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African National Congress

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
African National Congress
مسجد الأمير عبد القادر
Wuri
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaAljeriya
Province of Algeria (en) FassaraConstantine Province (en) Fassara
District of Algeria (en) FassaraDaïra of Constantine (en) Fassara
BirniKusantina
Coordinates 36°20′48″N 6°36′11″E / 36.3467°N 6.6031°E / 36.3467; 6.6031
Map
History and use
Ginawaga Janairu, 1970 -
Ƙaddamarwa31 Oktoba 1994
Suna saboda Abdelkader El Djezairi (en) Fassara
Addini Musulunci
Maximum capacity (en) Fassara 15,000
Karatun Gine-gine
Style (en) Fassara Islamic architecture (en) Fassara
Moorish architecture (en) Fassara

 

Jami'ar Alkahira[1] (Larabci: جامعة القاهرة‎, romanized: Jāmi‘a al-Qāhira ), wanda kuma aka fi sani da Jami'ar Masar daga shekara ta 1908 izuwa shekara ta 1940, da Jami'ar Sarki Fu'ad I da Jami'ar Fu'ād al-Awwal daga 1940 zuwa 1952, ita ce babbar jami'ar jama'a ta Masar . Babban ɗakin karatunsa yana Giza, nan da nan ƙetare kogin Nilu daga Alkahira . An kafa shi a ranar 21 ga Disamba 1908; duk da haka, bayan an zaunar da shi a sassa daban-daban na Alkahira, ikonsa, wanda ya fara da Faculty of Arts, an,kafa shi a babban harabarsa na yanzu a Giza a cikin Oktoba 1929. Ita ce babbar jami'a ta biyu mafi tsufa a cikin manyan makarantu a Masar bayan Jami'ar Al Azhar, duk da kasancewar manyan makarantun ƙwararru waɗanda daga baya suka zama kwalejoji na jami'a. An kafa shi da kuma ba da kuɗaɗen kuɗi a matsayin Jami'ar Masar ta kwamiti na ƴan ƙasa masu zaman kansu tare da tallafin sarauta a cikin 1908 kuma ta zama cibiyar gwamnati a ƙarƙashin Sarki Fuad I a 1925. [2] A shekarar 1940, shekaru hudu bayan rasuwarsa, jami’ar ta canza sunan jami’ar Sarki Fu’ad I don karrama shi. An sake masa suna a karo na biyu bayan juyin juya halin Masar na 1952 . [3] Jami'ar a halin yanzu tana yin rajista kusan ɗalibai 155,000 a cikin ikon tunani 20 da cibiyoyi 3. [4] [5] Tana ƙidaya masu lambar yabo ta Nobel guda uku a cikin waɗanda suka kammala karatunta kuma tana ɗaya daga cikin manyan cibiyoyin ilimi mafi girma 50 a duniya ta hanyar yin rajista.

Kafin ya yi ritaya a shekara ta 1907, wakilin Birtaniya a Masar, Lord Cromer, ya ci gaba da adawa da kafa manyan makarantu a kasar don tsoron kada ya tayar da hankali. Jami'ar ta buɗe a matsayin ƙaramin cibiya mai zaman kanta a cikin 1908. Kafuwarta da wuri da wuri ya sanya ta zama abin koyi ga jami'o'in da suka biyo baya a cikin kasashen Larabawa. An karɓe ta a matsayin jami'ar Jiha a 1925, kuma ta zama Jami'ar Alkahira a 1954.[ana buƙatar hujja]

An kafa jami'ar ne a ranar 21 ga Disamba 1908, sakamakon kokarin da aka yi na kafa cibiyar kula da manyan makarantu ta kasa. Manyan kwalejoji da yawa sun riga sun kafa jami'ar ciki har da Kwalejin Injiniya ( كلية الهندسة ) a cikin 1816, wanda Khedive na Masar da Sudan, Sa'id Pasha, ya rufe a 1854. An kafa Jami'ar Alkahira a matsayin jami'ar farar hula ta turawa, sabanin jami'ar addini ta Al Azhar, kuma ta zama babban abin koyi ga sauran jami'o'in jiha. A cikin 1928, rukunin farko na ɗalibai mata sun shiga jami'a.[6]

A ranar 27 ga Janairu, 2020, Babban Kotun Gudanarwa ta Masar ta amince da matakin da Jami'ar Alkahira ta yanke na haramta wa malamanta sanya nikabi ko rufe fuska da aka gabatar a shekarar 2015.[7]

A farkon karni, masana Masarautar Masar da jiga-jigan jama'a sun fara yin kiraye-kirayen kafa wata cibiya ta ilimi mai zurfi ta Masar don samar da ilimin zamani, na sana'a ga Masarawa. Ma’aikacin Armeniya Yaqub Artin ya yi magana ta farko da aka buga game da kafa jami’ar Masar a 1894. A cikin wani rahoto, ya ba da shawarar "makarantun ƙwararrun ƙwararrun da ake da su za su iya samar da tushe ga jami'a." [8] Wadannan manyan makarantu sun hada da Makarantar Gudanarwa da Harsuna, wanda aka kafa a 1868 (wanda ya zama Makarantar Shari'a a 1886), Makarantar Noma da Gina (wanda aka sani da Makarantar Injiniya) a 1866, Dar al-Ulum a 1872, Makarantar Aikin Noma a 1867 da Makarantar Antiquities 1869. [9]

Dan jaridar kasar Siriya Jurji Zaydan ya yi kira da a samar da "makarantar kwalejin Masar" (madrasa kulliya misriyya ) a shekara ta 1900 a cikin mujallarsa ta al-Hilal ta wata-wata. Ya ba da samfura guda biyu don wannan makarantar ta manyan makarantu: Kwalejin Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental a Aligarh, Indiya, wacce ta ba da ilimi irin na Yamma a cikin yaren Ingilishi, ko Kwalejin Furotesta ta Siriya (yanzu Jami'ar Amurka ta Beirut) a Beirut. masu mishan Amurkawa suke gudanarwa. [10] Sabuwar makarantar za ta samar da madadin ayyukan da dalibai suka fara zuwa Turai a karkashin Muhammad Ali. Cece-kuce a kan littattafan Zaydan daga baya za su hana shi shiga aikin koyarwa a jami'a. [11] Wasu fitattun Masarawa da dama ne suka taka rawa wajen kafa wannan jami'a. Tarin manyan ma'aikatun filaye, ma'aikata, 'yan gidan sarauta, da 'yan jarida, lauyoyi, da malaman makaranta da suka hada da Mustafa Kamil, almajiran Muhammad Abduh irinsu Qasim Amin da Saad Zaghlul, daga karshe Khedive Abbas na biyu da Yarima Ahmad Fu'ad I ya shiga hannu. Kamar yadda Donald M. Reid ya rubuta, "'yan jam'iyyar sarauta sun jaddada rawar da Fu'ad ya taka, Watanists sun yi nuni da kiran da Mustafa Kamil ya yi na neman jami'a, kuma wafdists sun jaddada gudunmawar Saad Zaghlul, Muhammad Abduh, da Qasim Amin."

Mawadata Masarawa sun fara yin alƙawarin ba da rancen kuɗi don kafa jami'a tun daga 1905. Gimbiya Fatma Ismail ta bayar da gagarumar gudunmawa. A farkon shekarun 1900, ta ba da gudummawar filaye ga jami'ar a matsayin wani bangare na fafutukar tattara kudade don kafa jami'a ta farko ta Masar. [12] Bayan aukuwar lamarin Dinshaway, Mustafa Kamil al-Ghamrawi, wani hamshakin attajiri daga Beni Suef, ya yi alƙawarin bayar da fam 500 na Masar ga jami'a a watan Satumban 1906. Mustafa Kamil ya wallafa kiran neman karin kudade, yayin da Saad Zaghlul da Qasim Amin suka shirya wani taro da Muhammad Farid da wasu fitattun Masarawa 23 suka halarta. Mambobin taron sun kafa wani kwamiti mai dauke da Zaghlul a matsayin mataimakin shugaban kasa da Amin a matsayin sakatare, kuma dukkansu in ban da uku sun yi alkawarin bayar da akalla fam 100 ga jami'ar. Sai dai kuma cikin sauri ya barke tsakanin ’yan Watan, almajiran Abduh da Sarautawa, inda suka bar aikin a hannun Fada. [13] A lokacin da aka kafa ta a shekarar 1908, Yarima Fuad na daya ne shugaban kwamitin, kuma daya ne daga cikin mutanen da suka hadu a shekarar 1906 ya rage a cikin kwamitin.

Dangane da tsangayar aikin injiniya A shekara ta 2006, kwalejin ta fara aiwatar da tsarin sa'o'in kuɗi ta hanyar ƙaddamar da shirye-shirye kamar haka: injiniyan gine-gine, injiniyan kwamfuta da sadarwa.[14]

A cikin shirye-shiryen 2007 waɗanda aka haɓaka: injiniyan ƙirar injiniya, injiniyan gine-gine da fasahar gini da injiniyan petrochemical.

A cikin 2008, ta gabatar da wani shiri: Injiniyan Gine-gine.

A cikin 2009, ta gabatar da Shirin Injiniyan Ruwa da Muhalli.

Kalubale ga tushe

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Jami'ar Alkahira bayan faduwar rana.

Gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta Burtaniya, musamman Lord Cromer, ta dade tana adawa da kafa irin wannan jami'a. Shekara daya kacal bayan tafiyarsa daga Masar, karkashin Sir Eldon Gorst, aka kafa Jami'ar Masar a karshe. Gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta yi watsi da tsarin ilimi na Masar a karkashin jagorancin Lord Cromer. [15] Shekaru ashirin bayan kafuwar mulkin Birtaniyya, ilimi ya samu kasa da kashi 1 cikin dari na kasafin kudin jihar. Cromer ya bayyana a bainar jama'a cewa ilimin jama'a kyauta ba manufa ce da ta dace ga al'umma kamar Masar ba, kodayake an gano kudaden don gyara makarantar shari'a a Alkahira don haka Masarawa ba sa fita waje don samun digiri na shari'a a lokacin Sir John Scott . lokaci a matsayin Mai ba da Shawarar Shari'a ga Khedive. [16] Donald M. Reid ya yi hasashen cewa hakan ya faru ne saboda tsoron cewa ilimi irin na Turai zai haifar da tarzoma ta siyasa ko kuma kishin ƙasa . Cromer ya kuma nuna adawa da ba da taimakon kudi ga jami'ar bayan da kwamitin masu zaman kansu ya fara bin lamarin ba tare da gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ba.

A shekarunta na farko, jami'ar ba ta da wurin karatu sai dai tallar laccoci a jaridu. Za a gudanar da laccoci a manyan fada da dakunan taro daban-daban. Bayan wani gagarumin bikin bude baki a shekara ta 1908, ya kasance a kan rashin tsaro na tsawon shekaru da dama, inda ya kusa durkushewa a lokacin yakin duniya na daya. Bayan kafuwarta a shekara ta 1908, Jami'ar Masar tana da sashen mata amma an rufe ta a shekara ta 1912. An fara sake shigar da mata zuwa sashin fasaha a cikin 1928. [17]

Matsalolin a wannan lokacin kuma sun haɗa da rashin ƙwararrun malamai don cika hangen nesa na ilimi. Babu wani Masari da ke da digirin digirgir, da ikon koyarwa cikin harshen Larabci da kuma sanin adabin Yammacin Turai a fagensu da wanda za su cika mukaman farfesa. [18] Don haka Turawan Gabas da suka yi lacca a cikin Larabci na gargajiya sun cika rubutu da yawa har zuwa 1930s. Haka kuma jami’ar ta tura dalibanta zuwa aikin ilimi domin samun horon da ya kamata. Na farko, jami'ar ta dauki hayar Italiyanci Carlo Nallino, David Santillana da Ignazio Guidi, saboda alakar Sarki Fuad I da Italiya. Bayan ficewar Italiyanci bayan mamayewar Libya, 'yan Gabashin Faransa Gaston Wiet da Louis Massignon sun dauki mukamai a jami'ar. Jamusawa da Birtaniya ba su da wakilci.

A cikin 1925, an sake kafa jami'ar tare da faɗaɗawa a matsayin jami'ar Jiha a ƙarƙashin Fuad I. Kwalejin liberal arts College (kulliyat al-adab) ta 1908 ta haɗu da makarantun shari'a da likitanci, kuma an ƙara sabon sashen kimiyya. Ahmed Lutfi al-Sayyid ya zama shugaban kasa na farko.

  Jami'ar Alkahira galibi tana cikin manyan jami'o'i a Masar, kuma daya daga cikin manyan jami'o'i a Afirka.

A cikin QS ranking 2021, Jami'ar Alkahira ta kasance matsayi na 2nd a Masar kuma ta 6 a fadin Afirka, kuma an kimanta ta 561-570 a duk duniya.

A cikin darajar ARWU 2020, jami'a ta kasance matsayi na 1st a Masar. An ƙididdige shi 401-500 a duk duniya.

Dangane da Cibiyar Matsayin Jami'ar Duniya (CWUR) 2020-21, jami'ar ta kasance matsayi na 1st a Masar, kuma 558th a duk duniya.

Jami'ar Alkahira ta hada da Makarantar Shari'a da Makarantar Magunguna . Makarantar Likita, wacce aka fi sani da Kasr Alaini ( القصر العيني , Qasr-el-'Ayni), yana ɗaya daga cikin makarantun likitanci na farko a Afirka da Gabas ta Tsakiya. Alaini Pasha ne ya ba da gudummawar gininsa na farko. Tun daga wannan lokacin an sami haɓaka mai yawa. Shugaban Jami'ar Alkahira na farko, wanda a lokacin ake kira da Jami'ar Masar, shi ne Farfesa Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, wanda ya yi aiki daga 1925 zuwa 1941.

Saad Zaghloul.

Sabon Babban Laburare

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An shirya sabon Laburaren Tsakiya.

Sanannen tsofaffin ɗalibai

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

 

Yasir Arafat, 1956
Mohammed El Baradei, 1962
Naguib Mahfuz, 1934
  • Abdel Khalek Sarwat Pasha (1873-1928), Firayim Minista na Masar sau biyu.
  • Husayn Fawzi Alnajjar, masanin tarihi, masanin kimiyyar siyasa, kuma masanin dabaru
  • Ashour, farfesa a tarihi ya ce
  • Mohamed Atalla, injiniya, mai kirkiro MOSFET (MOS filin-tasirin transistor ), majagaba a cikin silikon semiconductor da tsarin tsaro, wanda ya kafa Kamfanin Atalla
  • Mohamed Atta, jagoran 9/11 kuma maharan
  • Naima Ilyas al-Ayyubi, lauya mace ta farko a Masar
  • Gamal Aziz, wanda aka fi sani da Gamal Mohammed Abdelaziz, tsohon shugaban Masar kuma babban jami'in gudanarwa na Wynn Resorts, kuma tsohon Shugaba na MGM Resorts International, an gurfanar da shi a matsayin wani bangare na badakalar karbar cin hancin jami'a ta 2019.
  • Mona Zulficar, lauyan Masar a shari'a kuma mai fafutukar kare hakkin bil'adama
  • Hisham Barakat, ya kashe babban mai gabatar da kara na Masar
  • Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Sakatare-Janar na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na shida (UN) 1992-1996
  • Eli Cohen, ɗan leƙen asiri na Mossad na Isra'ila wanda ya kutsa cikin manyan jami'an gwamnatin Siriya kuma ya taimaka wajen nasarar Isra'ila a yakin kwanaki shida da sauran nasarori.
  • Taher Elgamal, mai tsara tsarin ɓoyayyen ElGamal kuma ya ɗauki "Uban SSL "
  • Wael Ghonim, ɗan gwagwarmayar Masar kuma jigo na juyin juya halin Masar na 2011
  • Basma Hassan (an haifi 1976), yar wasan kwaikwayo
  • Saddam Hussein (1937-2006), tsohon shugaban kasar Iraki
  • Mahmoud Zulfikar (1914-1970), mai shirya fina-finan Masar
  • Yuriko Koike, tsohon ministan tsaron Japan kuma mace ta farko gwamnan Tokyo
  • Heba Kotb (an haifi 1967), likitan jima'i na Masar kuma mai watsa shirye-shiryen TV
  • Adly Mansour, Babban Alkalin Kotun Tsarin Mulki na Masar
  • Mohammed Morsi (1951-2019), hambararren Shugaban Masar
  • Amr Moussa, Sakatare-Janar na Ƙungiyar Larabawa 2001-2011, kuma shugaban kwamitin gyaran kundin tsarin mulkin Masar a 2013
  • Omar Sharif (1932-2015), actor, wanda aka zaba don lambar yabo ta Academy kuma ya lashe lambar yabo ta Golden Globe guda uku.
  • Magdi Yacoub (an haife shi a shekara ta 1935), farfesa a fannin tiyatar zuciya a Kwalejin Imperial ta Landan
  • Mohamed Shaker El-Markabi, Ministan Wutar Lantarki da Sabunta Makamashi
  • Ayman al-Zawahiri (1951-2022), ɗan ta'adda, tsohon likitan fiɗa a cikin sojojin Masar, shugaban ƙungiyar ta'addanci ta al-Qaeda a lokacin mutuwarsa .
  • Walid Muallem, mataimakin firaministan kasar kuma ministan harkokin waje da kuma 'yan kasashen waje na Syria
  • Hamida Zakariyya, mace ta farko mai shari'a a Yemen ta Kudu, Yemen da kuma Larabawa.

Masu kyautar Nobel

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Naguib Mahfouz, Nobel Prize for Literature a 1988
  • Yasser Arafat, Nobel Peace Prize a 1994
  • Mohamed El Baradei, Nobel Peace Prize a 2005

 

  • Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, shugaban jami'ar Alkahira na farko
  • Ilimi a Masar
  • Jami'o'in Masar
  • Jerin jami'o'in Masar
  1. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40283245
  2. Cuno, Kenneth M. Review: Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt by Donald Malcolm Reid. JSTOR. https://www.jstor.org/stable/368175
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named eng.cu.edu.eg
  4. Cairo University. The roots of Cairo University. Arabic language. http://cu.edu.eg/ar/page.php?pg=contentFront/SubSectionData.php&SubSectionId=29 English language. http://cu.edu.eg/page.php?pg=contentFront/SubSectionData.php&SubSectionId=29
  5. Faculties of Cairo University
  6. https://publichouse.sg/disqualified-presidential-candidates-more-qualified-than-halimah-yacob-in-financial-matters/
  7. http://www.pretorianews.co.za/?fSectionId=&fArticleId=vn20081009055615571C284334
  8. Reid, Donald M. Cairo University and the Making of Modern Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. Print. 23.
  9. Cairo University. The roots of Cairo University. Arabic language. http://cu.edu.eg/ar/page.php?pg=contentFront/SubSectionData.php&SubSectionId=29
  10. Reid, 23
  11. Reid, 27
  12. Elzeyadi, I. M. K. (2001). Ten palaces tell their stories: Environmental quality assessment of offices inside adaptively re -used historical palaces in cairo, egypt (Order No. 3021671). Available from ProQuest One Academic. (250891739).
  13. Reid, 234.
  14. https://theconversation.com/russias-war-in-ukraine-how-south-africa-blew-its-chance-as-a-credible-mediator-181101
  15. Reid, Donald Malcolm. "Cairo University and the Orientalists." International Journal of Middle East Studies 19.01 (1987): 51-75. Print. 60.
  16. Journal of the Society of Comparative legislation, Vol. 1, No2, July 1899, pp. 240-252
  17. Cuno, 531
  18. Reid, 24.

Kara karantawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Shann, Mary H., da Joseph M. Cronin. "Gaba da Gyaran Babban Ilimin Masarawa: Rahoton Ƙarshe akan Jami'ar Alkahira/Haɗin gwiwar Jami'ar Boston a Horar da Ƙaddamarwa don Aikin Ilimi na Uku." (1988) online .
  • Reid, Donald Malcolm. Jami'ar Alkahira da Samar da Masarautar Zamani. (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990).
  • Reid, Donald Malcolm. "Jami'ar Alkahira da 'yan Gabas." Jaridar Duniya ta Nazarin Gabas ta Tsakiya 19.01 (1987): 51-75. kan layi
  • Jami'ar Alkahira (Hausa) جامعة القاهرة (Larabci) جامعة القاهرة

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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