Anomabu

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Anomabu, wanda kuma ya rubuta Anomabo kuma tsohon sunan Annamaboe, birni ne a gabar Tekun Mfantsiman Municipal na Yankin Tsakiyar Kudancin Gana. Anomabu yana da yawan mazauna 14,389.[1]

Anomabu yana da nisan kilomita 12 gabas da Cape Coast a tsakiyar yankin kudancin Ghana.[2] Tana kan babban titin zuwa Accra.[2] Jimlar yankin Anomabu shine murabba'in kilomita 612, tare da iyakokin kilomita 21 a bakin tekun, da kilomita 13 a cikin ƙasa.[2] Babban harshen da ake magana da shi a Anomabu shine Fante.[2]

Dangane da al'adar baka, an fara samo asalin sunan "Anomabu" lokacin da wani mafarauci daga dangin Nsona[3] ya fara gano yankin kuma ya yanke shawarar zama tare da danginsa, daga ƙarshe ya fara ƙauyen nasa yayin da lokaci ya wuce.[3] Ana zargin mafarauci ya ga wasu tsuntsaye a saman dutse, ya yi shelar yankin "Obo noma," wanda ya zama sunan garin na asali.[2][3] Obanoma a zahiri yana fassara zuwa “dutsen tsuntsu,” sunan da sannu a hankali ya canza zuwa Anomabu tsawon shekaru.[2]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Anomabu ya kasance cibiyar kasuwanci ta bakin teku kafin a kafa ta a matsayin tashar kasuwancin bayi, wanda ya sa garin ya yi fice a karni na 17.[3] 'Yan kasuwa na Fante a can sun yi ciniki musamman da zinariya da hatsi. Bayan gayyatar Dutch don gina masana'anta a cikin garin, 'yan kasuwa sun juya zuwa kasuwancin bayi. Attajirai Fante masu hannu da shuni sun goyi bayan gina katafaren turanci don ci gaba da wannan dalilin. Duk da haka, asarar da kamfanin Royal African Company ya yi a shekarar 1698 ya sa aka rufe wannan katafaren gidan a shekarar 1730. Sakamakon matsin lamba daga karuwar sha'awar Faransa, Company of Merchants Trading to Africa ya matsa don sake gina sansanin.[4]

Fort William, wanda aka fi sani da Castle Anomabu, injiniyan Ingila John Apperley ne ya tsara shi kuma an gina shi tsakanin 1753 zuwa 1760. A lokacin ana ɗaukar shi mafi ƙarfi a kan gabar teku.[5] Yana da nisan kilomita 16 (10 mi) daga Castle na Cape Coast.[2] Bayan rasuwarsa a shekara ta 1756, Anglo-Irishman Richard Brew ya karɓi Mulkin Fort kuma ya ci gaba da gininsa. Ginin Anomabu ya zama cibiyar cinikin bayi na Burtaniya tare da Tekun Zinare har sai da aka fara aikin a 1807. Kodayake rashin shaida yana da wahalar faɗi tare da cikakken tabbaci, ana tunanin yawancin mutanen da aka kama da aka sayar zuwa bauta a Anomabu wataƙila sun fito ne daga Asante da mutanen kudancin Akan.[3]

Dangane da bincike da bincike kan tsarin sasanta ƙauyuka a Anomabu da James Sanders yayi a shekarun 1960, rarraba ƙauyuka a Anomabu ya kasance mai ɗorewa tun daga tsakiyar zuwa ƙarshen karni na 19.[6] Kamar yadda Anomabu ya ƙi aikinsa a matsayin na bayi, haka ma yawan jama'arta - an kafa ƙauyuka kaɗan a Anomabu da yankunan cikinta, kuma a sakamakon haka, ƙauyuka tun daga wannan lokacin har zuwa yanzu ba su canza ba.[6]

Tun da masana'antar kasuwancin Anomabu ta dogara da tsarin bautar har zuwa wannan lokacin, Anomabu post 1807 ya ragu sosai a cikin ikonsa a matsayin filin kasuwancin tattalin arziki.[3] A cikin wannan shekarar, ƙaramin sansanin ya sami nasarar tsayayya da dukan sojojin Ashanti, kodayake birnin ya sha wahala sosai daga harin.[2] Harin ya haifar da asarar rayuka sama da 8,000 na mutanen Anomabu.[3]

A ƙarshen karni na 19, an fitar da shi a cikin dabino, hauren giwa, ƙura na gwal, gyada, da hatsin Guinea don musanya shigo da kayayyaki da aka ƙera.[2] Yawanta a cikin shekarun 1870 ya kusan 4500.[2]

Asalin ƙaramin ƙauyen kamun kifi, Anomabu daga ƙarshe ya zama ɗaya daga cikin mahimman tashar jiragen ruwa na kasuwanci a tekun Gold Coast. Ya zuwa karni na 18, garin ya zama daya daga cikin manyan masu fitar da bayi a gabar tekun Afirka ta Yamma. A cewar jami'in mulkin mallaka na ƙarni na 19 George Macdonald, Anomabu shine "birni mafi ƙarfi a bakin teku saboda yawan 'yan asalin yankin da ke dauke da makamai: Duk ƙasar ta cika da yawan jama'a ban da kasancewa mai wadatar zinari, bayi, da masara.”[3] Ba bayi kawai ba, amma masarar masara mai yalwa shine wani dalilin da ya sa yankin Fante da Anomabu musamman abin sha'awa ga masu fataucin bayi.[3]

A cikin 1798, mutanen da za su bautar da kansu sun shiga jirgin Antelope wanda ya fito daga London.[7]

Muhimmancin Kamun kifi a zamanin Anomabu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban aikin mazaunan Anomabu shine kamun kifi, inda noma shine aiki na biyu mafi mashahuri. Sauran ayyukan da ke cikin Anomabu sun haɗa da ciniki, da kuma ayyukan fasaha daban -daban kamar yin tukwane, kafinta, ko aikin famfo. Yawancin mazaunan Anomabu suna ɗaukar wasu ayyuka yayin da lokacin kamun kifi ba ya haifar da abin da za su iya rayuwa.[2]

Dangane da binciken ɗan adam a cikin 2016 da Patience Affua Addo ta yi, masana'antar kamun kifi a Anomabu tana da jinsi sosai kuma tana hana hawa zuwa mata saboda al'umar uban da take ƙarƙashin ta.[2] Koyaya, a cikin 'yan shekarun nan, matan Anomabu sun tashi kan madafun iko a kasuwar kamun kifi.[2]

Kodayake matan Anomabu ba sa shiga kamun kifi da kansu, suna da mahimmanci ga kasuwa kuma suna yin yawancin kasuwancin kifin da kansa.[2] Kodayake kafuwar kakannin al'ummar Anomabu a halin yanzu yana sanya maza a sahun gaba a masana'antar kamun kifi, mata sun fara yin fice a cikin yanayin kamun kifi a cikin 'yan shekarun nan. A cikin 1992, mata sun mallaki 100 daga cikin jimillar kwale -kwale 400 na Anomabu.[2] Wannan lambar ta kasance a tsaye a cikin 2002, lokacin da kashi 38% na kwalekwalen da ke Anomabu suma an ce mata ne[2]. Zuwan mallakar kwale -kwale yana ba mata daraja da matsayi a cikin danginsu da sauran al'umma baki ɗaya.[2]

Yawon shakatawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin zamani, Anomabu sanannen wurin yawon shakatawa ne. Har yanzu ana iya ganin ragowar Fort William.[8]

Bukukuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Anomabo suna murnar bikin Okyir wanda shine bikin tsawon sati na shekara-shekara[9] wanda aka yi biki a sati na biyu a cikin watan Oktoba.[10] "Okyir" na nufin "abin ƙyama" kuma mutane suna yin bikin wannan bikin a matsayin tunatarwa ga munanan halayen zamantakewa.[11]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai manyan manyan makarantun gwamnati 3 da manyan ƙananan makarantu masu zaman kansu 4 a Anomabu, da kuma babbar makarantar sakandare ɗaya.[2]

Wutar Lantarki da Tsabta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wutar lantarki a Anomabu ta fito ne daga tashar wutar lantarki ta kasa da kuma bututun da ke ɗauke da bututu. Tsabtace muhalli bai wadatar ba a cikin alumma, kuma saboda rashin banɗaki na jama'a, yawancin mazauna yankin suna amfani da rairayin bakin teku, wanda ya haifar da gurɓatattun magudanan ruwa.[2]

Sanannun mazauna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • William Ansah Sessarakoo (c. 1736–1770)
  • Prince Whipple (1750–1796)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ambato

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named World Gazetteer
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 Addo, Patience Afua (2016-11-30). "The sea is no longer sweet. Gender and kinship relations in Anomabu in times of dwindling fish stocks". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Getz, Trevor R. (2003). "Mechanisms of Slave Acquisition and Exchange in Late Eighteenth Century Anomabu: Reconsidering a Cross-Section of the Atlantic Slave Trade". African Economic History (31): 75–89. doi:10.2307/3601947. JSTOR 3601947.
  4. Sparks, Randy.
  5. The National Cyclopaedia of Usefuk Knowledge,; Vol I (First ed.). London: Charles Knight. 1847. p. 770.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Sanders, James (April 1985). "Village settlement among the Fante: a study of the Anomabo paramountcy". Africa (in Turanci). 55 (2): 174–186. doi:10.2307/1160300. ISSN 0001-9720. JSTOR 1160300.
  7. Sparks, Randy (2014). Where the Negroes Are Masters. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 7.
  8. "Ghana Slave Forts". Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2021-08-01.
  9. "Anomabo celebrates Okyir festival". www.ghanaweb.com (in Turanci). Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  10. "Central region celebrates Okyir". Today Newspaper (in Turanci). 2015-10-21. Archived from the original on 2018-04-19. Retrieved 2018-04-19.
  11. Sey, Magdalene (2008-10-14). "Ghana: Anomabo Celebrates Okyir in Grand Style". Ghanaian Chronicle (Accra). Retrieved 2018-04-19.

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Shumway, Rebecca (2011), The Fante and the Transatlantic Slave Trade, Rochester: University of Rochester Press. ISBN 9781580463911
  • .Sparks, Randy J. (2014), Where the Negroes are Masters: An African Port in the Era of the Slave Trade, Cambridge: Harvard University Press