Deng Sui

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Deng Sui
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Nanyang, 81
ƙasa Eastern Han (en) Fassara
Mutuwa 17 ga Afirilu, 121
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Deng Xun
Abokiyar zama Emperor He of Han (en) Fassara
Yara
Siblings Q15929496 Fassara, Q55695188 Fassara, Q51884886 Fassara da Q51884885 Fassara
Malamai Ban Zhao (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan siyasa

Deng Sui (Sinanci: 鄧綏; AD 81-121), a hukumance Sarauniya Hexi (Sinanci: 和熹皇后; lit. 'matsakaici da kwantar da hankalin sarki') ta kasance sarauniya a lokacin daular Han na tarihin kasar Sin. Ita ce Sarkin sarakuna He matarsa ​​ta biyu, kuma bayan mutuwarsa "ya mulki daular na gaba shekaru goma da rabi da m iyawa."[1] A matsayinta na sarauniya dowager, ta yi aiki a matsayin mai mulki ga ɗan sarki He Emperor Shang kuma ɗan'uwan Emperor An a cikin 106-121, kuma ana ɗaukarta a matsayin mai iyawa da ƙwazo. Ana kuma ganin ta da alhakin karɓar takarda a hukumance na farko a duniya, kuma ta kasance majiɓincin fasaha.[2] A lokacin mulkinta, ta rage kudaden da ake kashewa a fada, da samar da taimako ga gajiyayyu, ta samu damar fuskantar kalubalen bala'o'i da suka hada da gurgunta ambaliya, fari da kankara a sassa da dama na daular, tare da dakile yakin da aka yi da Xiongnu da Qiang. An yaba mata saboda kulawar da ta yi akan masu aikata laifuka. Ilimi mai kyau, Sarauniya Deng ya kirkiro sabbin mukamai ga malamai, ya karfafa tunanin asali, kuma yana da alhakin daidaita ma'aunin litattafai guda biyar.[3] Ta kira mambobi 70 daga cikin iyalan sarakuna don yin nazarin litattafai kuma ta kula da jarrabawar su da kanta.[4] Ana kallonta a matsayin shugabar daular Han ta ƙarshe mai tasiri, yayin da sarakunan da suka biyo baya da kuma Sarauniya Dowagers suka shiga cikin gwagwarmayar mulki da cin hanci da rashawa, wanda ya kai ga faduwar daular.

Asalin iyali da farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haife Deng Sui a shekara ta 81 AD a Nanyang. Mahaifinta Deng Xun (鄧訓) shi ne ɗa na shida ga firaministan Sarkin sarakuna Guangwu Deng Yu. Mahaifiyarta, Lady Yin, 'yar kani ce ga matar Sarkin Guangwu Sarauniya Yin Lihua. Tana da sha'awar yin karatu sosai, tana iya karanta litattafai na tarihi tun tana shekara shida kuma tana iya karanta shujing da lunyu lokacin tana shekara goma sha biyu.[5]

An zabe ta ta kasance a fadar a shekara ta 95. Ta zama uwargidan Sarkin sarakuna He a shekara ta 96, lokacin tana shekara 15, kuma yana da shekaru 17.

Yarjejeniyar sarki da masarauta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarkin sarakuna He riga ya halicci Sarauniya Yin masarauta. An siffanta Sarauniya Yin a matsayin kyakkyawa amma gajarta kuma mara hankali, sannan kuma ta shahara da kishi. Consort Deng ta yi ƙoƙari ta haɓaka dangantaka mai kyau da ita ta hanyar zama mai tawali'u, kuma an kwatanta ta da ƙoƙarin rufe kurakuran Sarauniya Yin. Wannan, duk da haka, kawai ya jawo kishin Sarauniya Yin, domin Sarkin sarakuna ya burge ta kuma ya dauke ta a cikin abubuwan da ya fi so. Har ila yauya Yin bai ji daɗin cewa Consort Deng ba, wanda ya damu da cewa Sarkin sarakuna ya kasance yana rasa 'ya'ya maza tun yana yaro, sau da yawa ya ba da shawarar wasu abokan aure don ya yi jima'i da su. Da zarar, lokacin da Sarkin sarakuna Ya yi rashin lafiya, Sarauniya Yin ta yi furuci cewa idan ta zama mai martaba sarki, za a yanka Dengs - kuma da jin wannan magana, Consort Deng ta yi tunanin kashe kanta, kuma wata mata da take jira ta cece ta ta hanyar yin ƙarya. ita da sarki ya warke. Duk da haka, ba da daɗewa ba sarkin ya murmure, don haka Consort Deng da danginta sun tsira daga mugun hali.

A cikin 102, Sarauniya Yin da kakarta, Deng Zhu (鄧朱), an zarge su da yin amfani da maita don la'antar daular sarakuna (watakila ciki har da Consort Deng). An kore ta kuma ta mutu saboda bakin ciki, watakila a cikin 102 kuma. Sarkin sarakuna He halicci Consort Deng empress don maye gurbinta.

A matsayinta na sarki, an kwatanta Sarauniya Deng a matsayin mai himma da tawali'u, kuma ta ki amincewa da tayin da Sarkin sarakuna ya yi don inganta danginta. Ban Zhao ne ya koyar da ita, wadda ta yi mata-in-jira.[6]

Ta kuma hana hakimai da shugabanni ba da harajinta—wanda aka saba yi wa sarakunan sarki. A matsayinta na masarauta, ta ki yarda da duk wani haraji daga kasashen waje, tana mai dagewa akan karbar kyautar takarda da tawada a maimakon.[7]

Regent ga Sarkin sarakuna Shang[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 106, tare da kasar Sin na fuskantar matsalar kudi,[8] Sarkin sarakuna ya mutu, yana haifar da rikici. Sarauniya Deng da dukan sarakunan sarauta sun daɗe ba tare da 'ya'ya maza ba. (An kwatanta Sarkin da cewa yana da ’ya’ya maza da yawa da suka mutu tun suna ƙanana; ba a sani ba ko Sarauniya Yin ko Sarauniya Deng ta taɓa haihuwa, amma da alama ba su yi ba.) A ƙarshen sarautar Sarkin, ya haifi ’ya’ya biyu— wadanda ba a ambaci iyayensu a tarihi ba—Liu Sheng da Liu Long. Karkashin camfi na lokacin, an yi tunanin cewa za su iya rayuwa da kyau idan sun girma a wajen gidan sarauta bisa la’akari da mutuwar sauran ’yan’uwansu da wuri, don haka an ba su duka ga iyayen da suka yi reno.

A lokacin da Sarkin sarakuna He rasu, Liu Sheng, babban ɗa, yana ƙarami (amma ba a rubuta ainihin shekarun a tarihi ba) kuma an yi imanin cewa yana fama da rashin lafiya. Karamin, Liu Long, ya cika kwanaki 100 kacal. Dukansu sun yi maraba da dawowa fadar, kuma Sarauniya Deng ta kirkiro Liu Long yarima mai jiran gado, yana mai imani cewa zai fi koshin lafiya, sa'an nan kuma a wannan dare aka nada shi sarki, a matsayin Sarkin sarakuna Shang. Iko ya kasance a hannun Sarauniya Dowager Deng, a matsayin mai mulki ga jaririyar sarki, kuma ɗan'uwanta Deng Zhi (鄧騭) ya zama babban jami'i a kotu da sauri. Ta kuma nemi shawarar Ban Zhao, har zuwa rasuwarta a shekara ta 116. Ta ba da babban yafewa, wanda ya amfanar da mutanen da aka kwace musu hakkinsu saboda cudanya da dangin Sarauniya Dou, wadanda danginsu suka yi karfi a farkon mulkin mallaka. Sarkin sarakuna He amma an yi masa juyin mulki.

A ƙarshen 106, matashin sarki ya mutu, ya haifar da wani rikici na maye gurbin. A wannan lokacin, jami'ai sun fahimci cewa Yarima Sheng (Yariman Pingyuan na lokacin) ba shi da lafiya kamar yadda ake tunani da farko, kuma gaba daya suna son ya zama sarki. Duk da haka, Sarauniya Dowager Deng, wanda ya damu cewa Yarima Sheng zai yi fushi don ba a nada shi sarki da farko ba, yana da wasu ra'ayoyi. Ta dage sai ta mai da dan uwan ​​Sarkin sarakuna Shang, Yarima Hu, wanda wasu ke kallon shi a matsayin wanda ya cancanta ya zama sarki. Ya ɗauki kursiyin a matsayin Sarkin sarakuna An, yana da shekaru 12.

Kamar yadda regent ga Sarkin sarakuna An[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin da Sarkin sarakuna An hau kan karagar mulki, mahaifinsa Liu Qing yana raye, haka kuma matarsa ​​Consort Geng - wacce ta kasance tare da shi a babban birnin Luoyang har zuwa hawansa. (Mahaifiyar Sarkin sarakuna An Consort Zuo Xiao'e (左小娥), ƙwarƙwarar Liu Qing, ta mutu a wani lokaci da wuri.) Duk da haka, Deng Sui ta iya tabbatar da ikon mallakar sarki na musamman, a matsayinsa na sarauniya dowager, ta hanyar aika Consort Geng zuwa ga mijinta Liu Qing a masarautarsa ​​ta Qinghe.

Deng Sui ta nuna kanta a matsayin mai iya mulki wacce ba ta yarda da cin hanci da rashawa ba, har ma da danginta. Ta kuma aiwatar da gyare-gyaren dokar laifuka. Misali, a shekara ta 107, ta fitar da wata doka da ta tsawaita lokacin daukaka karar hukuncin kisa. Ta rage kudin da ake kashewa a gidan sarki, kamar yin sana'o'in hannu masu tsada, irin su jedi da sassaƙa na hauren giwa, ta aika da ma'aikatan fadar gida da ayyuka na ban mamaki. Ta kuma bukaci a rage haraji daga larduna.[9] Yayin da masarauta, sau biyu ta buɗe granaries na sarki don ciyar da mayunwata; tilas a rage masu kudin shiga da aka samu daga filin da suka hayar; ta gyara magudanan ruwa tare da yanke tsafi da liyafa.[10]

A cikin 107, duk da haka, za a sami manyan matsaloli a kan iyakoki. Da farko, masarautun yankunan Yamma (ko Xiyu, Xinjiang na zamani da Asiya ta tsakiya), wadanda suka mika wuya ga Han suzerainty a zamanin babban janar Ban Chao, sun dade suna adawa da magadan Ban Chao saboda tsauraran ka'idoji, kuma a cikin 107, Sarauniya Dowager Deng a karshe ya ba da umurni cewa a yi watsi da Xiyu. A wannan shekarar, ƙabilar Qiang, waɗanda jami'an Han suka zalunta fiye da shekaru goma, kuma suna tsoron cewa za a ba su umarnin murkushe tawayen Xiyu, sun yi wa kansu tawaye. Wannan wani babban tawaye ne, wanda ya shafi wani yanki mai fadi a kan Shaanxi na zamani, da Gansu, da arewacin Sichuan, har ma sojojin Qiang sun yi kutsawa cikin Shanxi na zamani tare da yin barazana ga babban birnin kasar a wani lokaci. Lamarin ya yi tsanani sosai, har Deng Zhi ya yi la'akari da yin watsi da lardin Liang (涼州, wato Gansu na zamani), shawarar da Sarauniya Dowager Deng ta yi watsi da ita cikin hikima. Ba za a kawo karshen tawayen ba har sai 118, inda daular yamma ta kasance cikin rugujewa.

Har ila yau, a cikin 107 zuwa 109, an sami bala’o’i da yawa— ambaliyar ruwa, fari, da ƙanƙara, a sassa dabam-dabam na daular. Sarauniya Dowager Deng ta yi tasiri sosai wajen shirya ayyukan agajin gaggawa.

A cikin 109, Kudancin Xiongnu, wanda ya kasance mai aminci har zuwa wannan lokaci, shi ma ya yi tawaye, yana mai imani cewa Han ya raunana ta hanyar tawayen Qiang, wanda zai zama mai sauƙi. Duk da haka, bayan da Han ya yi wani gagarumin baje-kolin karfin tuwo, Kudancin Xiongnu ya sake mika wuya kuma ba zai zama wata matsala ga sauran daular Han ba.

A cikin 110, mahaifiyar Sarauniya Dowager Deng Lady Yin ta rasu. 'Yan uwanta sun yi murabus daga mukaminsu don yin zaman makoki na tsawon shekaru uku, kuma bayan da tun farko ba ta amince da bukatar ba, daga karshe ta yi hakan, bisa shawarar wata masarauta Ban Zhao. Duk da cewa ba su da manyan mukaman gwamnati, duk da haka, sun kasance masu ba da shawara masu ƙarfi. Yayin da shekaru ke tafiya, Asalin tawali'u na Sarauniya Dowager Deng ya bayyana ya gaji gaba ɗaya yayin da ta rataye kan karagar mulki, kuma lokacin da wasu 'yan uwanta da makusanta suka ba da shawarar cewa ta mika mulki ga Sarkin sarakuna An, ta yi fushi da su kuma ba za ta yarda ba. yi haka.

A cikin 121, Sarauniya Dowager Deng ya mutu kuma aka binne shi tare da mijinta Sarkin sarakuna He tare da cikakkiyar girmamawa. A ƙarshe Sarkin sarakuna An ya karɓi mulki yana ɗan shekara 28. Ma’aikaciyar jinya Wang Sheng (王聖) da amintaccen eunuchs Li Run (李閏) da Jiang Jing (江京), waɗanda suka jira shekaru don samun mulki, sun zargi Sarauniya Dowager Deng da ƙarya. bayan da ya yi la'akari da sauke Sarkin sarakuna An kuma ya maye gurbinsa da dan uwansa, Liu Yi (劉翼) Sarkin Hejian. A cikin fushi, Sarkin sarakuna An cire dukkan dangin Sarauniya Dowager Deng daga gwamnati tare da tilasta yawancin su kashe kansu. Daga baya a wannan shekarar, duk da haka, wani bangare ya juya umarninsa, kuma an bar wasu daga cikin dangin Sarauniya Dowager Deng su dawo, amma an lalata dangin a lokacin.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Monro, Alexander (2017). The Paper Trail: An Unexpected History of a Revolutionary Invention. USA: Vintage Books. pp. 13–61. ISBN 978-0-307-96230-0.
  2. Monro, Alexander (2017). The Paper Trail: An Unexpected History of a Revolutionary Invention. Vintage Books. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-307-96230-0.
  3. Monro, Alexander, The Paper Trail: An Unexpected History of a Revolutionary Invention (Vintage Books, 2017)
  4. Monro, Alexander, The Paper Trail: An Unexpected History of a Revolutionary Invention (Vintage Books, 2017)
  5. Bennet Peterson, Barbara (2000). p. 115.
  6. Bennet Peterson. Barbara (2000). p. 102.
  7. Monro, Alexander, The Paper Trail: An Unexpected History of a Revolutionary Invention (Vintage Books, 2017)
  8. Monro, Alexander (2017). The Paper Trail: An Unexpected History of a Revolutionary Invention. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-307-96230-0.
  9. Bennet Peterson, Barbara (2000). p. 116.
  10. Monro, Alexander, The Paper Trail: An Unexpected History of a Revolutionary Invention (Vintage Books, 2017)

Sources[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Chinese royalty
Magabata
Empress Yin
Empress of Eastern Han Dynasty
102–106
Magaji
Empress Yan Ji