Birnin Karkashin Kasa (Beijing)

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Wikidata.svgBirnin Karkashin Kasa (Beijing)
bunker (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Sin
Wuri
 39°54′N 116°25′E / 39.9°N 116.41°E / 39.9; 116.41
Ƙofar Ƙasar Ƙasa a Xidamochang Jie

Birnin Ƙarƙashin ƙasa tsari ne na ma'ajiyar bama -bamai na lokacin Yakin Cacar Baki wanda ya ƙunshi hanyar sadarwa na ramuka da ke ƙarƙashin birnin Beijing, China . An kuma kira ta a matsayin Babban Bango na Ƙasa tun lokacin da aka gina ta don manufar tsaron sojoji . An gina katafaren gidan daga shekarun 1969 zuwa 1979 a cikin tsammanin yakin nukiliya tare da Tarayyar Soviet, yayin da dangantakar Sino-Soviet ta tabarbare [1] [2] kuma an sake bude shi a hukumance a 2000. [3] An ba wa baƙi damar zagaya sassan ginin, [3] wanda aka bayyana shi da "duhu, danshi, kuma da gaske". [4] An rufe birnin ƙarƙashin ƙasa don gyarawa tun a kalla watan Fabrairun 2008. [1]

Wuri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin ƙarƙashin ƙasa na ƙarƙashin ƙasa suna gudana a ƙarƙashin tsakiyar birnin Beijing, suna rufe 85 square kilometres (33 sq mi) 8 to 18 metres (26–59 ft) a ƙarƙashin farfajiya. [1] [2] A wani lokaci akwai ƙofofi kusan 90 na ginin, duk an ɓoye su a shagunan da ke kan manyan titunan Qianmen . [5] Da yawa daga cikin hanyoyin shiga an rushe su ko an toshe su don sake gina su. Sanannun hanyoyin shiga sun haɗa da titin 62 Damochang West a Qianmen, masana'antar Kafetin Qianmen ta Beijing a 44 Xingfu Dajie a gundumar Chongwen, da 18 Dashilan Jie a Qianmen. [1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A lokacin tashin hankali tsakanin Tarayyar Soviet da China a shekarar 1969, Shugaban Jam'iyyar Kwaminis ta China Mao Zedong ya ba da umarnin gina birnin ƙarƙashin ƙasa yayin rikicin iyaka kan Tsibirin Zhenbao a cikin Kogin Heilongjiang . [2] An ƙera Ƙarƙashin Ƙasa don tsayayya da makaman nukiliya, biochemical da na yau da kullun. [1] Rikicin zai kare yawan jama'ar Beijing, kuma zai ba jami'an gwamnati damar ficewa idan an kai hari a birnin. [6] Gwamnati ta yi iƙirarin cewa ramukan na iya ɗaukar dukkan mazaunan miliyan shida na Beijing bayan kammala su. [4]

Ginin yana da kayan aiki kamar gidajen abinci, ɗakunan shan magani, makarantu, gidajen sinimomi, masana'antu, filin tsere kan abin hawa, hatsin hatsi da mai, da gonar noman naman kaza. Har ila yau, akwai kusan wurare 70 da za a iya haƙa rijiyoyin ruwa cikin sauƙi idan an buƙata. [2] Bayani dalla-dalla iska tsarin da aka shigar, da 2300 shafts cewa za a iya killace kare Tunnels 'mazaunan daga guba gas, [7] Gas- da ruwa-hujja hatches, kazalika da m kankare babban ƙofofi, da aka gina don kare Tunnels daga hare -haren biochemical da faduwar nukiliya. [2] [7]

Babu wani bayani a hukumance game da ainihin hadadden, [2] amma ana hasashen cewa ramukan na iya haɗa alamun alaƙa daban -daban na Beijing, da mahimman gine -ginen gwamnati kamar Zhongnanhai, Babban Zauren Jama'a, har ma sansanonin soji a wajen birnin. [6] Cibiyar Bayanai ta Intanet ta China ta tabbatar da cewa "da alama suna danganta dukkan yankunan tsakiyar Beijing, daga Xidan da Xuanwumen zuwa Qianmen da [ gundumar Chongwen ", ban da Tudun Yamma. [2] Ana kuma yayatawa cewa kowane mazauni ya taɓa samun ɓoyayyen tarko a kusa da ke kaiwa zuwa ramuka. [2] Idan aka kai harin nukiliya, shirin shi ne a mayar da rabin mutanen Beijing ƙarƙashin ƙasa, rabin kuma zuwa tsaunukan Yammacin Turai . [1]

Sama da ƴan ƙasa 300,000 ne suka gina ramukan, gami da ɗaliban makaranta, a kan ayyukan sa kai. Har ma an haƙa wasu sassan ba tare da taimakon wani babban injin ba. [2] Tsoffin garun birni, hasumiyai da ƙofofi, gami da tsoffin ƙofofin birni na Xizhimen, Fuchengmen, da Chongwenmen sun lalace don samar da kayan gini don ginin. [2]

File:Dixia Cheng notice.JPG
Sanarwa a gefen ƙofar Ƙofar Ƙasa da ke Xidamochang Jie yana bayanin cewa an rufe ginin don gyara bayan bin kulawar lafiya

Tun lokacin da aka kammala ginin, mazauna yankin sun yi amfani da shi ta hanyoyi daban -daban yayin da ramukan suka kasance masu sanyi a lokacin bazara da ɗumi a lokacin hunturu. [2] A kan titinan da ke cike da cunkoso, an gyara wasu sassan ginin kamar otal -otal masu arha, yayin da wasu kuma suka rikiɗe zuwa shagunan kasuwanci da wuraren kasuwanci, ko ma gidajen wasan kwaikwayo. [2]

Duk da yake ba a taɓa amfani da rukunin ba don manufar da aka nufa, ba a taɓa yin watsi da shi ba. Hukumomin yankin na ci gaba da gudanar da binciken kwararar ruwa da kula da kwari a cikin ramukan akai -akai. [2]

A matsayin mai yawon shakatawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An buɗe katafaren gidan a hukumance a cikin 2000, amma an rufe shi don sabuntawa tun aƙalla Fabrairu 2008. [1] Yayin da yake a buɗe, an yarda baƙi su zagaya ɓangarorin ginin; Birnin ƙarƙashin ƙasa ya shahara da masu yawon bude ido na kasashen waje amma kusan 'yan asalin yankin sun manta da shi. Kodayake akwai wasu hanyoyin shiga da yawa, baƙi na ƙasashen waje sun shiga sassan da aka amince da su ta hanyar ƙaramin shago a Qianmen, kudu da Tiananmen Square, a Titin 62 Damochang West. Ƙungiyoyin yawon shakatawa za su iya shiga kyauta kuma ba tare da izini na farko ba yayin da kowane ɗan yawon buɗe ido da ba na ƙungiya ba ake cajin yuan 20 ($ 2.40) kowannensu. [2]

Yawon shakatawa na hukuma ya ɗauki baƙi kawai a kan ƙaramin madauwari madaidaiciyar birni. [6] A cikin haɗaɗɗun, baƙi za su iya ganin alamomin manyan alamomin da hanyoyin rami, kamar dandalin Tiananmen da City Haramtacciya, kuma suna iya ganin ɗakunan da aka yiwa alama da ayyukansu na asali, kamar gidajen sinima, asibitoci, ko kayan ƙonawa . [5] Za a iya ganin hoton Mao Zedong a cikin bangon bango na mazauna yankin da ke ba da gudummawa don tono ramuka da taken da ke ɓacewa kamar "tara hatsi", da "Ga Mutane: Shirya Yaƙi, Shirya Yunwa". [4] Dakuna masu gadaje masu gadaje da kwandon kwali masu ruɓewa na ruwa ana iya ganin su a wuraren da ba buɗe ga masu yawon buɗe ido. [1] Baƙi a kan ziyarar ta hukuma za su kuma wuce ta masana'antar siliki da ke aiki a ɗayan ɗakunan tarurrukan ma'aikatan ƙarƙashin ƙasa na rukunin, kuma za a ba su hanyar nuna hanyar samun siliki daga cocoons na siliki . Sun sami damar siyan abubuwan tunawa a shagon masu yawon buɗe ido wanda cibiyar fasaha da fasaha ta Qianmen mallakar gwamnati da kamfanin siliki na China Kai Tian ke sarrafawa. [6]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Jiang, Steven. "Beijing Journal: An underground 'parallel universe'". Cable News Network (2008-02-01). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Wang, Zhiyong. "Beijing's Underground City". China Internet Information Center (2005-04-15). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Underground City". Beijing China Tourist Information and Travel Guide. Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Dixia Cheng". The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Beijing Underground City". Lonely Planet Publications. Retrieved on 2008-07-16.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Hultengren, Irving A. "Beijing Underground City". Irving A. Hultegren Home Page 2008 (2008-05-02). Retrieved on 2008-07-17.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Going underground". ChinaDaily (2005-12-30). Retrieved on 2008-07-17.