Arctic

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Arctic
part of the world (en) Fassara da desert (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na yankin taswira
Bangare na polar region (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da Antarctic (en) Fassara
Wuri
Map
 90°N 0°E / 90°N 0°E / 90; 0
The Arctic Circle, a halin yanzu a wajen 66° arewacin Equator, yana bayyana iyakar tekun arctic da filaye.
Taswirar siyasa da ke nuna ikon mallakar ƙasa a cikin yankin Arctic
Taswirar yanayi mai launi na wucin gadi na yankin Arctic
Hoton MODIS na Arctic

Arctic (/ˈɑːrtɪk/ or /ˈɑːr ktɪk/) yanki ne na polar da ke arewa maso yammacin Duniya. Arctic ya ƙunshi Tekun Arctic, tekun da ke kusa, da kuma sassan Kanada (Yukon, Yankunan Arewa maso Yamma, Nunavut), Daular Danish (Greenland), arewacin Finland (Lapland), Iceland, arewacin Norway (Finnmark da Svalbard), Rasha (Murmansk, Siberiya, Nenets Okrug, Novaya Zemlya), arewacin Sweden da Amurka (Alaska). Ƙasar da ke cikin yankin Arctic tana da nau'ikan dusar ƙanƙara da murfin ƙanƙara na lokaci-lokaci, tare da permafrost wanda ba shi da bishiya (mai daskararriya ƙanƙara ta dindindin) mai ɗauke da tundra. Tekun Arctic suna ɗauke da ƙanƙara na yanayi a wurare da yawa.

Yankin Arctic yanki ne na musamman tsakanin halittun duniya. Al'adu a yankin da 'yan asalin Arctic sun dace da yanayin sanyi da matsananciyar yanayi. Rayuwa a cikin Arctic ta haɗa da zooplankton da phytoplankton, kifi da dabbobi masu shayarwa na ruwa, tsuntsaye, dabbobin ƙasa, tsirrai da al'ummomin ɗan adam. [1] Ƙasar Arctic tana da iyaka da yankin subarctic.

Definition and etymology[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kalmar Arctic ta fito daga kalmar Helenanci ἀρκτικός (arkticos), "kusa da Bear, arewa" [2] kuma daga kalmar ἄρκτος (arktos), ma'ana bear. [3] Sunan yana nufin ko dai ga ƙungiyar taurari Ursa Major, "Babban Bear", wanda ya shahara a yankin arewa na sararin samaniya, ko kuma ƙungiyar taurarin Ursa Minor, "Little Bear", wanda ya ƙunshi sandar arewa na sama (a halin yanzu sosai). kusa da Polaris, Tauraruwar Pole ta Arewa ta yanzu, ko Tauraruwar Arewa).

Akwai ma'anoni da dama na abin da yanki ke ƙunshe a cikin Arctic. Ana iya ayyana yankin a matsayin arewacin Arctic Circle (kimanin 66° 34'N), madaidaicin iyakar kudu na tsakar dare da kuma daren iyakacin duniya. Wani ma'anar Arctic, wanda ya shahara tare da masu ilimin halitta, shine yanki a Arewacin Hemisphere inda matsakaicin zafin jiki na watanni mafi zafi (Yuli) ya kasance ƙasa da 10 °C (50 °F) ; Layin bishiyar arewa mafi kusa yana bin isotherm a iyakar wannan yanki. [4]

Yanayi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wurin dusar ƙanƙara na Inari dake Lapland ( Finland )
Arctic

Yankin Arctic yana da yanayin sanyi mai sanyi da lokacin rani mai sanyi. Hazo galibi yana zuwa ne a cikin nau'in dusar ƙanƙara kuma yana da ƙasa, tare da yawancin yankin yana karɓar ƙasa da 50 centimetres (20 in) Iska mai ƙarfi yakan tayar da dusar ƙanƙara, yana haifar da ruɗi na ci gaba da dusar ƙanƙara. Matsakaicin yanayin hunturu na iya yin ƙasa da ƙasa −40 °C (−40 °F), kuma mafi yawan zafin jiki da aka rubuta shine kusan −68 °C (−90 °F). Sauyin yanayi na Tekun Arctic ana daidaita su ta hanyar tasirin teku, suna da yanayin zafi gabaɗaya da ruwan dusar ƙanƙara fiye da wuraren da suka fi sanyi da bushewa. Arctic tana fama da dumamar yanayi a halin yanzu, yana haifar da raguwar ƙanƙara a tekun Arctic, raguwar ƙanƙara a cikin kankara na Greenland, da sakin methane na Arctic yayin da permafrost ya narke. Narkewar kankara na Greenland yana da alaƙa da haɓakar polar.

Sakamakon ƙaura na isotherms na duniya (kimanin 35 miles (56 km) a cikin shekaru goma a cikin shekaru 30 da suka gabata sakamakon dumamar yanayi, yankin Arctic (kamar yadda aka ayyana ta layin bishiya da zafin jiki) a halin yanzu yana raguwa. Wataƙila mafi girman sakamakon wannan shine raguwar ƙanƙarar tekun Arctic. Akwai babban bambance-bambance a cikin tsinkaya na asarar kankara na Arctic, tare da samfurori da ke nuna kusan cikakke don kammala hasara a watan Satumba daga 2035 zuwa wani lokaci a kusa da 2067.

Flora da fauna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Rayuwar Arctic tana da halin karbuwa ga gajerun yanayi na girma tare da dogon lokacin hasken rana, da sanyi, duhu, yanayin hunturu da dusar ƙanƙara ta lulluɓe.

Tsire-tsire[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Poppy Arctic a cikin furanni a cikin Qausuittuq National Park a tsibirin Bathurst

Tsire-tsire na Arctic sun ƙunshi tsire-tsire irin su dwarf shrubs, graminoids, ganye, lichens, da mosses, waɗanda duk suna girma kusa da ƙasa, suna kafa tundra. Misali na dwarf shrub shine bearberry. Yayin da mutum ya matsa zuwa arewa, yawan zafin da ake samu don tsiron tsiro yana raguwa sosai. A cikin yankunan arewaci, tsire-tsire suna kan iyakokin su na rayuwa, kuma ƙananan bambance-bambance a cikin yawan adadin zafi na rani yana haifar da babban bambance-bambance a cikin adadin kuzarin da ake samu don kulawa, girma da haifuwa. Yanayin zafi mai sanyi yana haifar da girma, yalwa, yawan aiki da iri-iri na tsire-tsire su ragu. Bishiyoyi ba za su iya girma a cikin Arctic ba, amma a cikin sassansa mafi zafi, shrubs suna da yawa kuma suna iya kaiwa 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) tsayi; sedges, mosses da lichens na iya samar da yadudduka masu kauri. A cikin mafi tsananin sanyi na Arctic, yawancin ƙasa ba komai bane; shuke-shuke da ba na jijiyoyin jini irin su lichens da mosses sun fi rinjaye, tare da wasu ciyayi masu tarwatsewa da ciyayi (kamar Arctic poppy).

Dabbobi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muskox
Mujiya mai dusar ƙanƙara

Herbivores a kan tundra sun haɗa da kuren Arctic, lemming, muskox, da caribou. Mujiya mai dusar ƙanƙara, Arctic fox, Bear Grizzly, da Kerkeci na Arctic ne suka cinye su. Polar bear shima mafarauci ne, kodayake ya fi son farautar rayuwar ruwa daga kankara. Har ila yau, akwai tsuntsaye da nau'o'in ruwa da yawa da suka mamaye yankuna masu sanyi. Sauran dabbobin ƙasa sun haɗa da wolverines, moose, tumaki dall, ermines, da squirrels na Arctic. Dabbobin ruwa na ruwa sun haɗa da hatimi, walrus, da nau'ikan nau'ikan cetacean-baleen whales da narwhals, orcas, da belugas. Kyakkyawan misali kuma sanannen nau'in zobe ya wanzu kuma an kwatanta shi a kusa da Arctic Circle a cikin nau'i na gulls na Larus.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Christopher Krembs and Jody Deming. "Organisms that thrive in Arctic sea ice." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 18 November 2006.
  2. Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert. "Arktikos." A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
  3. Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert. "Arktos." A Greek-English Lexicon. Perseus Digital Library.
  4. "arctic." Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. Retrieved 2 May 2009.