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Aminatou Haidar

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Aminatou Haidar
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Akka (en) Fassara, 24 ga Yuli, 1966 (57 shekaru)
ƙasa Moroko
Mazauni Ispaniya
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a gwagwarmaya da ɗan siyasa
Kyaututtuka
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Aminatou Haidar Ali Ahmed (Larabci; أحمد علي حيدر أميناتو‎, an haife ta 24 ga watan Yulin 1966), wani lokacin akan kira ta da Aminetou, Aminatu ko Aminetu, mai fafutukar kare Haƙƙin bil adama ce kuma mai neman ganin samun 'yancin Yammacin Sahara. Mafi yawanci a na kiranta ne da lakabin "Sahrawi Gandhi" ko "Sahrawi Pariaaria " saboda zanga-zangar nuna kyama da take yi. Ita ce shugabar ƙungiyar Hadin gwiwar kare hakkin Dan Adam ta CODESA. An taba daure ta a shekarar ta 1987 zuwa 1991 sannan daga shekarar 2005 zuwa 2006 kan tuhumar ta da zaune tsaye. A shekara ta 2009, ta ja hankalin kasashen duniya lokacin da ta yi zanga zangar gama-gari a filin jirgin sama na Lanzarote bayan da aka hana ta shiga yankin yammacin Sahara. Haidar ta lambobin yabo a fannin kare hakkin dan Adam da dama a matakan ƙasa da ƙasa saboda ayyukanta, wadanda suka hada da Kyautar Robert F. Kennedy na 'yancin dan adam na shekara ta 2009, Kyautar bada kariya ga Jama'a na shekara ta 2009 da sauransu Abincin Rayuwa na Gaskiya ta 2019.

Tarihin rayuwa

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Yayin da iyayenta ke zaune a Laayoune, wani ƙaramin gari ne a Yammacin Sahara dake da yawan Sahrawi (kuma tsohuwar kasar Sipaniya ce Juby ) inda ta girma a yarinyar ta, an haifi Aminatou a shekara ta 1966 a Laayoune, Sahara ta yamma, garin kakarta, saboda al'adar gado. . Ita ba memba bace a cikin yan Polisario Front, kodayake ta ɗauki wannan gwagwarmayar neman a zaman wakiliyar jama'ar Sahrawi kawai. An sake ta tare da ‘ya’ya biyu, Hayat da Mohammed.

1987-1991 tilasta bacewar

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A shekara ta 1987, Haidar ta shiga wata zanga-zangar nuna kyama ga cin amanar ƙasar Moroko ta yankin yammacin Sahara. Tare da sauran mahalarta taron, hukumomin Morocco sun tilasta ta bacewar ta kuma ba ta tsare ta ba sai a 1991, lokacin da aka sake ta. A cewar Kerry Kennedy na Robert F. Kennedy Cibiyar Adalci da 'Yancin Bil-Adama, Haidar ta shiga cikin da damuwa, matsananciyar bacci, an hana ta bacci, an girgiza ta da matsanancin wutar lantarki, an doke ta sosai - kuma ta munana" yayin da ake tsare da shi.

Hukumomin Morocco ba su ba da wani bayani game da tsare ta ba. Kungiyar kare hakkin bil'adama ta Amnesty International (AI) ta bayyana cewa da alama ta kasance an riƙe ta ne don bayar da shawarwarin zaman lafiya na neman yancin kai na yammacin Sahara.

2005-2006 ɗaurin kurkuku

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Aminatou Haidar tare da abokai a Lemleihess (Sahara ta yamma), bayan an sake ta daga kurkuku (18 Janairu 2006).

A ranar 17 ga watan Yunin shekarar 2005, 'yan sanda sun yi awon gaba da Haidar a kan hanyarta ta zuwa zanga-zanga a El Aaiún don ‘ yancin kai na Yammacin Sahara Intifada. Bayan shigar da ita a asibitin Belmehdi Hasan da karbar lambobi goma sha biyu don cutar kai, an kama ta bisa tuhumar "halartar zanga-zangar tashin hankali da tayar da hankali" da "kasancewar kungiyar ba tare da izini ba". Daga nan aka riƙe ta a Kurkukun Black A El Aaiún. An ba da rahoton cewa ta shiga yajin aikin daga 8 ga watan Agusta zuwa 29 a watan Satumba don neman bincike game da zargin azabtar da 'yan uwan Saharawi da ke tsare Houssein Lidri da Brahim Noumria da kuma ingantattun yanayin tsarewa.

Ranar 14 ga watan Disamba, Kotun Appeaukakawar El Aaiún ta yanke mata hukuncin ɗaurin watanni bakwai a kurkuku. AI, wanda ya aiko da mai sa ido don rufe shari'ar, ya ba da sanarwar cewa "shari'ar ... watakila ba ta da gaskiya ba. A saboda haka ne kungiyar ta karfafa da imanin ta cewa masu kare 'yancin bil adama guda bakwai na iya zama fursunoni masu lamuni ". Majalisar Turai ta kuma yi kira da a sake ta kai tsaye tare da na Ali Salem Tamek da wasu “fursunonin siyasa” guda 37 a cikin kudurin 27 a watan Oktoba 2005.

A ranar 17 ga watan Janairun 2006, Aminatou Haidar ta sake shi a ƙarshen yanke hukuncin. Ta bayyana cewa "farin ciki bai cika ba tare da sakin dukkan fursunonin siyasa na Saharawi, kuma ba tare da kwato dukkan yankuna na kasar da har yanzu suke karkashin azzalumi ba".

2009 Filin Jirgin Sama Lanzarote yajin kincin abinci

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A ranar 13 ga watan Nuwamban shekarar 2009, hukumomin Maroko sun tsare Haidar a tashar jirgin sama a El-Aaiún lokacin da ta yi ƙoƙarin dawowa daga tafiya zuwa Lanzarote a cikin tsibirin Canary, Spain, don tara kyaututtukan. A karkashin zama dan kasa, ta ƙi ta bayyana asalin ƙasarta a matsayin "Moroccan". Hukumomin sun hana ta sake shiga, suka kwace fasfon nata, suka mayar da ita zuwa tsibirin na Canary ba tare da shi ba. An kuma tsare wasu ‘yan jaridar ƙasar Spain biyu da suka raka ta tare na tsawon awanni. Wani jami’in Moroccan ya kira kin amincewa da ta yi a kira kansa Morocco a matsayin "cin amana" kuma ya bayyana cewa ba za a yarda Haidar ta koma El-Aaiún ba har sai ta nemi afuwa. Daga baya jaridar Spain ta Pa Pa ta wallafa wasu takardu da ke nuna cewa gwamnatin Marokko ta yi wa Haidar filaye daban-daban har zuwa dawowar ta, wanda ke nuna cewa sun shirya fitar da ita a gaba.

Lokacin da ta isa tashar jirgin sama ta Lanzarote, Haidar ya fara yajin aikin yunwa. Ta zargi jami'an gwamnatin Spain da rike ta ba tare da barin ta ba ta koma Yammacin Sahara ba tare da fasfo ba. A ranar 17 ga watan Nuwamba, kamfanin da ke kula da filin jirgin saman Aena ya shigar da kara a gabanta saboda ta keta umarnin jama'a. An bukaci ta halarci kotu a Arrecife kuma ta ci tarar Euro 180.

Taimakon kasa da kasa

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Babban kwamishina na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Navi Pillay ya yi kira a ranar 9 ga Disamba ga Maroko don bai wa Haidar damar dawowa. Kungiyar kare hakkin bil'adama ta Human Rights Watch ta ce dole ne kasar Maroko ta "dakatar da korart a daga kungiyar gwagwarmayar kare Haƙƙin bil adama Aminatou Haidar tare da ba ta damar shiga ƙasarta ta asali". yayin da Amnesty International ta yi Allah wadai da korar ta a wani bangare na tsarin "nuna rashin yarda" da gwamnatin Morocco.

Da yawa daga cikin masu fafutuka da kuma masu yin bikin sun nuna goyon bayansu ga Haidar yayin yajin aikin. Marubucin Nobel na kyauta - marubuci José Saramago, wanda ya mallaki gida a Lanzarote, ya aika mata da wasiƙa a watan Nuwamba yana mai cewa "Idan ina Lanzarote, zan kasance tare da ke". A ranar 1 ga Disamba, ya sadu da ita a tashar jirgin sama, yana mai cewa, "Lokaci ya yi da kasashen duniya za su matsawa kasar Morocco ta cika sharuddan game da Sahara".

Wanda ta lashe kyautar Nobel ta Argentine Adolfo Pérez Esquivel ya nemi "ficewar dan adam da siyasa" ga Haidar, ya kuma yi kira ga gwamnatocin Spain da Moroko da su fara tattaunawa don ganin "ta wace hanya ce Tarayyar Turai, Majalisar Turai ko ma Majalisar Dinkin Duniya shiga tsakani don guje wa sakamako na masifa da ƙoƙarin ceton rayuwarta, amma ba ta kowane tsada ba. " 'Yan fim din Ingila Ken Loach da Paul La tala sun kwatanta Haidar da mai fafutukar kare hakkin dan adam na Amurka Rosa Parks, suna masu cewa, "Wane irin bala'i zai kasance ga tsaurin tashin hankali, da kuma yiwuwar samun mafita, mu kyale ta ta mutu." Hakanan an ba da sanarwar goyon baya daga dan jaridar kasar Uruguay Eduardo Galeano, dan wasan Spain Javier Bardem, Amurka Jim Jim Inhofe, Guatemalan Peace Prize wanda ya baiwa Rigoberta Menchú, mawakiyar Burtaniya Brian Eno, da Mawallafin marubuci dan ƙasar Spain Alberto Vázquez-Figueroa .

A ranar 29 ga Nuwamba, gungun mawaƙa da mawaƙa na ƙasar Sipaniya sun ba da waka ta kyauta don nuna goyon baya ga Haidar a Rivas-Vaciamadrid, a wajen ƙetaren Madrid. Masu gabatar da kara sun hada da Bebe, Kiko Veneno, Macaco, Amaral, Pedro Guerra, Mariem Hassan, Conchita, Miguel Ríos, da Ismael Serrano . A ranar 10 ga Disamba, da dama masu fasaha da masu fafutuka sun aika da wasika ga Juan Carlos Na I dan Spain, suna masu rokon ya roko ga Haidar da Maroko. Masu rattaba hannu sun hada da lambobin yabo uku na Nobel - Günter Grass, Dario Fo, da Saramago - da Pedro Almodóvar, Mario Vargas Llosa, Penélope Cruz, Antonio Gala, Almudena Grandes, Carlos Fuentes, da Ignacio Ramonet da sauransu daga Indiya, Puerto Rico, Portugal, Kolombiya, Brazil da Angola.

Tsarin diflomasiyya

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Ministan Harkokin Waje na Spain Miguel ratngel Moratinos ya yi alkawarin shirya Fasfo din Spanish ga Haidar, amma ta ƙi tayin sa, tare da neman dawo da fasfon nata na asali. Wakilan Moroccan karkashin jagorancin shugaban majalisar dattijai na kasar, Mohamed Cheikh Biadillah, sun ziyarci Spain a farkon Disamba 2009. Biadillah ya bayyana cewa mutanen Sahrawi suna da cikakken haɗin kai ga al'ummar Marokko kuma suna mamaye wasu manyan ofisoshin a cikin cibiyoyin Marokko, kuma babu wata ƙasa da za ta amince da dawowar mutumin da ya “jefa fasfo ɗinsu" kuma "ya bar ƙasarsu".

A ranar 7 ga Disamba, makonni uku da ta shiga yajin aikin, Haidar ya kasa rauni har ya iya tsinkewa cikin nutsuwa. Wata Likita Asibitin Lanzarote ta bayar da rahoton cewa watakila tana da awowi ne kawai su rayu. Spain ta sake yin ƙoƙarin sake neman takardar izinin shiga ƙasar, amma ta goyi bayan lokacin da Maroko ta yi barazanar kawo ƙarshen haɗin kai game da shige da fice, fataucin muggan kwayoyi, da sauran batutuwa. A ranar 11 ga Disamba, Sakatariyar Harkokin Wajen Amurka Hillary Clinton ita ma ta tuntubi Ministan Harkokin Wajen Morocco Taieb Fassi Fihri don neman sake shigar da Haidar.

A ranar 17 ga Disamba, bayan ta kasa hadiye ruwan sha na kwana biyu, an shigar da Haidar asibiti. Ta ci gaba da kin amincewa ta karya azumin ta. A daren ranar, hukumomin Moroko sun nuna juyayin su, sannan aka kyale Haidar a cikin jirgin sama ya koma El-Aaiún. Ma’aikatar harkokin wajen Spain ta danganta kudurin ne a “kokarin hadin gwiwa tsakanin Spain, Faransa da Amurka” don shawo kan gwamnatin Marokko cewa kin yarda ta sake amincewa da Haidar ya yi tasiri. Da yake bayyana a gaban taron jama'a a filin jirgin sama na El-Aaiún, Haidar ta ce, "Wannan wata nasara ce, nasara ce ga 'yancin ɗan adam, don adalci na ƙasa da kuma dalilin Sahara ta yamma. . . Kuma dukkan abin godiya ne saboda irin matsin lambar ku. " Jami'an na Marokko sun bayyana cewa gwamnatin "ta lashi takobin mutunta 'yancin dan adam a Yammacin Sahara da sauran wurare a kasar" amma ta ki yin tsokaci game da shari'ar Haidar.

Bayan dawowar ta, 'yan sanda a Morocco sun sa Haidar a gidan, kuma an hana' yan jaridu damar yin magana da ita.

Bayan yajin aiki-kin cin abinci

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A ranar 19 ga Janairu 2010, Haidar ya dawo Spain don yin gwaje-gwaje na likita a asibitin La Paz a Madrid. Haidar tana da katin zama dan asalin kasar Sipaniya tun bayan fitowar ta 2006. Haidar dai ba shi da koshin lafiya, saboda tana fama da cutar amai da gudawa, sakamakon ɗaurin kurkuku da yajin aikin abinci na shekarar 2009. Kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Amnesty International ta bayar da rahoton cewa jami'an tsaro na Marokko na sa ido sosai kan Haidar da iyalinta sannan kuma ta same su da tsoratarwa.

A ranar 7 ga Maris, Haidar ya yi jawabi a wani taro a Jami’ar Granada yayin taron Kungiyar Tarayyar Turai-Morocco a cikin wannan birni. Haidar ya bayyana cewa taron kolin "ya musanta wahalar Sahrawis" kuma EU ta gabatar da karar "tsarin mulkin mallaka" na Morocco, yana sadaukar da 'yancin bil adama don goyon bayan tattalin arziki. A ranar 24 ga Maris, Haidar ya fara ne yayin wata ziyarar aiki a Washington, DC cewa "kafin a cimma matsaya ta karshe, hanyar siyasa, tilas ne mu matsa lamba kan Marokko don mutunta 'yancin ɗan adam". A ganawarta da jami'an ma'aikatar harkokin wajen Amurka da wakilan Amurka, ta rokesu su matsawa kasar Morocco saboda 'yancin Sahrawi.

Ranar 15 ga Oktoba, Haidar ta gurfana a gaban kotun Casablanca tare da da dama daga cikin shugabannin kungiyar masu fafutuka Sahrawi da masu sa ido 20 na kasashen waje, a yayin shari'ar masu fafutukar 'yan gwagwarmayar Sahrawi bakwai (da aka fi sani da "The Casablanca 7"). An tsare "Casablanca 7" watanni kafin daga bisani ya tafi sansanonin 'yan gudun hijirar Sahrawi, kuma gwamnatin Morocco ta tuhume ta da yin barazanar tsaron jihar. dayansu shi ne Ali Salem Tamek, mataimakin shugaban ƙungiyar kare haƙƙin bil Adama CODESA. Ta ce zargin da gwamnatin Morocco ta yi ba ta da tushe balle makama, suna masu la'antar 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki da kuma tafiye-tafiyen wadanda aka kame. Ta kuma soki gwamnatin Spain, wacce ta zarge ta da aikata laifi a cikin halin mutanen Sahrawi: "Gwamnatin Spain ta karya dokar kasa da kasa ta hanyar hana mutanen Saharawi 'yancinsu na yanke hukunci'.

A ranar 29 Oktoba 2011, ɗan Haidar ya yi barazanar cin zarafin jima'i da duka wanda hakan zai haifar masa da rauni na dindindin ta hanyar wasu couplean sandan Morocco a El Aaiun, in ji CODESA. A ranar 8 ga Yuli 2012, majiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam Sahrawi sun bayyana cewa wasu Haidar 'yan wasan Hajara sun samu rauni a zahiri yayin da wasu fasinjoji na Morocco suka yi ta tafiya yayin da suke tafiya da bas daga Agadir zuwa El Aaiun. Kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam a matsayin Sahrawi ASVDH da Cibiyar nan ta Amurka Robert F. Kennedy Center for Justice and Human rights sun yi Allah wadai da wannan aika-aika, tare da yin kira da a gudanar da bincike.

A ranar 1 ga Nuwamba 2012, a ranar da ta sadu da Kwamishinan Musamman na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta Yammacin Sahara Christopher Ross a El Aaiun MINURSO HQ, Haidar ya ce daga baya ‘yan sanda suka yi awon gaba da ita yayin zanga-zangar rashin tarzoma. Kungiyoyin kare hakkin dan adam kamar RFK Center, Defender Line Line da kuma jam’iyyun siyasa na Spain, Union, Progress da Demokiradiya sun yi Allah wadai da tsokanar.

Kyautuka da bayyanawa

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Haidar ta samu lambobin yabo da dama na kasa da kasa saboda amincewa da aikinta na take hakkin Dan-Adam. A watan Disamba 2005, ta sami lambar yabo ta V Juan María Bandrés na Hukumar Kula da 'Yan Gudun Hijira ta Spain (CEAR). Saboda ɗaurin kurkuku, ta kasa karɓar kyautar har sai Mayu 2006. A shekara ta 2007, an ba ta kyautar Solidar Silver Rose Award, wata cibiyar sadarwar Turai ta kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu. Kyautar shekara-shekara ta amince da "manyan nasarorin mutane da ƙungiyoyi waɗanda ke aiki a cikin adalci don tabbatar da adalci na zamantakewa." A shekarar 2008, Haidar ya lashe kyautar kare hakkin dan adam Robert F. Kennedy na Cibiyar Nazarin Lafiya ta Robert F. Kennedy ta Amurka da ke hakkin bil'adama . Baya ga kyautar (wanda ya haɗa da ɓangaren kuɗi), Cibiyar Tunawa da RFK tana ba da abokin tarayya tare da masu karɓa a cikin aikinsu. Wakilin Muryar Amurka Edward Kennedy ya bayyana cewa "duk wanda ya damu da dimokiradiyya, kare hakkin dan Adam, da kuma bin doka da oda ga kasashen Yammacin Sahara, an yi musu kwarin gwiwa ne ta karfin gwiwa, sadaukarwa da kuma kwarewar aiki a madadin su." Haidar aka kuma bayar da 2009 Civil Jaruntakan Prize na Train Foundation . Wanda ta kafa lambar yabo John Train ya ce, "ingantacciyar al'umma ta dogara da kwarjinin jama'a, kuma muna fatan cewa ta hanyar sanin ta a cikin mutane kamar Aminatou Haidar, za mu iya karfafa wasu su bi sawun ta kuma kare hakkokinsu na zaman lafiya cikin lumana."

A shekara ta 2010, mambobi 40 na majalisar Turai sun zabi Haidar don lambar yabo ta Sakharov don ƙungiyar 'yancin tunani . Wani memba na EP Willy Meyer Pleite ya yi tir da kamfen da Maroko ta yi na nuna rashin amincewar ta ga Haidar. Daga baya ne aka baiwa kyautar dan kasar Cuba Guillermo Fariñas kyautar .

Haidar an kuma sanya ta sunan yar ƙasa na girmamawa ko kuma in ba haka ba waɗanda cibiyoyin Spain da Italiyawa suka yi wa ado. A cikin Oktoba 2006, majalisar garin Naples ta kira ta da "Honorary Citizen" saboda ayyukanta na kare haƙƙin ɗan adam. A watan Mayun 2008, majalisar garin Castelldefels ta Spain ta ba ta lambar yabo ta musamman. A cikin watan Janairun 2010, gundumar Sesto Fiorentino ta Italiya ta nada Haidar a matsayin "Mutumin gari" na ƙauyen, saboda "gwagwarmayar da ba ta tashin hankali ba ga 'yanci da haƙƙin ɗan adam ga mutanenta". Kwanakin baya, wata karamar hukumar Italiya mai suna Campi Bisenzio, ta yanke hukunci da masu rinjaye suka yanke mata na "'Yan Kasa na Girmamawa". A watan Fabrairu, garin Tuscan na Signa ne ya yanke shawarar ba wa Haidar yar ƙasa. A watan Maris, garin Leganés, Spain, ya yi mata kyautar Dolores Ibárruri. A 13 Afrilu, da comune na Pontedera ya ba ta girmamawa dan kasa. A ranar 30 ga Yuli, wasu garuruwa goma daga lardin Lucca na Italiya sun ba Haidar lambar girmamawa. dayansu, Stazzema, ya ba ta ""wallon Zama na Resistance". Sauran biranen Italiya 20 daga baya sun sanar da Aminatou Haidar a matsayin "Citizabilar onoabi'a ta". A ranar 27 ga Yulin 2011, Haidar ta kasance yar kasa na girmamawa daga masarautar Montespertoli a matsayin "tabbacin nuna damuwa kan wannan tashin hankalin da hukumomin Morocco suka yi". Majalisar birni San San de de Henares ta Spain ta ba ta kyautar Jesús Andrés López Gallardo. Ranar 10 ga watan Nuwamban shekarar 2011, aka ba ta lambar yabo ta 'yancin dan Adam ta René Cassin, wacce ma'aikatar shari'a ta gwamnatin Basque Country ta ba ta; kyautar ta zo tare da kyautar Euro 16,550. A ranar 4 Maris 2013, garin Italiya na Florence ya ba Haidar lambar girmamawa ta garin. Hakanan a cikin Maris, Haidar ya lashe lambar yabo ta Bremen Solidarity 13th, kyautar da aka ba wa mutane wanda aka bambanta ta hanyar sasantawa da 'yanci, dimokiradiyya da' yancin ɗan adam, da kuma mulkin mallaka da wariyar launin fata a duniya. Kyautar, wacce gwamnatin lardin Free Hanseatic ta Bremen ta bayar tare da bayar da kyautar kudi Euro 10,000, an ba Haidar ne saboda rawar da ta taka a gwagwarmayar lumana don warware rikicin Sahrawi, da kuma kare haƙƙin ɗan Adam na mutanen Sahrawi a yankunan da aka mallaka.

A watan Mayun 2013, Haidar ta yi tafiya zuwa Addis Ababa, kamar yadda aka gayyace ta a matsayin baƙon girmamawa ga Ƙungiyar Goldenungiyar Goldenungiyar Goldenungiyar Afirka ta Zina .

Aminatou Haidar ta ci lambar yabo ta Haƙƙin zama a 2019 "saboda matsayinta akan kin yin rikici, duk da ɗaurin kurkuku da azabtarwa da ta sha, don neman adalci da yanke hukunci na kai ga jama'ar Yammacin Sahara."

  • Shekarun jagora
  • Mohamed Elmoutaoikil
  • Mohammed Daddach
  • Brahim Dahane
  • Tarihin Yammacin Sahara

Hanyoyin haɗin waje

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