Dangantakar Chad–Libya

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Wikidata.svgDangantakar Chad–Libya
alakar kasashen biyu
Bayanai
Ƙasa Cadi da Libya
Wuri
Chad Libya Locator.png
Taswirar ƙasashen Chadi da Libiya, Chadi a kore Libiya a Ja.

Dangantakar Chadi–Libya sun samo asali ne daga ƙarnoni da suka gabata na ƙabilanci, addini, da kasuwanci.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shekarun 1960[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ƙarƙashin mulkin mallakar Turawan Faransa da na Italia, bi da bi, Chadi da Libya sun karkata kan manufa da ci gaba. Amma ko da bayan 'yancin Chadi a 1960, yawancin' yan arewa har ila yau sun fi kusanci da mutanen Libya fiye da gwamnatin kudanci da ke mamaye a N'Djamena. Bayan kwace mulki a 1969, shugaban kasar Libya Muammar Gaddafi ya sake jaddada ikirarin Libya ga Yankin Aozou, yanki mai murabba'in kilomita 100,000 na arewacin Chadi wanda ya haɗa da ƙaramin garin Aozou. Libya ta kafa hujja ne da daya daga cikin yarjeniyoyi masu yawa da suka shafi iyakokin mulkin mallaka, kuma ta karfafa waɗannan ikirarin ta hanyar sanya dakaru a Zirin Aozou tun daga 1972

Gaddafi ta sha'awar ƙarin gini da Aozou Gaza girma daga wani tsararru na damuwa, ciki har da yankin ta ruwaito ma'adinai dũkiya, ciki har da uranium .[ana buƙatar hujja] Ya kuma fatan kafa wani m gwamnati a Chadi da kuma mika Musulunci tasiri a cikin yankin Sahel ta hanyar Chadi da kuma Sudan.

Shugaban Chadi Hissène Habré ya kasance mai karfin gwiwa daga tsohuwar ikon mulkin mallaka, Faransa, wacce ke son takaita ayyukan fadada Libya a yankin da ke da kusanci da Paris. Tallafin Faransawa ya haɗa da tura sojoji don yaƙar 'yan Libiya a yankin na Chadi. A yin hakan, Faransa ta sami goyon bayan Amurka a siyasance, tare da damuwa da ƙaruwar faɗaɗa Gaddafi.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Hadadden tsari na buƙatun masarufi kuma ya lalata bin Libya na neman yanki da tasiri a cikin Sahel. Kalaman adawa da mulkin mallaka da na adawa da mulkin mallaka na Gaddafi waɗanda suka lalata tsakanin hare-haren da aka kaiwa Amurka da yakin neman zaɓe da ya mayar da hankali kan kasancewar Turawan mulkin mallaka a Afirka. Yana fatan raunana alakar Chadi da Yammacin duniya ta hakan zai rage shigar da Afirka cikin tsarin mulkin kasashe masu mulkin Yamma. Tilasta sake sabunta daya daga cikin iyakokin mulkin mallaka da ƙungiyar ta OAU ta tabbatar a shekarar 1963 wani mataki ne a wannan hanyar - wacce ta zama mai yuwuwa a cikin yanayin ƙasar Chadi da ke fama da rikici, wanda mambobin ƙungiyar ta OAU suka kira ta "mahada mafi rauni".

Shekarun 1970[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gaddafi ya yi kokarin kawance da wasu shugabannin ‘yan tawaye masu adawa da gwamnati a Chadi a cikin shekarun 1970, ciki har da Goukouni, Siddick, Acyl Ahmat (dan asalin Chadi dan asalin Larabawa), da Kamougué, dan kudu. Goukouni da Acyl sun fi nuna juyayi ga burin Gaddafi na yankin, amma waɗannan mutane biyu sun yi arangama a 1979, wanda ya sa Acyl ya kafa CDR. Bayan mutuwar Acyl a cikin 1982, tallafin Libya ya koma GUNT mai ƙarfi na Goukouni. Libya ta tsoma baki a aikin soji a Chadi a 1978 da 1979, inda ta fara rikicin Chadi-Libya .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Shekarun 1980[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A 1980, Libya ta sake shiga tsakani a yaƙin basasar Chadi, inda ta mamaye mafi yawan kasar ciki har da babban birnin N'Djamena a watan Disamba. A ranar 6 ga Janairun 1981, shugaban 'yan uwa na Libya Ghaddafi da shugaban' yan tawayen Chadi Goukouni suka fitar da sanarwar sanarwa ta haɗin gwiwa a Libya cewa Libya da Chadi sun yanke shawarar "yin aiki don samun cikakken hadin kai tsakanin kasashen biyu". Da yake fuskantar duka kakkausar suka daga ƙasashen duniya da kuma adawa ta ciki daga 'yan tawayen Chadi, Gaddafi da Goukouni sun mara baya, kuma ba da daɗewa ba alaƙar su ta ɓarke lokacin da Goukouni ya yi ƙoƙari ya karɓi matsin lamba na ƙasa da ƙasa don kawo ƙarshen kasancewar sojojin na Libya. Daga karshe, a ranar 29 ga Oktoba Goukouni ya bukaci a dawo da sojojin Libya a ƙarshen shekara, kuma abin mamaki da sauri Gaddafi ya yi biyayya kuma ya janye dukkan sojojin Libya zuwa Zirin Aouzou kafin 16 ga Nuwamba. Bangaren ‘yan tawayen FAN karkashin jagorancin Hissène Habré sun hau kan karagar mulki kuma a 1982 sun kori Goukouni daga N’Djamena, lamarin da ya tilasta wa kungiyarsa ta GUNT komawa arewa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

GUNT ya sake tunkuɗe Habré a watan Disamba da Janairun 1983, duk da haka, kuma daga ƙarshe Gaddafi ya yanke shawarar tallafawa GUNT din Goukouni kuma. Wani sabon shiga tsakani na Libya ya biyo baya a watan Yuni, kodayake yawanci ya kasance ta hanyar tallafi na kayan GUNT. Faransa (a karkashin Operation Manta ), Amurka da Zaire sun sa baki a madadin Habré kuma sun fatattaki GUNT da Libya ke marawa baya a ƙarshen Yuli.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A tsakiyar 1988 Gaddafi ya fi son ya zo ya sasanta da Habré fiye da ci gaba da marawa kawayen Gaddafi baya, waɗanda suka yi asara a hannun Habré. Ministocin harkokin wajen Chadi da na Libya sun haɗu a watan Agustan 1988, kuma gwamnatocin biyu sun amince a ci gaba da tattaunawa. A lokaci guda, sojojin Libya sun ci gaba da kasancewa a Zirin Aozou.

A hankali, dangantaka a tsakanin ƙasashen biyu ta inganta, inda Ghaddafi ya ba da alamun cewa yana son daidaita alaƙar da gwamnatin Chadi, har ta kai ga cewa yaƙin ya kasance kuskure. A cikin Mayu 1988 shugaban Libya ya ayyana zai amince da Habré a matsayin halattaccen shugaban Chadi "a matsayin kyauta ga Afirka"; wannan ya haifar a ranar 3 ga Oktoba don sake dawo da cikakkiyar dangantakar diflomasiyya tsakanin ƙasashen biyu. A shekara mai zuwa, a ranar 31 ga watan Agusta 1989, wakilan Chadi da na Libya sun hadu a Algiers don sasantawa kan Tsarin Tsarin Yarjejeniyar sasanta rikicin Yankin, wanda Gaddafi ya amince ya tattauna da Habré na Yankin Aouzou tare da gabatar da batun zuwa Kotun Duniya na Shari'a (ICJ) don yanke hukunci mai daurewa idan tattaunawar ɓangarorin biyu ta gaza. Sabili da haka, bayan shekara guda na tattaunawar da ba ta dace ba, ɓangarorin sun gabatar a cikin Satumbar 1990 takaddamar zuwa Kotun ICJ. [1] [2] [3]

Dangantakar Chadi da Libya ta kara inganta yayin da Idriss Déby mai samun goyon bayan Libya ya cire sunan Habré a ranar 2 ga Disamba. Gaddafi shi ne shugaban ƙasa na farko da ya amince da sabon mulkin, sannan kuma ya sanya hannu kan yarjeniyoyin abota da hadin kai a matakai daban-daban; amma game da Zirin Aouzou Déby ya bi wanda ya gabace shi, yana mai bayyana cewa idan ya zama dole zai yi yaki don ganin an cire zirin daga hannun Libya. [4]

Shekarun 1990[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An kammala rikicin na Aouzou da kyau a ranar 3 ga Fabrairu 1994, lokacin da alƙalai na ICJ da rinjayen 16 zuwa 1 suka yanke hukuncin cewa Yankin Aouzou na ƙasar Chadi ne. An zartar da hukuncin kotun ba tare da bata lokaci ba, bangarorin biyu suka sanya hannu tun a ranar 4 ga Afrilu kan yarjejeniya game da hanyoyin aiwatar da hukuncin. Masu sa ido na ƙasa da ƙasa sun sa ido, ficewar sojojin Libya daga Zirin ya fara ne a ranar 15 ga Afrilu kuma an kammala shi da 10 ga Mayu. Canja wuri zuwa ƙarshe zuwa Hutu daga Libya zuwa Chadi ya faru ne a ranar 30 ga Mayu, lokacin da ɓangarorin suka sanya hannu kan sanarwar haɗin gwiwa da ke nuna cewa ficewar Libya ta samu aiki. [3] [5]

Shekarun 2000[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A watan Oktoban 2007, ƙungiyoyin ‘yan tawaye huɗu a Chadi suka sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya tare da gwamnatin ƙasar su, inda shugaban Libya Kanar Muammar Gaddafi ya ɗauki nauyin tattaunawar. Shugabannin Chadi da na Sudan sun halarci wannan taron su ma.

A ranar 9 ga watan Agustan 2009, tawagogin ministocin daga Chadi da Libya suka amince da yarjejeniyoyi bakwai da nufin ƙara matakan da suka shafi tsaro da kasuwanci gami da inganta haɗin gwiwar siyasa tsakanin kasashen. Firayim Ministan Chadi Youssouf Saleh Abbas da Firayim Ministan Libya Baghdadi Mahmudi ne suka jagoranci tattaunawar ministocin. Da sauran wurare da kuma Chadi Shugaban kasar Idriss Deby da kuma Libya shugaban Muammar Gaddafi zo tare a kan al'amurran da suka shafi kamar yadda ceton da hanzari ƙunci tafkin Chadi da kuma aiki yadda da ƙungiyar tarayyar Afirka zai iya zama mafi shiga a cikin sulhu rikice-rikice na Afirka muhimmanci. A wani ci gaban kuma, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi ya jagoranci Gidauniyar kasa da kasa ta Gaddafi don ƙungiyoyin agaji da ci gaba, a rubuce a jaridar Oya, ta yi karin bayani kan aniyarta ta tsugunar da 'yan gudun hijira daga Chadi a Libya tare da bayar da godiya ga waɗanda suka taimaka.

Shekarun 2010[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tun daga yakin basasar Libya a shekarar 2011, alaƙar ƙasashen biyu ta kara tabarbarewa. A shekara ta 2013 shugaban Chadi Idriss Déby ya zargi sabbin hukumomin Libya da barin sojojin haya na Chadi su kafa sansanoni a Libya daga inda suka shirya kai hare-hare zuwa arewacin Chadi. [6] Tun lokacin da yakin basasar Libya na biyu ya fara tsakanin bangarori daban-daban a Libya, sojojin haya daga Chadi da sauran kasashen yankin suna shiga cikin rikicin. [7] A watan Agustan 2016, hukumomin Libya sun rufe ofishin jakadancinsu a N'Djamena tare da kiran jakadanta, Mohammed Khalifa, bisa shawarar da Chadi ta yanke. Hakan ya faru ne bayan ma’aikatar harkokin wajen Chadi ta kori jami’an diflomasiyyar Libya 13 daga Chadi. A cewar wata sanarwa daga ma'aikatar, "Mun lura cewa akwai dimbin jami'an diflomasiyya na mulki da sojoji da ke aiki a ofishin jakadancin. Zaman su a Chadi bai dace ba. ” [8] Gwamnatin Yarjejeniyar Yarjejeniyar ta kasa da kasa da aka amince da ita a Libya ta lura da damuwar da ake da ita game da yawan ma'aikata na ofisoshin jakadancin Libya a ƙasashen waje. [9] A cikin watan Janairun 2017, Chadi ta rufe iyakarta ta arewa tare da Libya saboda rashin amincewar ƙasar cikin ruɗani zai tilasta wa wasu mayaka tserewa zuwa cikin ita kanta Chadi. A sakamakon haka, Chadi ta ba da umarnin tura dakaru a kan iyaka don yin kokarin dakatar da duk wani dan bindiga da ke tserewa cikin kasar.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. G. Simons, p. 58, 60
  2. S. Nolutshungu, p. 227
  3. 3.0 3.1 M. Brecher & J. Wilkenfeld, p. 95
  4. M. Azevedo, p. 150
  5. G. Simons, p. 78
  6. Chad says Libya not tackling 'mercenaries'. Al Jazeera. Published 27 April 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  7. Armed Chadian group attacks forces loyal to Haftar in southern Libya. Reuters. Published 27 December 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  8. Libya shuts down embassy in Chad. Libya Observer. Published 28 August 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  9. Chad orders Libyan embassy to close. Libya Herald. Published 18 August 2016. Retrieved 7 January 2020.