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Aikin Jarida na Muhalli

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Aikin Jarida na Muhalli
journalism genre (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Journalism
Gudanarwan environmental journalist (en) Fassara
hakan yanayin jaridar muhalli na wasu bangare yake

Aikin jarida na muhalli, shine tarin tabbatarwa, samarwa, rarrabawa da baje kolin bayanai game da abubuwan dake faruwa a yanzu, abubuwan dake faruwa, da kuma batutuwan da ke da alaƙa da duniyar da ba ta ɗan adam ba. Don zama ɗan jarida na muhalli, dole ne mutum ya sami fahimtar harshen kimiyya. Mutum yana buƙatar yin amfani da iliminsa na abubuwan da suka faru na muhalli na tarihi. Dole ne kuma mutum ya sami ikon bin shawarar manufofin muhalli da ƙungiyoyin muhalli. Ya kamata ɗan jaridar muhalli ya kasance da cikakkiyar fahimta game da matsalolin muhalli na yau da kullun, da ikon isar da bayanai ga jama'a ta hanyar da ke cikin sauƙin fahimta.

Aikin jarida na muhalli ya faɗi cikin iyakokin sadarwar muhalli. Tushensa za a iya gano shi zuwa rubutun yanayi. Rigima ɗaya a cikin aikin jarida na muhalli shine, yadda za a bambanta nau'in daga sassan da ke da alaƙa.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yayin da al'adar rubuce-rubucen dabi'a ke da tarihin tarihi mai yawa wanda ya samo asali a ƙalla har zuwa bayanan bincike na Christopher Columbus, kuma yana bin al'ada ta hanyar fitattun marubutan yanayi kamar Ralph Waldo Emerson da Henry David Thoreau a ƙarshen ƙarni na 19, John Burroughs da kuma John Muir a farkon ƙarni na 20, da Aldo Leopold a cikin shekara ta 1940, fannin aikin jarida na muhalli bai fara yin tasiri ba sai a shekarun 1960 da shekara ta 1970.

Habɓaka aikin jarida na muhalli a matsayin sana'a yayi dai-dai da na motsin muhalli, wanda ya zama ƙungiyoyin al'adu na yau da kullun tare da littafin Rachel Carson's Silent Spring a cikin shekara ta 1962 kuma an ƙara halalta shi ta hanyar zartar da dokar jeji a shekara ta 1964. Ƙungiyoyin kare muhalli sun ba da haske a fagen siyasa a cikin shekarun 1960 zuwa shekarar 1970, tare da wayar da kan jama'a game da abin da mutane da yawa ke ɗauka a matsayin "rikicin muhalli", da kuma yin aiki don rinjayar shawarar manufofin muhalli . Kafofin watsa labarai sun bi kuma sun haifar da sha'awar jama'a game da batutuwan muhalli tun daga lokacin.

Fannin aikin jarida na muhalli ya ƙara halalta ta hanyar ƙirƙirar ƙungiyar 'yan jarida ta muhalli [1]a cikin shekarata 1990, wanda manufarsa "shi ne don haɓaka fahimtar jama'a game da al'amuran muhalli ta hanyar inganta inganci, daidaito, da hangen nesa na rahoton muhalli." A yau, ana ba da shirye-shiryen ilimi a cibiyoyi da yawa don horar da ƴan jarida masu tasowa a cikin takura, sarƙaƙƙiya da faɗin aikin jarida na muhalli.

Muhawarar shawara[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Akwai ƙaramin baraka a cikin al'ummar 'yan jaridun muhalli. Wasu, ciki har da waɗanda ke cikin Ƙungiyar 'Yan Jaridun Muhalli, sun yi imani da bayar da rahoton labaran muhalli da gangan, yayin da wasu, kamar Michael Frome, wani fitaccen mutum a wannan fanni, sun yi imanin cewa 'yan jarida ya kamata su shiga bangaren muhalli na filin ne kawai idan ceton duniya ya kasance. sha'awar kashin kai, da kuma cewa 'yan jaridun muhalli kada su nisanci bayar da shawarwarin muhalli, ko da yake ba tare da yin la'akari da zahirin gaskiya da ra'ayi a kowane bangare na lamarin ba. Ba za a iya warware wannan muhawara nan ba da dadewa ba, amma tare da sauye-sauye a fannin aikin jarida da ake tace sabbin kafafen yada labarai da jama'a ke amfani da su wajen samar da labarai, da alama dai fannin aikin jarida na muhalli zai kara ba da kansa wajen bayar da rahoto. ra'ayoyi daidai da shawarwarin muhalli.

Sadarwar muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sadarwar muhalli shine dukkanin nau'o'in sadarwar da ke tattare da muhawarar zamantakewa game da matsalolin muhalli da matsaloli.[1]

Hakanan a cikin iyakokin sadarwar muhalli akwai nau'ikan rubutu na yanayi, rubutun kimiyya, adabin muhalli, fassarar muhalli da shawarwarin muhalli. Duk da yake akwai babban cikas a tsakanin nau'o'i daban-daban a cikin sadarwar muhalli, kowannensu ya cancanci ma'anarsa.

Rubutun yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rubutun yanayi shine nau'in da ke da tarihin mafi tsayi a cikin sadarwar muhalli. A cikin littafinsa, Wannan Ƙasar da ba ta iya kwatantawa: Jagora ga Rubutun Halitta na Amirka, Thomas J. Lyon yayi ƙoƙari ya yi amfani da "taxonomy na rubutun yanayi" don bayyana nau'in. Ya ba da shawarar cewa rarrabuwar sa, ma, yana fama da yawa tare da juna. “Littafin yanayi yana da manyan ma’auni guda uku zuwa gare shi: bayanan tarihin halitta, martanin mutum ga yanayi, da fassarar falsafar yanayi” (Lyon 20). A cikin maƙalar tarihin halitta, "babban nauyin rubutu shine isar da umarni mai ma'ana a cikin gaskiyar yanayi," kamar tare da rubutun nau'in dabi'a na John Burroughs (Lyon 21). "A cikin kasidun gwaninta, tuntuɓar da marubucin ya yi da yanayi shine tsarin rubutun," kamar yadda Edward Abbey yayi tunani game da faɗuwar hamada (Lyon 23). A cikin fassarar falsafar yanayi, abubuwan da ke ciki sun yi kama da na tarihin halitta da maƙasudin gogewa na mutum, "amma yanayin gabatarwa ya fi dacewa ya zama mafi m da ilimi" (Lyon 25). Littafin Norton na Rubutun yanayi yana ƙara ƴan sabbin ma'auni zuwa nau'in rubutun yanayi, gami da labarin dabbobi, kasidun lambu, kasidun noma, ayyukan tattalin arziki, rubutu akan adalcin muhalli, da kuma aiki da ke ba da shawarar kiyaye muhalli, dorewa da bambancin halittu. Aikin jarida na muhalli ya ja daga al'ada da iyawar rubutun yanayi.

Rubutun kimiyya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rubutun kimiyya rubutu ne da ke mayar da hankali musamman kan batutuwan binciken kimiyya, gaba ɗaya fassarar jargon da ke da wahala ga waɗanda ke wajen wani fannin kimiyyar fahimta zuwa harshe mai sauƙin narkewa. Wannan nau'in na iya zama labari ko bayani. Ba duk rubuce-rubucen kimiyya ba sun faɗi cikin iyakokin sadarwar muhalli, kawai rubutun kimiyya wanda ke ɗaukar batutuwan da suka dace da muhalli. Aikin jarida na muhalli kuma ya ja daga al'ada da fa'idar rubutun kimiyya.

Fassarar muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fassarar muhalli wani tsari ne na musamman don sadarwar bayanan da suka dace. Ya "ƙunshi fassarar harshen fasaha na kimiyyar halitta ko filin da ke da alaƙa zuwa cikin sharuɗɗan da ra'ayoyin da mutanen da ba masana kimiyya ba za su iya fahimta da sauri. Kuma ya ƙunshi yinta ta hanyar da ke da daɗi da ban sha’awa ga waɗannan mutane.” (Ham 3). Fassarar muhalli tana da daɗi (don shigar da masu sauraro a cikin maudu'in da zaburar da su don ƙarin koyo game da shi), dacewa (ma'ana da na sirri ga masu sauraro domin su sami dalili na asali don ƙarin koyo game da batun), tsara (mai sauƙin bi). kuma an tsara shi ta yadda za a iya tunawa da manyan batutuwa) da kuma jigo (bayanin yana da alaƙa da takamaiman saƙo mai maimaitawa) (Ham 8-28). Yayin da aikin jarida na muhalli ba a samo shi daga fassarar muhalli ba, yana iya amfani da dabarun fassara don bayyana ra'ayoyi masu wahala ga masu sauraronsa.

Adabin muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Littattafan muhalli rubuce-rubuce ne da ke yin sharhi da hankali kan jigogin muhalli, musamman kamar yadda aka yi amfani da su kan alaƙar da ke tsakanin mutum, al'umma da muhalli. Yawancin rubuce-rubucen yanayi da wasu rubuce-rubucen kimiyya sun faɗi cikin iyakokin wallafe-wallafen muhalli. Sau da yawa, ana fahimtar wallafe-wallafen muhalli don ɗaukar kulawa da damuwa ga muhalli, don haka yana ba da shawarar ƙarin tunani da fahimtar yanayin muhalli na mutum da yanayi. Jarida ta muhalli ta samo asali ne daga wallafe-wallafen muhalli

Shawarwari na muhalli[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shawarwari na muhalli yana gabatar da bayanai kan yanayi da al'amuran muhalli waɗanda ke da tsayayyen ra'ayi kuma yana ƙarfafa masu sauraronsa su ɗauki ƙarin halaye masu kula da muhalli, galibi fiye da ra'ayoyin duniya. Shawarar muhalli na iya kasancewa a cikin kowane nau'ikan sadarwar muhalli da aka ambata. A halin yanzu ana muhawara ko aikin jarida na muhalli ya kamata ya yi amfani da dabaru na shawarwarin muhalli.

Batutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Fannin aikin jarida na muhalli ya ƙunshi batutuwa iri-iri. A cewar littafin Muhalli na The Reporter, 'yan jaridun muhalli sun fahimci matsalolin ruwa a matsayin mafi mahimmancin batun muhalli, sannan kuma abubuwan da suka shafi gurbatar yanayi, masu rushewar endocrin, da kuma matsalolin kula da sharar gida. 'Yan jaridar da aka yi binciken sun fi ba da fifiko musamman, batutuwan muhalli fiye da abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli na duniya.

Aikin jarida na muhalli zai iya haɗawa, amma ba'a iyakance shi ba, wasu batutuwa masu zuwa kamar haka:

Daga Littafin Muhalli na Mai Rahoto :

Daga EnviroLink :

Duba wasu abubuwan[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Magana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Meisner, Mark. "What is Environmental Communication?". Environmental Communication Network. Retrieved 2007-06-06.

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Anderson, Alison. Kafofin watsa labarai, Al'adu da Muhalli. Taylor da Francis, Inc., 1997. ISBN 1-85728-383-X
  • Beck, Larry da Ted Cable. Tafsiri na Karni na 21: Sharuɗɗan Jagoranci guda goma sha biyar don Fassarar yanayi da Al'adu. 2nd ed. Champaign: Sagamore Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-57167-522-1
  • Blum, Deborah, Robin Marantz Henig, da Mary Knudson. Jagorar Filin don Marubutan Kimiyya: Jagoran Hukuma na Ƙungiyar Marubutan Kimiyya ta Ƙasa. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-517499-2
  • Buell, Lawrence. Hasashen Muhalli: Thoreau, Rubutun yanayi, da Samar da Al'adun Amurka. Cambridge da London: Belknap Press na Jami'ar Harvard Press, 1995. ISBN 0-674-25862-2
  • Chapman, Graham, Keval Kumar, Caroline Fraser, and Ivor Gaber. Muhalli da Mass Media. New York da London: Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0-415-15505-3
  • Rufe Green Beat a Asiya Archived 2022-03-08 at the Wayback Machine Beritalingkungan.com
  • Dobson, Andrew. Green Reader: Maƙalaci Zuwa ga Al'umma Mai Dorewa. Mercury House, 1991. ISBN 1-56279-010-2
  • EnviroLink. An shiga 11 Oktoba 2005. < http://www.envirolink.org >
  • Finch, Howard da John Elder. Eds. Littafin Norton na Rubutun Halitta. Kwalejin Ed. New York da London: WW Norton & Kamfanin, 2002. ISBN 0-393-97816-8
  • Daga, Michael. Koren Tawada. Salt Lake City: Jami'ar Utah Press, 1998. ISBN 0-87480-582-1
  • Goldstein, Eric A. da kuma Mark Izeman. Littafin Muhalli na New York. Island Press, 1990. ISBN 1-55963-018-3
  • Ham, Sam. Fassarar Muhalli: Jagorar Aiki Ga Mutane Masu Manyan Ra'ayoyi da Kananan Kasafin Kudi. Golden: Arewacin Amurka Press, 1992. ISBN 1-55591-902-2
  • Hanson, Anders, ed. Kafofin watsa labarai da al'amurran da suka shafi muhalli. London da New York: Jami'ar Leicester Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7185-1444-0
  • Kamrin, Michael A., Dolores J. Katz, da Martha L. Walter. Rahoto kan Hatsari: Littafin Jagoran Jarida. ed 3rd. Shirin Kwalejin Tekun Gishiri na Michigan, 1999. ISBN 1-885756-11-9
  • Lamay, Craig LL da Everette E. Dennis, ed. Kafofin watsa labarai da Muhalli. Island Press, 1991. ISBN 1-55963-130-9
  • Lyon, Thomas J. Wannan ƙasa mara misaltuwa: Jagora ga Rubutun Halitta na Amurka. Minneapolis: Littattafan Milkweed, 2001. ISBN 1-57131-256-0
  • Nash, Roderick Frazier. Daji da Tunanin Amurka. ed na 4. New Haven da London: Jami'ar Yale Press, 2001. ISBN 0-300-09122-2
  • Neuzil, Mark da William Kovairk. Kafofin watsa labarai na Jama'a da Rikicin Muhalli: Yaƙin Koren Amurka. Dubu Oaks, London da New Delhi: SAGE Publications, 1996. ISBN 0-7619-0333-X
  • Palen, John. "Manufa a matsayin Independence: Ƙirƙirar Ƙungiyar 'Yan Jarida na Muhalli, 1989-1997." Abubuwan da aka gabatar na Babban Taron Ƙasa na Ƙungiyar Ilimi a Aikin Jarida da Sadarwar Jama'a, Agusta 1998. Ƙungiyar 'Yan Jarida ta Muhalli. 28 Satumba 2005 < https://web.archive.org/web/20090419012719/http://www.sej.org/about/index2.htm >.
  • Ƙungiyar 'Yan Jarida ta Muhalli. 2005. An shiga 11 Oktoba 2005. < http://www.sej.org >
  • Yamma, Bernadette M., M. Jane Lewis, Michael R. Greenburg, David B. Sachsman, da Renée M. Rogers. Littafin Muhalli na Mai Rahoto. ed 3rd. New Brunswick da London: Rutgers University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-8135-3287-6
  • 0-8173-1117-3

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