Bidayuh

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Bidayuh people
Land Dayak / Klemantan
Sarawak; a native Land Dayak chief. Photograph. Wellcome V0037472.jpg
A native Land Dayak chief in Sarawak, Malaysia.
Jimlar yawan jama'a
205,900 (2014)[1]
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Borneo:
Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia (Sarawak) 198,473 (2010)[2]
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesiya (West Kalimantan) n/a
Harsuna
Bidayuh languages: Bukar Sadong, Jagoi, Biatah (Siburan and Padawan), Malaysian/Indonesian and English language
Addini
Christianity (predominantly), Animism, Islam
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Bekati', Binyadu, Jongkang, Ribun, Selako, Lara', Sanggau, Sara', Tringgus, Semandang, Ahé

Bidayuh suna ne na gama gari don yawancin kungiyoyin asalin da aka samo a kudancin Sarawak, Malaysia da arewacin West Kalimantan, Indonesia, a tsibirin Borneo, waɗanda suke da kamanceceniya da yare da al'ada (duba kuma batutuwan da ke ƙasa). Sunan Bidayuh na nufin 'mazaunan ƙasa'. Asali daga yammacin Borneo, an fara amfani da sunan gama gari Land Dayak a lokacin Rajah James Brooke, White Rajah na Sarawak. A wasu lokuta, ana kiransu da ƙananan mutanen Klemantan . Sun kasance ɗaya daga cikin manyan indan asalin ƙasar a cikin Sarawak da Yammacin Kalimantan kuma suna zaune a cikin garuruwa da ƙauyuka kusa da Kuching da Serian a cikin jihar Malaysia ta Sarawak, yayin da a lardin Indonesiya na West Kalimantan sun fi yawa a arewacin Sanggau Regency . A cikin Sarawak, yawancin Bidayuh ana iya samun su cikin 40 kilomita arba'in daga yankin da aka sani da Greatching Kuching, a tsakanin Kuching da Serian Division . Su ne kabilu na biyu mafi girma a Dayak a Sarawak bayan Iban kuma ɗayan manyan kabilun Dayak a Yammacin Kalimantan.

Yankunan zama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani mutumin Bidayuh ne da sarewa daga Sarawak, Malaysia .

Yankunan Bidayuh da ke cikin Sarawak sune Lundu, Bau, Penrissen, Padawan, Siburan, da Serian . Yawancin ƙauyukan Bidayuh ana iya samun su a yankunan karkara na Lundu, Bau, Padawan, Penrissen, da gundumar Serian. Yankin ya ci gaba har zuwa iyakar Yammacin bodan Kalimantan inda suke zaune a Kembayan, Noyan, Sekayam, da gundumar Jangkang a cikin Sanggau Regency. Yankin da suke zaune yafi yawa a cikin tafkin Kogin Sarawak kuma daga tsaunuka zuwa wani daji mai tsaunuka, wanda a al'adance ake yin sa ta hanyar noma da farauta wanda ya danganci gonakin da suke zaune daga ƙauyukan iyayen da ke kan tsaunuka don kariya. Yau, kusan duk gargajiya longhouse kauyuka an maye gurbinsu da mutum gidaje, da hanyoyi, da akwai wasu plantation aikin noma da kuma a rage girmamawa a kan girman na ƙasar tudu Makki. Fruit itatuwa, musamman Durian, kasance muhimmanci dukiya saka alama. Tsarin gine-gine da al'adun gargajiya na Bidayuh shine babban gidan, yanzu an karɓa a matsayin alama.

Harsuna/Yaruka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai kusan yaruka ashirin da biyar 25 na Bidayuh (Land Dayak) da ake magana a Sarawak, Malaysia, waɗanda za a iya haɗa su zuwa gungu guda huɗu na yarukan da ake fahimta gaba ɗaya: Gabas, Tsakiya, Highland, da Yamma. A cikin Sarawak, yawanci ana cewa akwai manyan rukuni na harshe guda uku ( Yaren Biatah ; Singai-Jagoi ; Yaren Bukar Sadong ) amma waɗannan na iya wargajewa har ma da jerin da aka ambata a ƙasa kamar yadda yawancin mazauna karkara za su iya bambanta su har zuwa ƙauyen ta hanyar banbanta sananan bambance-bambance a cikin ƙamus da magana. Kowane yanki yana magana da yaren kansa:

  1. Lundu yayi magana Jagoi, Salako , da Lara .
  2. Bratak, Singai, Krokong, da Jagoi suna magana da Singai-Jagoi .
  3. Penrissen tana magana da Bisitang yayin da mutanen Kampung Bunuk ke magana da Bunuk (Segu-Benuk).
  4. Yankin Siburan yana magana da Biatah .
  5. Bidayuhs da ke zaune kusa da Seriyan kamar Tebakang, Mongkos, Tebedu zuwa Tanjung Amo kusa da iyakar Kalimantan Indonesia suna magana da Sadong .
  6. Bidayuhs da ke zaune kusa da Seriyan kamar Baki, Baru, Taee, da Tarat suna magana da yaren Bukar .
  7. Bidayuhs a cikin Padawan suna magana da yarukan da yawa amma masu alaƙa kamar Bi-Annah, Pinyawa, Braang, Bia ', Bisepug, da Emperoh / Bipuruh .
  8. Bidayuh Moden yana magana da harsunan da aka gauraya, yaren cakuda tsakanin Padawan da yaren Jagoi (Semeba, Tematu, Bumbok, da Sudad).

Yarukan basu fahimtar juna kuma ana amfani da Ingilishi ko Malay azaman yarukan gama gari.

Batutuwan harshe[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Groupungiyar matan Land Dayak, mai yiwuwa daga Batang Sadong, Sarawak, Malaysia,shekarsr 1910.

Bidayuhs na Sabiyanci suna da yare na musamman da aka sani da Bukar & Sadong yaren Bidayuh, wanda Bidayuhs daga wasu Gundumomin ba zai iya fahimtarsa ba. Anan ga wasu misalan bambance-bambance a cikin yaruka daban-daban da ake magana da su da Seriyanci, tare da kwatankwacin Yaren Ingilishi da Malay nasu. Hakanan akwai harsunan Philippine guda biyu, Kapampangan da Tagalog :

Turanci Malay Bukar & Sadong Bau-Jagoi Siburan-Padawan Bra'ang-Pinyawa Distance Ga-Rankuwa-Lundu (Salako) Kapampangan Tagalog
Uba Bapa Amang Sama Sama Sama ' Apak, Bapak Ibpâ, (Bapa - Kawu) Amang, Ama
Uwa Ibu Andĕ / ayang Sino Aika Zunubi (d) o Inuk, Indok, Umak, Indû Inang, Ina
Abinci makanan pima-an pinguman pimaan Pinguman Pamakanan Pamangan Pagkain
Shinkafa nasi songkoi / sungkoi tubi tubi Tubi nasik nasi kanin
Ni aku aku oku Ěku Ěku aku aku / I-aku ako
Kai / ke kamu / anda / engkau / kau amu / akam mu-u / ingan ku-u / kaam (K) u'u / ka'am kau ika (raira.) / ikayu (pl. ) ikaw

Addini da imani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bidyuh borich ko likitocin mayu mata, 1908.

Bidayuhs na gargajiya ne na gargajiya, kuma har yanzu akwai waɗancan abubuwan imani. A Brooke Family zamanin gan zuwa na Kirista mishaneri daga shekarar 1848, kawo ilimi da kuma na zamani magani, yayin da wani irin tsari da kuma ya faru a Dutch Borneo a kan Dutch sarrafawa gefe. Mafi yawan Bidayuh yanzu Krista ne, yawancinsu Roman Katolika ne. Kusan kashi 70% na mutanen Bidayuh sun canza sunansu na gargajiya zuwa na Turanci tunda sun koma addinin kirista kuma yawancin ‘yan asalin garin Bidayuh da ke garin Sarawak ba sa yin al’adunsu na gargajiya kuma, suna raunana al’adunsu na’ yan asalin Sarawak. Mutanen Bidayuh sune dangin mafi kusa na mutanen Melanau kuma ance suna da kakana daya kafin su rabu zuwa kabilu daban-daban. Asalin Bidayuhs galibi Maguzawa ne ko masu rayarwa, amma, a 50% ya juya zuwa Kiristanci. Za su sami manyan bukukuwa kamar Gawai Dayak, wanda bikin ne don faranta ran padi don girbi mai kyau.

Yawancin kauyukan Bidayuh suna da ko dai Roman Katolika ko cocin Anglican ko masallaci . Mutanen Biatah, wadanda suke zaune a yankin Kuching, mabiya darikar Anglican ne, yayin da mutanen yankin na Bau mabiya darikar Katolika ne.

Wasu sanannun coci kuma ana kafa su a wasu ƙauyuka kamar SIB (Sidang Injil Borneo) wanda ake kira da Borneo Evangelical Church, Baptist Church, Assemblies Of God church, da sauran majami'u kamar SDA, Latter Rain.

The Bidayuh of Bukar has a unique tradition of hanging the bodies of the dead on trees and leaving them to rot away. The skeletons are left on trees as a reminder of the dead. The tradition is rarely done nowadays.

Salako da mutanen Lara[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Koda yake gwamnatin Malaysia ta sanya su a matsayin "Bidayuh", amma al'adun Salako da na Lara ba su da kamannin sauran kungiyoyin Bidayuh kuma al'adunsu na baka suna da'awar asalinsu da tarihin hijirarsu. A lugga, Salako na daga wata bishiyar dangin harshe wacce take daga gidan Malayic Dayak (iyali daya da Iban ). Lara, duk da cewa an fi alakanta ta da Bidayuh (Jagoi-Singai), suna magana da harshe kusan ba mai fahimtar juna kwata-kwata tare da Bidayuh amma suna daga bishiyar dangin harshe ɗaya wanda yake Land Dayak . Hatta ayyukansu na al'ada da al'adunsu sun banbanta da sauran Bidayuhs (duk Bidayuhs suna da kusan al'ada da al'adun gargajiya).

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wani katafaren gidan bikin Bidayuh baruk a Sarawak, Malaysia . Wuri ne na taron jama'a.
Wani mutumin Bidayuh yana yin igiya a cikin hanyar gargajiya.

Kayan gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bidayuh suna da kayan tarihi wadanda suka hada da nau'ikan agung - wadanda suka hada da manyan rataye, dakatarwa ko kuma rikewa, gongs masu kamala / mukabala wadanda suke aiki a matsayin mara matuki ba tare da kayan kade-kade ba.

Rawar gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Ngiyar

Kayan gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin abincin Bidayuh na gargajiya sune:

  • Tempoyak goreng, soyayyen durian da aka dafa tare da naman alade da lemongrass condiment
  • Rotung, sago dafaffe a cikin gora
  • Kubar, pancakes mai sago mai dadi
  • Linut , manna sago manna
  • Manok pansoh, kaza da ganyen tapioca dafaffe da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin itacen gora
  • Tobah, naman namun daji ko naman alade, da kifi

Sanannen Bidayuhs[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Anding Indrawani Zaini, tauraruwar Akademi Fantasia, samfuri, jarumi kuma mawaƙa. Ya kasance daga gauraye Melanau -Bidayuh iyaye. [3]
  • Bryan Nickson Lomas, tsohon Malaysia kasa da ruwa dan wasa. Shi ne ɗan ƙaramin ɗan wasan Malaysia wanda ya cancanci shiga gasar Olympics ta bazara a 2004 yana da shekara 14.
  • Dewi Liana Seriestha, Miss World a shekarar 2014 Top 25 da Miss Talent don Miss World Beauty Sarauniyar. Tana cikin hadaddiyar iyayen Bidayuh-Indonesiya.
  • James Dawos Mamit, tsohon mataimakin minista a majalisar ministocin Malaysia.
  • Pandelela Rinong, 'yar wasan tseren ruwa ta kasar Malesiya.
  • Anyi Katib, tsohon bishop din Anglican na Diocese na Kuching .
  • Michael Manyin, Ministan Sarawak.
  • Richard Riot Jaem, ministar majalisar Malaysia.
  • Tony Eusoff, ɗan wasan kwaikwayo da samfurin.
  • Venice Elphi, dan wasan kwallon kafa na Malesiya, ya buga wa ATM FA wasa .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Sanarwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "State statistics: Malays edge past Chinese in Sarawak". The Borneo Post. Archived from the original on 15 April 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  2. Saw Swee-Hock (2015). The Population of Malaysia (Second ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-98-146-2036-9.
  3. SHOWBIZ: From reality show to musical theatre http://www.nst.com.my/node/24055