Ciwon daji Thyroid

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Ciwon daji Thyroid
Thyroidgland-intl.png
Description (en) Fassara
Iri endocrine gland cancer (en) Fassara, thyroid neoplasm (en) Fassara, thyroid gland disease (en) Fassara
disease (individual) (en) Fassara
Specialty (en) Fassara oncology (en) Fassara
Sanadi ionizing radiation (en) Fassara, iodine-131 (en) Fassara
multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (en) Fassara
Genetic association (en) Fassara DIRC3 (en) Fassara da NRG1 (en) Fassara
Treatment (en) Fassara
Magani lenvatinib mesylate (en) Fassara, vandetanib (en) Fassara, cabozantinib (en) Fassara, thyrotropin alfa (en) Fassara, vandetanib (en) Fassara da tiratricol (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-10-CM C73
ICD-9-CM 193 da 239.7
MedlinePlus 001213
eMedicine 001213
MeSH D013964
Disease Ontology ID DOID:1781

Ciwon daji na thyroid ciwon daji wanda ke tasowa daga kwayoyin jikin glandar thyroid .[1] Cuta ce wadda kwayoyin halitta suke girma ba bisa ka'ida ba kuma suna da damar yadawa zuwa wasu sassan jiki .[2][3] Alamun na iya haɗawa da kumburi ko dunƙule a wuya .[1] Ciwon daji kuma zai iya faruwa a cikin thyroid bayan yaduwa daga wasu wurare, a cikin abin da ba a lasafta shi da ciwon daji na thyroid.[4]

Abubuwan haɗari sun haɗa da bayyanar radiation a lokacin ƙuruciya, samun haɓakar thyroid, da tarihin iyali.[1][5] Manyan nau'ikan su ne papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, da kuma anaplastic thyroid cancer .[4] Ana gano cutar sau da yawa akan duban da tayi da kyakkyawan fata na allura .[1] Ba a ba da shawarar yin gwajin mutane ba tare da alamun cutar ba kuma a cikin haɗarin cutar kamar na 2017.[6]

Zaɓuɓɓukan magani na iya haɗawa da tiyata, maganin radiation ciki har da iodine radioactive, chemotherapy, hormone thyroid, maganin da aka yi niyya, da jira na gani.[1] Tiyata na iya haɗawa da cire sashi ko duka na thyroid.[4] Yawan rayuwa na shekaru biyar shine kashi 98% a Amurka. [7]

A duniya kamar na 2015, mutane miliyan 3.2 suna da ciwon daji na thyroid.[8] A cikin 2012, sabbin maganganu 298,000 sun faru.[9]Mafi yawanci ana gano shi tsakanin shekaru 35 zuwa 65.[7] Mata suna fama da yawa fiye da maza. [7] Wadanda suka fito daga Asiya sun fi shafa.[4] Adadin ya karu a cikin ƴan shekarun da suka gabata, wanda aka yi imanin ya kasance saboda mafi kyawun ganowa.[9] A cikin 2015, ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane 31,900.[10]

Alamomi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafi sau da yawa, alamar farko na ciwon daji na thyroid shine nodule a cikin yankin thyroid na wuyansa. [11] Duk da haka, har zuwa 65% na manya suna da ƙananan nodules a cikin thyroids, amma yawanci a karkashin 10% na waɗannan nodules ana samun su suna da ciwon daji. [12] Wani lokaci, alamar farko ita ce ƙãrawar ƙwayar lymph. Daga baya alamomin da zasu iya kasancewa sune zafi a cikin yankin gaba na wuyansa da kuma canje-canje a cikin murya saboda shigar da jijiyar laryngeal mai maimaitawa .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Yawancin ciwon daji na thyroid ana samun su a cikin majiyyacin euthyroid, amma alamun hyperthyroidism ko hypothyroidism na iya haɗuwa da wani babba ko metastatic, ƙwayar cuta mai ban sha'awa. Nodules na thyroid suna da damuwa musamman lokacin da aka same su a cikin waɗanda basu kai shekaru 20 ba. Gabatarwar nodules mara kyau a wannan shekarun ba shi da yuwuwa, don haka yuwuwar kamuwa da cuta ya fi girma.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Dalilai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana tsammanin ciwon daji na thyroid yana da alaƙa da abubuwa da yawa na yanayin muhalli da kwayoyin halitta, amma akwai gagarumin rashin tabbas game da musabbabin su.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Hanyoyin muhalli ga ionizing radiation daga duka tushen asali na asali da kuma asali na wucin gadi ana zargin su taka muhimmiyar rawa, da kuma ƙara yawan adadin ciwon daji na thyroid yana faruwa a cikin wadanda aka fallasa zuwa radiation mantlefield don lymphoma, da wadanda aka fallasa zuwa iodine-131 bin Chernobyl,[13] Fukushima, Kyshtym, da Windscale[14] bala'o'in nukiliya.[15] Thyroiditis da sauran cututtukan thyroid kuma suna haifar da ciwon daji na thyroid.[14][16]

Abubuwan da ke haifar da kwayoyin halitta sun haɗa da nau'in neoplasia na endocrin da yawa, wanda ke ƙaruwa da yawa, musamman na nau'in cutar sankara.[17]

Bincike[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan an sami nodule na thyroid a lokacin gwajin jiki, mai ba da shawara ga endocrinologist ko likitan thyroid na iya faruwa. Mafi yawanci, ana yin na'urar duban da tayi don tabbatar da kasancewar nodule da tantance matsayin duka gland. Wasu sakamakon duban da tayi na iya bayar da rahoton ƙimar TI-RADS ko TIRADS don rarraba haɗarin malignancy.[18] Ma'auni na thyroid stimulating hormone, da / ko jimlar triiodothyronine (T3) da thyroxine (T4) matakan, da antithyroid antibodies zai taimaka yanke shawara idan wani aiki thyroid cuta kamar Hashimoto ta thyroiditis ne ba, wani sananne dalilin da benign nodular goiter.[19] thyroid scan, wanda aka yi akai-akai tare da haɗin gwiwa tare da gwajin ɗaukar iodine radioactive don sanin ko nodule yana "zafi" ko "sanyi" [20] wanda zai iya taimakawa wajen yanke shawara ko za a yi biopsy na nodule.[21] Auna calcitonin ya zama dole don ware kasancewar medullary thyroid cancer . A ƙarshe, don cimma tabbataccen ganewar asali kafin yanke shawara akan jiyya, ana iya yin gwajin cytology mai kyau na allura da kuma bayar da rahoto bisa ga tsarin Bethesda .[22]

Bayan ganewar asali, don fahimtar yuwuwar cututtuka, ko kuma bin diddigin sa ido bayan tiyata, ana iya yin hoton I-131 ko I-123 na rediyoaktif iodine.[23]

A cikin manya ba tare da alamun bayyanar ba, ba a ba da shawarar yin gwajin cutar kansar thyroid ba.[24]

Rabewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

ginshiƙi na nau'in ciwon daji na thyroid ta hanyar haɗari.[25]

Za a iya rarraba kansar thyroid bisa ga halayen histopathological .[26][27] Za'a iya rarrabe wadannan bambance-bambancen (rarraba abubuwa daban-daban na iya nuna bambancin yanki):

  • Papillary thyroid ciwon daji (75 zuwa 85% na lokuta[28] ) - an fi gano sau da yawa a cikin 'yan mata matasa idan aka kwatanta da sauran nau'in ciwon daji na thyroid kuma yana da kyakkyawar ganewa. Yana iya faruwa a cikin matan da ke da adenomatous polyposis na iyali da kuma a cikin marasa lafiya da ciwon Cowden . Hakanan akwai nau'in nau'in ciwon daji na papillary thyroid.[29]
  • Sabon bambance-bambancen da aka sake rarrabawa: neoplasm follicular thyroid neoplasm wanda ba shi da ƙarfi tare da fasalin papillary-kamar makaman nukiliya ana ɗaukarsa azaman ƙari mara ƙarfi na iyakantaccen yuwuwar ilimin halitta.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer (10 zuwa 20% na lokuta ) - lokaci-lokaci ana gani a cikin mutanen da ke fama da cutar Cowden. Wasu sun haɗa da Hürthle cell carcinoma a matsayin bambance-bambancen wasu kuma suna lissafta shi azaman nau'in daban.[30]
  • Medullary thyroid ciwon daji (5 zuwa 8% na lokuta) - ciwon daji na parafollicular Kwayoyin, sau da yawa wani ɓangare na mahara endocrine neoplasia type 2 .[31]
  • Rashin bambance-bambancen ciwon daji na thyroid
  • Ciwon daji na thyroid anaplastic (1 zuwa 2%[32] ) ba ya amsa magani kuma yana iya haifar da alamun matsa lamba.
  • Wasu
    • Thyroid lymphoma
    • Squamous cell thyroid carcinoma
    • Sarcoma na thyroid
    • Cutar sankarau

Nau'in follicular da papillary tare ana iya rarraba su azaman "canzawar thyroid daban-daban".[33] Waɗannan nau'ikan suna da tsinkaye mafi kyawu fiye da nau'ikan medullary da waɗanda ba su da bambanci.[34]

Papillary microcarcinoma wani yanki ne na ciwon daji na papillary thyroid wanda aka ayyana azaman nodule wanda bai kai ko daidai da 1 ba. cm.[35] 43% na duk ciwon daji na thyroid da 50% na sababbin lokuta na papillary thyroid carcinoma su ne papillary microcarcinoma.[36][37] Dabarun gudanarwa don microcarcinoma na papillary na wucin gadi akan duban dan tayi (kuma an tabbatar akan FNAB) kewayo daga jimlar thyroidectomy tare da ablation na radioactive iodine zuwa lobectomy ko kallo kadai. Harach et al. bayar da shawarar yin amfani da kalmar "ciwon daji na papillary" don guje wa ba wa marasa lafiya damuwa game da ciwon daji. Woolner et al. na farko ba da gangan ya ƙirƙiro kalmar "carcinoma occult papillary carcinoma", a cikin 1960, don kwatanta ciwon daji na papillary ≤ 1.5 cm a diamita.[38]

Tsayawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin ciwon daji shine tsarin tantance girman ci gaban ciwon daji. Ana amfani da tsarin tsarawa na TNM don rarraba matakan ciwon daji, amma ba na kwakwalwa ba.

Metastases[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ana iya gano bambancin ƙwayar cutar ciwon daji na thyroid ta hanyar yin cikakken scintigraphy ta amfani da aidin-131.[39][40]

Sanannen lokuta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Daniel Snyder, Ba'amurke mai kungiyar Kwallon kafa ta Washington [41]
  • Danny New, mai haɗin gwiwar Rana don WFLA[42][43] da kuma wanda ya gabata na Mass Appeal akan WWLP .[44]
  • Erica Lugo, koci a kan Babban Mai hasara a nunin talabijin.[45][46][47][48]
  • Jerry Dipoto, tsohon dan wasan Baseball na Major League [49]
  • William Rehnquist, Babban Mai Shari'a na Amurka (1986-2005) ya mutu Satumba 3, 2005 daga ciwon daji na thyroid anaplastic [50]
  • Esther Grace Earl, Avid Nerdfighter (Agusta 3, 1994-Agusta 25, 2010) Ya mutu daga papillary thyroid cancer wanda ya yada zuwa huhu [51]
  • Uhm Jung-hwa, Mawaƙin Koriya ta Kudu, ɗan wasan kwaikwayo kuma ɗan rawa [52]
  • Lee Moon-sae, Mawaƙin Ballad na Koriya ta Kudu [53]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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