayin toshe. hannun jari a madadin ma'aikata ta amfani da amintaccen ikon mallakar ma'aikaci, ko dokokin kamfani sun haɗa hanyoyin rarraba hannun jari ga ma'aikata da tabbatar da kasancewa masu rinjaye). [5]

Ta ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

jihohin Baltic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ƙasar Baltic ba ta ba da cikakkun ƙa'idodi kan sa hannun kuɗin ma'aikata ba sai don wasu tsare-tsare masu tallafi. Koyaya, kwatancen cikin ƙa'idodin ƙasa game da tsare-tsaren sa hannun kuɗi na ma'aikata sun nuna ƙarancin yawa. A wasu kalmomi, akwai ƴan dokoki da suka danganci tsare-tsaren mallakar ma'aikata kuma babu wata doka ta musamman kan raba riba. Jihohin Baltic suna amfani da nau'ikan tsare-tsaren mallakar ma'aikata iri ɗaya. To Amman A aikace, ana ba da tsare-tsaren mallakar ma'aikata da yawa ga ma'aikata ko za'a iya siyan su daga kasuwannin musayar hannun jari na Lithuania, gami da hannun jari na aiki (a cikin kamfani mai iyaka na jama'a), zaɓuɓɓukan hannun jari da hannun jarin da ba su da tushe. Babban matsalolin suna da alaƙa da cancantar zaɓuɓɓukan hannun jari ta ma'aikata. Wata matsala kuma tana da alaƙa da rashin ( Batun Estoniya ) na tsare-tsare na shari'a na musamman (ka'idar zaɓuɓɓukan hannun jari ko wani), madaidaitan shari'a (tsararriyar ƙa'ida, ƙuntatawa don ƙaddamar da tsare-tsaren zaɓi na hannun jari) ko ƙa'idodin cancantar hannun jari. [6]

Ƙasar Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsare-tsare na Raba Ma'aikata (ESOPs) ya zama tartsatsi na ɗan gajeren lokaci a Burtaniya a ƙarƙashin gwamnatin Margaret Thatcher, musamman bin Dokar Sufuri ta shekarar 1985, wacce ta ɓata sannan kuma ta ba da sabis na bas. Majalisun da ke neman kare ma’aikata sun tabbatar da cewa ma’aikata sun shiga hannun jari yayin da aka mayar da hannun jari, amma ba da jimawa ba masu ma’aikata sun yi asarar hannun jarin su yayin da aka sayo su aka kwace kamfanonin bas. Bacewar tsare-tsaren hannun jari ya kasance mai ban mamaki.

Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ƙasar Amurka, akwai al'adar mallakar hannun jari ga ma'aikata. Ya fara ne da kamfanonin masana'antu kuma a yau ya zama ruwan dare a fannin fasaha amma har da kamfanoni a wasu masana'antu, irin su Kasuwancin Abincin Abinci da Starbucks .

A cikin yakin neman zabensa na Shugaban kasa shekarata na 2020, Bernie Sanders ya ba da shawarar cewa kashi 20% na hannun jari a cikin kamfanoni masu sama da dala miliyan 100 a cikin kudaden shiga na shekara su zama mallakar ma'aikatan kamfanin.

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Australian Tax Office|https://www.ato.gov.au/general/employee-share-schemes/employers/types-of-ess/concessional-ess/taxed-upfront-scheme---$1,000-reduction/
  2. See, for example, in the UK, The Investment Association Principles of Remuneration (1 November 2019) Rule 2 xi (Dilution)
  3. National Center for Employee Ownership, Employee Ownership for Multinational Companies, 2010
  4. Whyte, W. F. and Whyte, K. K. (1991) Making Mondragon, New York: ILR Press/Itchaca.
  5. Erdal, D. (2008) Local Heroes: How Loch Fyne Oysters Embraced Employee Ownership and Business Success, London: Viking.
  6. Civinskas, R., Dvorak, J. (2017). New Social Cooperation Model in Service Oriented Economy: The Case of Employee Financial Participation in the Baltic States. Engineering Management in Production and Services, Vol. 9 (3), p. 37-50

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Joseph Blasi, Douglas Kruse; Bernstein, Aaron (2003), In the company of owners: The Truth about Stock Options (and why Every Employee Should Have Them), New York, NY: Basic Books, ISBN 9780465007004, OCLC 50479205
  • Rosen, Corey; Case, John; Staubus, Martin (2005), Equity: Why Employee Ownership is Good for Business, Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, ISBN 9781591393313, OCLC 57557579
  • Curl, John (2009) For All The People: Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America, PM Press, 08033994793.ABA
  • Staubus, Martin (2011), "Creating a High-Performing Workplace", Employee Ownership Insights, The Beyster Institute (Summer 2011)