Dokar Komawa

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Wikidata.svgDokar Komawa
act of parliament (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Isra'ila
Applies to jurisdiction (en) Fassara Isra'ila
Laƙabi חוק השבות, התש"י-1950
Ranar wallafa 6 ga Yuli, 1950
Legislated by (en) Fassara Knesset (en) Fassara
An wallafa a Reshumot (en) Fassara

Dokar Komawa ( Hebrew: חֹוק הַשְׁבוּת‎ , ḥok ha-shvūt ) wata doka ce ta ƙasar Isra'ila, wacce aka zartar a ranar 5 ga Yulin shekara ta 1950, wacce ta bai wa Yahudawa 'yancin ƙaura zuwa Isra'ila da samun ɗan ƙasa na Isra'ila . Sashe na 1 na Dokar Komawa ya bayyana cewa "kowane Bayahude yana da 'yancin zuwa wannan ƙasar a matsayin oleh [baƙi]". A cikin dokar komowa, kasar Isra'ila ta ba da tasiri ga yunkurin 'yan sahayoniya ' na "credo" wanda ya yi kira ga kafa Isra'ila a matsayin kasar Yahudawa . A cikin 1970, an ba da haƙƙin shiga da sasantawa ga mutanen da ke da kakanin Bayahude guda ɗaya da mutumin da ya auri Bayahude, ko an ɗauke su Bayahude a ƙarƙashin fassarar Orthodox na dokar Yahudawa .

A ranar zuwa Isra'ila, ko kuma wani lokaci a wani lokaci, mutumin da ya shiga Isra'ila a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa a matsayin oleh zai sami takardar shaidar da ke tabbatar da matsayinsa na oleh . Sannan mutumin yana da watanni uku don yanke shawara ko yana son zama ɗan ƙasa kuma zai iya barin zama ɗan ƙasa a wannan lokacin. Za a iya hana haƙƙin takardar shedar oleh idan mutumin yana yin aikin gaba da Yahudawa, yana da haɗari ga lafiyar jama'a ko tsaron jihar, ko kuma yana da wani laifi da ya wuce wanda zai iya yin illa ga jin daɗin jama'a. [1]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wadanda suka tsira daga Holocaust sun isa Haifa a cikin 1945, kafin zartar da Dokar Komawa.
Baƙi yahudawan Moroko da suka isa Isra'ila a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa, 1954
Bakin haure na Arewacin Amurka da suka isa Isra'ila karkashin kulawar Nefesh B'Nefesh

Majalisar Knesset, Majalisar Isra'ila ta zartar da Dokar Komawa gaba ɗaya a ranar 5 ga Yulin shekara ta 1950. Ranar da aka zaɓa domin ta zo dai-dai da ranar tunawa da mutuwar ɗan hangen nesa na sahyoniya Theodore Herzl . Ya bayyana cewa:

"Kowane Bayahude yana da 'yancin zuwa kasar nan a matsayin oleh ."

A cikin sanarwar da ya yi ga Knesset, Firayim Ministan Isra'ila na lokacin David Ben-Gurion ya tabbatar da cewa dokar ba ta ba da wani hakki ba sai dai ta sake tabbatar da hakki na yahudawa da aka rigaya ke da su:

“Wannan doka ba ta tanadi ‘yancin yin sulhu a kan Bayahuden da ke zaune a kasar waje ba, ta tabbatar da cewa wannan hakkin ya rataya a kansa daga kasancewarsa Bayahude; Yahudu na kasashen waje. Wannan hakkin preceed [sic] Jihar; wannan build [sic] dama Jihar; tushensa ana samunsa ne a cikin alakar tarihi da ba ta taɓa karya ba tsakanin Yahudawa da ƙasarsu."

Dokokin bin diddigin al'amuran shige da fice suna kunshe ne a cikin dokar kasa ta 1952 .

Asali, ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa ya shafi Yahudawa ne kawai. [2] Duk da haka, saboda rashin iyawar 'yan majalisar su amince da ma'anar wanene Bayahude, Dokar ba ta ayyana kalmar ba, ta dogara a maimakon batun don warware kanta cikin lokaci. Sakamakon haka, Dokar ta dogara da ma'anar halak na gargajiya. Amma, rashin ma'anar wanene Bayahude, don manufar Shari'a, ya haifar da ra'ayoyi daban-daban na rafukan Yahudanci daban-daban da ke fafatawa don amincewa.

Waɗanda suka yi ƙaura zuwa Isra'ila a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa suna da haƙƙin zama ɗan ƙasa a Isra'ila nan da nan. Sai dai an samu sabanin ra'ayi kan ko mutumin da ya yi ikirarin zama dan kasa a karkashin Dokar Komawa ya kamata a yi masa rajista kai tsaye a matsayin "Yahudu" don dalilai na ƙidayar jama'a. A bisa ma’anar halak, mutum Bayahude ne idan mahaifiyarsa Bayahudiya ce, ko kuma idan ya koma Yahudanci. Yahudawan Orthodox ba su yarda da jujjuyawar da Reform ko Yahudanci masu ra'ayin mazan jiya suka yi ba. Duk da haka, Dokar ta tanadi cewa duk Bayahude ko da kuwa yana da alaƙa zai iya ƙaura zuwa Isra'ila kuma ya yi iƙirarin zama ɗan ƙasa.

Gyaran zuriyar Yahudawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An yi wa Dokar Komawa gyara a shekara ta 1970 don ƙara ’yancin komawa ga wasu waɗanda ba Yahudawa ba. [3] Gyara lamba 2, 4a, ya ce:

Dokar tun 1970 ta shafi ƙungiyoyi masu zuwa kamar haka:

  • Wadanda aka haifa Yahudawa bisa ga fassarar Orthodox; samun uwa Bayahudiya ko kakar uwa.
  • Wadanda ke da zuriyar Yahudawa - suna da uba ko kakan Bayahude.
  • Juyawa zuwa addinin Yahudanci ( Ortodoks, Reform, ko Conservative denominations — ba na duniya ba — ko da yake Reform da Conservative tuba dole ne faruwa a waje da jihar, kama da farar hula aure ).
  • Amma Yahudawan da suka koma wani addini ba su cancanci yin hijira a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa ba, duk da cewa su Yahudawa ne a cewar halakha.

An haifar da gyara na 1970 ta muhawara akan " Wane ne Bayahude? " . Har sai lokacin dokar ba ta yi nuni da tambayar ba. Akwai bayanai da yawa don shawarar ta kasance mai haɗa kai. Ɗaya shine kamar yadda Dokokin Nuremberg ba su yi amfani da ma'anar halak a cikin ma'anarta na "Wanene Bayahude ba", Dokar Komawa ma'anar cancantar zama ɗan ƙasa ita ma ba halak ce ba. Wani bayani kuma shi ne guguwar ƙaura daga Poland a shekara ta 1968, bayan wani yaƙin neman zaɓe da gwamnati ta yi . Waɗannan baƙin sun kasance masu ƙanƙanta sosai kuma suna da ’yan uwa da yawa waɗanda ba Yahudawa ba.

Wani bayani na biyu shi ne cewa domin a kara yawan shige da fice ta yadda za a daidaita " barazanar al'umma " da karuwar al'ummar Larabawa ke haifarwa, dokar ta fadada rukunin tushe na wadanda suka cancanci yin hijira zuwa Isra'ila. [4]

Wani bayani na uku da Yahudawa masu addini suka ɗauka shi ne cewa shugabancin da bai dace ba a Isra’ila ya nemi ya lalata tasirin mabiya addinai a siyasa da zamantakewar Isra’ila ta wajen ƙyale Yahudawa da yawa da ma’auratan da ba Yahudawa ba su yi hijira.

Rabbinate na Isra'ila wata ƙungiya ce ta Orthodox zalla wacce ta fi tsauri wajen ayyana 'wane Bayahude'. Wannan yana haifar da yanayin da dubban baƙi waɗanda suka cancanci zama ɗan ƙasa a ƙarƙashin ka'idodin Dokar Koma, ba su cancanci auren Yahudawa daga Rabin Isra'ila ba.

Ya zuwa shekarar 2021, Yahudawa guda 3,340,000 ne suka yi hijira zuwa Isra'ila tun bayan samun 'yancin kai a 1948. Dubban daruruwan mutanen da ba su da matsayin Bayahude a karkashin fassarar Yahudawan Orthodox na Halacha sun sami zama dan kasar Isra'ila, kamar yadda dokar ta ba da zama ɗan ƙasa ga duk zuriyar Bayahude (ciki har da jikoki) da matansu.

Kin zama ɗan ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sashi na 2 (b) na Dokar Komawa yana baiwa Ministan Harkokin Cikin Gida ikon hana zama ɗan ƙasar Isra'ila a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa bisa wasu dalilai. Misali, ana iya hana mai neman zama dan kasa idan ana ganin shi ko ita a matsayin barazana ga tsaron kasar Isra’ila (misali cin amanar kasar Yahudu), ko kuma wanda ya taba aikata laifin da ya shafi babban laifi, kamar kisa. kuma yana haifar da haɗari ga jin daɗin ƙasar Isra'ila; ko, alal misali, yana iya zama mai gudun hijira a wata ƙasa don kowane laifi (sai dai idan an tsananta musu); ko kuma irin waɗannan mutanen waɗanda, ta dalilin rashin lafiyarsu, na iya haifar da mummunar haɗari ga lafiyar jama'a ga mutanen Isra'ila; kamar yadda kuma duk mutumin da ke da himma a duk wani kamfen da ke yin furuci da yahudawa tare da lalata manufarsu (kamar lalata).

Anyi amfani da wannan tanadin don ware masu neman sau kaɗan tun kafa Isra'ila. Abubuwan da suka shahara sun hada da Robert Soblen, Ba’amurke ɗan gurguzu wanda ya yi wa Tarayyar Soviet leken asiri kuma ya gudu zuwa Isra’ila a ƙoƙarin tserewa hukuncin ɗaurin rai da rai; Meyer Lansky, wani ɗan boren Ba'amurke ne wanda aka fara ba shi izinin shiga Isra'ila amma bayan shekaru biyu an kore shi; da kuma Victor Vancier, dan gwagwarmayar Kahanist dan ƙasar Amurka da aka samu da hannu a jerin hare-haren bama-bamai.

A shekara ta 1962 shari’ar Oswald Rufeisen, wanda aka haife shi Bayahude dan kasar Poland ne kuma daga baya ya koma Katolika, ya zo gaban Kotun Kolin Isra’ila. Kotun kolin ta yanke hukuncin cewa "babu wanda zai iya daukar ridda a matsayin na Yahudawa". [5]

Ba da izinin zama ɗan ƙasa a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa baya hana a mayar da mutum zuwa wata ƙasa a ƙarƙashin yarjejeniyar mika mulki da waccan ƙasar.

Mabiya addinin Yahudanci na Almasihu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kotun Koli ta Isra’ila ta yanke hukunci a cikin shekara ta 1989 cewa addinin Yahudanci na Almasihu ya ƙunshi wani addini, kuma mutanen da suka zama Yahudawan Almasihu ba su cancanci Aliyah ba a ƙarƙashin doka.

A ranar 16 ga Afrilu, 2008, Kotun Koli ta yanke hukunci a shari’ar da wasu mutane da kakanni da kakanni Yahudawa suka kai da aka ƙi amincewa da neman zama ’yan ƙasa domin su Yahudawa ne na Almasihu. Masu neman sun yi gardamar cewa ba su taɓa zama Yahudawa ba bisa ga halakha, don haka ba a cire su da maganar musulunta ba. An tabbatar da wannan hujja a cikin hukuncin, kuma gwamnati ta amince da sake sake aikace-aikacen su. Duk da wannan, ana ɗaukar Yahudawan Almasihu a matsayin waɗanda suka cancanci doka idan za su iya da'awar zuriyar Yahudawa (suna da uba ko kakan Bayahude).

Da'awar nuna wariya dangane da 'yan gudun hijirar Falasdinu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masu suka sun yi iƙirarin cewa Dokar Komawa ta ci karo da iƙirarin ƙasar dimokuradiyya. [6]

Falasdinawa da masu fafutukar kare haƙƙin 'yan gudun hijirar Falasdinu sun soki Dokar Komawa, wadda suke kwatanta da'awar Falasdinawa na 'yancin komawar Falasdinu . Waɗannan masu sukar sun yi la'akari da Dokar, kamar yadda aka bambanta da ƙin 'yancin dawowa, zalunci da nuna bambancin kabilanci .

Wani rahoto da Hukumar Tattalin Arziki da Zamantakewa ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya na Yammacin Asiya (ESCWA) ta fitar ya yi kakkausar suka ga Dokar Komawa, “tana ba Yahudawa a duk duniya ’yancin shiga Isra’ila da samun ƴan ƙasar Isra’ila ba tare da la’akari da ƙasashensu na asali ba da kuma ko za su iya nuna alaƙa ko a’a. Isra'ila-Falasdinu, yayin da take hana duk wani haƙƙin mai kama da Falasdinawa, ciki har da wadanda ke da bayanan gidajen kakanni a cikin kasar," a matsayin manufar "injin injiniyan al'umma" na nufin daukaka matsayin Isra'ila a matsayin " Yahudawa ". Daga baya an janye rahoton sakamakon takaddama.

Dangantakar jinsi daya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A ranar 10 ga Yuni, 2011, an gwada Dokar Komawa sa’ad da ma’aurata maza masu luwaɗi, Bayahude ɗaya da Katolika ɗaya suka yi Aliyah zuwa Isra’ila. Wannan ma'auratan sun kasance farkon jinsi ɗaya, ma'auratan addini daban-daban don neman matsayin Aliyah na haɗin gwiwa, kodayake ma'auratan ma'aurata na addinai daban-daban suna samun haɗin gwiwa a matsayin Aliyah. Bayahuden nan da nan ya samu takardar zama dan kasa amma ma’aikatar harkokin cikin gida ta jinkirta yanke shawarar zama dan kasa ga mijin nasa duk kuwa da furucin da ke cikin dokar cewa dole ne a bai wa matar da Bayahude da ya koma zama dan kasa. A ranar 10 ga Agusta, 2011, Ma’aikatar Cikin Gida ta ba wa mijin da ba Bayahude ba zama ɗan ƙasa kamar yadda Dokar Komawa ta tanadar.

A shekara ta 2014, Ministan cikin gida Gideon Sa’ar ya sanar da cewa Yahudawan da ke da alaƙa da jinsi ɗaya da suka yi aure a ƙasashen waje amma suna son yin hijira zuwa Isra’ila an ba su izinin yin hakan a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa, har ma da ma’auratan da ba Bayahude ba. zai sami ɗan ƙasar Isra'ila.

Taimakawa ga Dokar Komawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tambari a cikin fasfo mai ba da izinin zama ɗan ƙasar Isra'ila dangane da Dokar Komawa

Magoya bayan dokar sun ce ta yi kama da na yawancin jihohin Turai, wadanda kuma ke amfani da bangaren kabilanci.

Magoya bayansa suna jayayya cewa:

  1. Ba Dokar Komawa ba ce kaɗai hanyar samun ɗan ƙasa ba. Alal misali, waɗanda ba Yahudawa ba za su iya zama ƴan ƙasa ta hanyar zama ɗan ƙasa, zama, ko auren ɗan ƙasar Isra'ila. Misali, ana samun zama ɗan ƙasa a ƙarƙashin wasu yanayi ga iyayen da ba Bayahude ba na ɗan ƙasa da ya gama aikin soja. [7]
  2. Haƙƙin da aka bai wa Yahudawa tare da ’yan’uwansu a ƙarƙashin Doka ba dole ba ne ko kuma suna nuna wariya ga waɗanda ba Yahudawa ba, amma wani nau’i ne na wariya na “tabbatacce”. Isra'ila tana da dokokin zama da zama ɗan ƙasa ga waɗanda ba Yahudawa ba waɗanda suke daidai da waɗanda ke cikin wasu ƙasashe masu sassaucin ra'ayi. Kwamitin Daidaita Rahoton Gabas ta Tsakiya a Amurka (CAMERA) ya bayar da hujjar cewa Dokar Komawa ta yi daidai da Yarjejeniya kan Kawar da Duk Wani nau'i na Wariyar launin fata Mataki na I(3), wanda CAMERA ta ce tana ba da damar fifikon shige da fice na wasu kungiyoyi ba tare da nuna bambanci ba. a kan wata ƙungiya ta musamman. [8] Don haka, CAMERA da sauransu [9] suna jayayya cewa wasu ƙasashe, ciki har da Jamus, suna ba da gata na ƙaura ga mutanen da ke da alaƙar kabilanci zuwa waɗannan ƙasashe (Duba Haƙƙin Komawa da Dokokin Komawa).
  3. Yayin da manufar Dokar Komawa watakila ita ce kiyaye Isra'ila mafi rinjaye Yahudawa, wata gardama ta bayyana cewa duniya da aka tsananta wa Yahudawa, manufar kiyaye ƙasar Yahudawa ya zama dole don rayuwar Yahudawa gaba ɗaya kuma don samar da tsaro. mafaka ga Yahudawa 'yan gudun hijira a musamman lokuta. CAMERA ta yi jayayya cewa Dokar Komawa ta dace a ƙarƙashin Yarjejeniya kan Kawar da Duk nau'ikan Wariyar launin fata Mataki na I(4), wanda CAMERA ta yi jayayya ta ba da damar yin aiki mai inganci, saboda wariyar da Yahudawa suka fuskanta a lokacin Holocaust . [8]
  4. Benjamin Pogrund, darektan Cibiyar Yakar ta Yakar damuwa a Urushalima kuma memba na tawagar Isra'ila a Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya game da wariyar launin fata, ya kira dokar "rashin adalci" daga ra'ayin 'yan gudun hijirar Falasdinu, amma yana ganin rashin adalci kamar yadda ya faru a cikin sauran wurare kuma. Pogrund ya kwatanta jirgin / korar Falasdinawa (dukansu a cikin 1948 da 1967) zuwa Jamus, Poland, Jamhuriyar Czech, Indiya da Pakistan.

Muhawara a Isra'ila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Yahudawan Isra'ila, ci gaba da ƙauran Yahudawan na samun goyon baya mai ƙarfi. A cewar wani kuri'ar jin ra'ayin jama'a na shekarar 2016 da Pew Forum ya gudanar, kashi 98% na dukkan Yahudawa Isra'ilawa sun bukaci doka ta ci gaba da ba da izinin shige da ficen Yahudawa. Duk da haka, wasu suna jayayya cewa dokar ta ba da izinin shigowar waɗanda ba Yahudawa ba da yawa, kuma hakan yana lalata manufarta.

Goyon bayan doka tsakanin Larabawa Isra'ila ya ragu sosai. A cewar wani kuri'ar jin ra'ayin jama'a na jami'ar Haifa Sammy Smooha tsakanin Yahudawa 700 da Larabawa 700 da aka gudanar a shekara ta 2017 kashi 25.2% ne kawai suka "karbi" dokar komowa, ƙasa daga 39% a shekara ta 2015.

A cikin Satumba na shekara ta 2007, gano wani tashin hankali cell Neo-Nazi Isra'ila ( Patrol 35 ) a cikin Petah Tikva, kunshi matasa baƙi daga tsohuwar Tarayyar Soviet, ya haifar da sabunta kira tsakanin 'yan siyasa don gyara Dokar Komawa. Effi Eitam na Jam'iyyar Addini ta Kasa da Ƙungiyar Ƙasa, waɗanda ke wakiltar ƙungiyoyin Yahudawa na addini kuma a baya sun yi ƙoƙari su gabatar da kudirin yin kwaskwarima ga Dokar Komawa, ya bayyana cewa Isra'ila ta zama "mafari ga mutanen da suke ƙin Isra'ila, masu ƙin Yahudawa, da kuma Yahudawa. ku yi amfani da Dokar Komawa don yin aiki da wannan ƙiyayya." A ɗaya ɓangaren kuma, MK Ahmed Tibi na United Arab List da Ta’al sun soki tsarin da tsarin ya bi sau biyu, yana mai cewa, “mutane sun yi hijira zuwa Isra’ila kuma sun samu takardar zama ‘yan kasa ta atomatik a karkashin dokar komowa, yayin da ‘yan Nazarat da Tayibe ke zama ‘yan kasar. ba a yarda su ziyarci 'yan'uwansu kawai saboda kasancewarsu Larabawa ." [10]

Kashi 37 cikin 100 na 'yan Isra'ila da aka yi musu ra'ayi sun ce zurfafa bincike kan sabbin baƙin haure zai kai ga nuna wariyar launin fata ga Yahudawan da suka fito daga kasashen Rasha.

Aiwatar da doka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Daga cikin wadanda ke goyon bayan ci gaba da rike Doka, akwai sabani game da yadda ta bayyana. Ma'anar Dokar ta "Yahudawa" da "Yahudawa" tana cikin muhawara. Yahudawan Isra'ila da na Ƙasashen waje sun bambanta da juna a matsayin ƙungiya kuma a tsakanin juna game da abin da wannan ma'anar ya kamata ya kasance don dalilan Dokar Komawa. Bugu da ƙari, akwai muhawara mai zafi a kan ma'anar kalmomin "Ƙasar Yahudawa" da "Jihar Yahudawa".

Ba wai kawai Knesset ba, duk da haka, an wajabta ta akai-akai don magance waɗannan batutuwa kai tsaye ko a kaikaice. A cikin shekaru da yawa, ministocin cikin gida da yawa na Isra’ila sun bincika batun Dokar Komawa kuma sun yi watsi da yadda za su yi amfani da ita. An kuma yi kira ga bangaren shari’a da su bayyana ra’ayi kan al’amuran da suka shafi Doka. Wannan tambaya mai zafi da maimaita ta a tattaunawar siyasar kasar ba kawai ta bayyana ba, har ma da kara bambance-bambancen ra'ayi tsakanin Isra'ilawa.

Batu ɗaya ta tsakiya ita ce wacce ke da ikon tantance ingancin tuba zuwa addinin Yahudanci don dalilai na shige da fice da zama ɗan ƙasa. Don dalilai na tarihi, Babban Malamin Isra’ila, a ƙarƙashin Ma’aikatar Al’amuran Addini ta Isra’ila, ya yanke wannan shawarar, amma wannan tsari yana cikin tambaya. Wannan al'ada ta fuskanci adawa a tsakanin shugabannin addini da ba na Orthodox ba a cikin Isra'ila da kuma na kasashen waje. An yi ƙoƙari da yawa don warware matsalar, na baya-bayan nan shi ne Hukumar Ne'eman, amma har yanzu ana ci gaba da samun cikas.

A ranar 31 ga Maris, 2005, Kotun Koli ta Isra'ila ta yanke hukunci 7–4 cewa duk juzu'an da aka yi a wajen Isra'ila za su gane da hukuma a ƙarƙashin Dokar Komawa, duk da ra'ayin Hukumar Ne'eman cewa ƙungiya ɗaya ta kamata ta ƙayyade cancantar shige da fice. Kotun ta riga ta yanke hukunci a shekara ta 1989 cewa jujjuyawar da aka yi a wajen Isra’ila tana da amfani ga Dokar Komawa (ko da kuwa sun kasance Orthodox, Conservative, ko Reform). Hukumcin shekara ta 2005 ya tsawaita wannan, yana gano cewa tuba a ƙasashen waje har yanzu yana da inganci ko da mutane sun yi aikin shirye-shiryen tuba yayin da suke zaune a Isra'ila.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Basic Dokokin Isra'ila
  • Rigakafin Dokar Kutse
  • Dan kasa da Shiga cikin Dokar Isra'ila
  • Katin shaida na Isra'ila
  • Fasfo na Isra'ila
  • Siyasar Isra'ila
  • Oswald Rufeisen (Brother Daniel)

Magana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Acquisition of Israeli Citizenship
  2. Navot, Suzi, Constitutional law of Israel, p.188
  3. Rosner, Shmuel & Ruskay, John (2016), Exploring the Jewish spectrum in a time of fluid identity: JPPI special report on the 2016 Structured Jewish World Dialogue (Heb. המנעד היהודי בעידן של זהות גמישה: עמדות יהודי העולם), Jerusalem, p. 82 (note 207) (Hebrew)
  4. Ian Lustick, "Israel as a Non-Arab State: The Political Implications of Mass Immigration of Non-Jews,” Middle East Journal, 53:3, 101–117, 1999.
  5. Yabuda Savir, The Definition of a Jew under Israel's Law of Return, 17 Sw L.J. 123 (1963)
  6. Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. "UN Economic, Social and Cultural Committee Expresses Grave Concern Over Israel's Discriminatory Practices."[permanent dead link] accessed 2 October 2006.
  7. Sheleg, Y. 2004. "Not Halakhically Jewish: the Dilemma of Non-Jewish Immigrants in Israel." Jerusalem: Israeli Democracy Institute, working paper 51 (in Hebrew)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Camera Convention
  9. Christian Joppke & Zeev Rosenhek, "Contesting Ethnic Immigration: Germany and Israel Compared", European Journal of Sociology, 43, 301–335, 2003, also Nahshon Perez, "Israel's Law of Return: A Qualified Justification, Modern Judaism, vol 31 (1), 2011, pp: 59–84 "
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Singer

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