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Abbas ibn Firnas

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Abbas ibn Firnas
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna عبَّاس بن فِرناس بن وِرداس التاكِرني
Haihuwa Ronda (en) Fassara, 810
Harshen uwa Larabci
Mutuwa Córdoba (en) Fassara, 887
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Tarifit (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a inventor (en) Fassara, likita, chemist (en) Fassara, mawaƙi, maiwaƙe da Ilimin Taurari
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Abbas Ibn Firnas ya ba da gudunmawa daban-daban a fannin ilmin taurari da injiniyanci. Ya kera na'urar da ke nuni da motsin duniyoyi da taurari a sararin samaniya. Bugu da kari, ibn Firnas ya fito da wata hanya ta kera gilashin da ba ta da launi da kuma yin tabarau masu girma don karatu, wadanda aka fi sani da karanta duwatsu .[1][2]

An haifi Abbas ibn Firnas a garin Ronda, a lardin Takurunna kuma ya zauna a Cordoba.[3] Kakanninsa sun halarci yakin da musulmi suka yi wa Spain. Cikakken sunansa shi ne “Abu al-Qasim Abbas ibn Firnas ibn Wirdas al-Takurini”, duk da cewa an fi saninsa da Abbas ibn Firnas. Akwai kadan bayanan tarihin rayuwa a kansa. Yayin da mafi yawan majiyoyi suka bayyana shi a matsayin Umayyad mawlā (abokin ciniki) na asalin Berber, [4][5] wasu majiyoyi suna kwatanta shi da

Abbas Ibn Firnas ya kirkiro wata hanya ta kera gilashin mara launi, ya kirkiro gilashin gilashi iri-iri, ya yi ruwan tabarau masu gyara (" karanta duwatsu "), ya tsara jerin abubuwan da za a iya amfani da su don kwaikwayi motsin taurari da taurari, kuma ya samar da tsari don yankan dutsen crystal wanda ya ba wa Al-Andalus[6] damar daina fitar da quartz zuwa Masar don yankewa. Ya gabatar da Sindhind ga Al-Andalus, wanda ke da tasiri mai mahimmanci akan ilimin taurari a Turai. Ya kuma ƙera al-Maqata, agogon ruwa, da samfuri don wani nau'in metronome[7][8]

Harkar jirgin sama

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kimanin karni bakwai bayan rasuwar Firnas, masanin tarihin Aljeriya Ahmad al-Maqqari (wanda ya rasu a shekara ta 1632) ya rubuta bayanin Firnas wanda ya hada da kamar haka:[9]

  A cikin wasu gwaji masu ban mamaki da ya yi, ɗaya shi ne ƙoƙarinsa na yin tafiya. Ya rufe kansa da ƙafafunsa don ya yi hakan, ya ɗaure fukafukansa biyu a jikinsa, kuma ya yi tafiya mai nisa, ya jefa kansa cikin sama, sa'ad da in ji shaidar marubutan da yawa da suka amince da shi, ya tafi nisa mai yawa, kamar tsuntsaye ne, amma, sa'ad da ya sake haskaka wurin da ya fara, Bayansa ya yi rauni sosai, domin bai san wannan tsuntsaye ba[10]

An ce Al-Maqqari ya yi amfani da shi a cikin ayyukansa na tarihi “mabubbugar farko da yawa ba su wanzu ba”, amma dangane da Firnas, bai kawo majiyoyinsa ba don cikakkun bayanai kan jirgin da aka fi sani ba, ko da yake ya yi iƙirarin cewa aya ɗaya a cikinta. Waƙar Larabawa ta ƙarni na tara a haƙiƙa tana ishara ce ga jirgin Firnas. Mu'umin ibn Said, mawaƙin kotu na Cordoba a ƙarƙashin Muhammad I (d. 886), sarkin Masarautar Cordoba, wanda ya saba da kuma yawanci sukan ibn Firnas ne ya rubuta waƙar. Ayar da ta dace tana gudana: "Ya yi sauri fiye da phoenix a cikin jirginsa lokacin da ya tufatar da jikinsa a cikin gashin fuka-fukan ungulu ." Babu wata majiya mai tsira da ke nuni ga taron.

An yi nuni da cewa yunƙurin da ibn Firnas ya yi na jirgin glider na iya haifar da yunƙurin Eilmer na Malmesbury tsakanin 1000 zuwa 1010 a Ingila, amma babu wata shaida da ke tabbatar da wannan hasashe.

Armen Firman

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Armen Firman shine sunan Abbas Ibn Firnas daga[11]

A cewar wasu majiyoyi na sakandare, kimanin shekaru 20 kafin Ibn Firnas ya yi yunkurin tashi, watakila ya shaida Firman a lokacin da ya nannade kansa a cikin wani sako-sako da alkyabba da aka yi masa lullube da igiya kuma ya yi tsalle daga hasumiya a Cordoba, yana da niyyar yin amfani da rigar a matsayin fuka-fuki. zai iya zamewa. Yunkurin tashi da ake zargin ya yi bai yi nasara ba, amma rigar ta rage masa faɗuwar har ya samu ƙananan raunuka.

abunda baa mantawa da shi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1973, an kafa wani mutum-mutumi na Ibn Firnas na sculptor Badri al-Samarrai a filin jirgin sama na Baghdad a Iraki .[12] A shekara ta 1976, Ƙungiyar Taurari ta Duniya (IAU) ta amince da sanya wa wani rami a duniyar wata sunan Ibn Firnas . A cikin 2011, daya daga cikin gadoji da ke kan kogin Guadalquivir a Cordoba, Spain, an sanya masa suna " Gadar Abbas Ibn Firnás ". An kuma sanya wa wani kamfanin jirgin saman Biritaniya mai suna Firnas Airways sunansa. [13]