Ƙofofin ƙasar Hausa

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Wikidata.svgKofofin Kasar Hausa

Kofofin masarautun kasar Hausa ƙofofi ne ( Hausa : kofa ) ko katanga ( ganuwa ) waɗanda ke kewaye da masarautun ƙasar Hausa a da . A zamanin da, kowace masarauta tana kewaye da bango wanda ke dauke da kofofi daban-daban, a dalilin yaƙe-yaƙe ne yasa ƙofofin a rufe suke a zaman dabarun yaƙi, Kowace kofa tana da suna da mai tsaron ta, mai tsaronta ana masa laƙabi da ( Sarkin Kofa, lit. "Sarkin Kofa"). A da, musamman da daddare, mai tsaron kofa ke kula da kofa daya a kowane lokaci. Dukkannin ƙofofin an sanya su ga mutum ɗaya a yau.  

Tsarin gine-gine[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A masarautun kasar Hausa, an gina kofofin ne daga laka, busasshiyar ciyawa, katako, karafa, duwatsu, da sauran kayayyakin gargajiya da suka dace da ginin. Designedofofin an tsara su ne bisa ga al'adun Hausawa kuma suna nuna gine-ginen gargajiya na Hausawa ta amfani da tubalin ƙonawa da launukan gargajiya na yankin na Hausa. A matsakaici, ƙofofin suna kaiwa tsayin kusan mita biyar, tare da tsayin kusan mita goma. An zana su da zane-zane, alamomi, alamomi, da zane-zanen Hausa, kamar tambarin arewa, tambari da ake yawan amfani da shi a gine-ginen Hausa wanda ke zama alama ko tuta ga Hausawa. Lokacin da aka gama ginin ƙofar, ana yiwa dukkan ƙofofin zane irin na gargajiya yayin da ake barin wasu ƙofofin launin ruwan kasa tare da kalar yanayi ta laka, kamar theofar Marusa a cikin garin Katsina.

Tufafin gargajiyar hausa

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A zamanin da, kowace ƙofa an keɓance ta ga mutum ɗaya. Aikinsa ne a kowane lokaci don kare shi da kiyaye shi ta hanyar samar da bayanan gudanarwa na kowane motsi na mutanen da suke wucewa ta ƙofar tare da al'amuran rikodin ƙasashen waje don kare kai. Kowace kofa tana da mabuɗin rufewa da buɗe ta; makullan an kasafta ga Sarkin Kofa . Yawancin lokaci, akwai ajali na rufewa da buɗe kowace ƙofa, amma a yau ƙofofin a buɗe suke ba tare da buƙatar maɓallan ba. A al'adance, a lokacin yakin, umarni na zuwa ne kawai daga ko masarautar ko kuma mai ba shi shawara kan yaki, Sarkin yaki '. Daga lokacin yaƙi, ana ba da umarni da kula da ƙofar ga Sarkin Kofa. Umarni ne cewa shigowa cikin gari kawai za'a iya yin ta wadannan kofofin. Idan an rufe ƙofofin da daddare, ba sa sake buɗewa har gari ya waye. Mukamin Sarkin Kofa ya gaje shi ne tun daga Masarautar Hausa, tun daga Sarkin Kofa har zuwa yaransa. Har ila yau, ƙofofin suna zama wuraren jan hankali na yawon buɗe ido a cikin ƙasar Hausa a wannan zamanin.

ƙofofin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masarautar Bauchi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kofar fadar Bauchi

A cikin Masarautar Bauchi akwai kofofi guda tara.

  • Kofar Inkil: Ana kiranta ƙofar Idi. An gina ta ne don mutanen garin Inkil don basu damar shiga garin da yin sallar Idi .
  • Kofar Dumi: Wannan ƙofa an sanya mata suna ne saboda ɗalibin Malam Yakubu wanda ake kira Abdul Dumi, wanda ya zama Wambai na Bauchi kuma mai ba da shawara ga sarki a fada.
  • Kofar Jahun
  • Kofar Nasarawo: An yi wa wannan ƙofa suna ne saboda wani fitaccen malami da ake kira Malam Nasarawo, wanda yake zaune a wajen ƙofar. Sarki a wancan lokacin ya wuce ta kofar don ziyartar Nasarawo don yin sallah.
  • Kofar na Hunti: Wannan ƙofa aka gina a ƙwaƙwalwar ajiyar a Wuntawan yaki (sauko daga kabilar Fula mutane ) ya kira Muhmmadu Kusu. Da lokaci ya wuce, kalmar Wuntuwa ta zama Hunti.
  • Kofar Ranaukaka: Matsayi wuri ne da mutanen Bauchi suka taɓa yin zaman lafiya. Sun bi ƙofar don su sadu a Ran; bayan zaman lafiya, ƙofar ta sami sunan wurin.
  • Kofar Tirwun: Turwun gari ne wanda Sarki Yakubu ya fito, don haka ya buɗe wannan ƙofar don girmama garinsa da jama'arsa.
  • Kofar Wambai: Lokacin da aka faɗaɗa garin Bauchi, sarkin wancan lokacin ya sake gina wani gida ga babban mashawarcinsa wanda ake kira da "Wambai". An gina gidan a yankin da aka faɗaɗa tare da ƙofar shiga da fita daga gidan sarautar don sauƙaƙe motsin sa. Sunan ƙofar aka sa masa suna.
  • Kofar Wuse: Tarihin wannan ƙofar har yanzu ba a san shi ba.

Masarautar Kano[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masarautar Kano tana da kofofi 15. Wasu daga katangarsa sun ruguje saboda rashin kulawa.

  • Kofar Kansakali: An gina ta tsakanin 1095 da 1135 a lokacin Sarkin Kano na uku wato Sarki Usman Gijimasu wanda yaksanace jikan Bagauda ne, Kofar Kansakali ita ce ƙofar gari ta farko da aka fara ginawa. Sunan Kofar ya samo asali ne daga wani Bakano Makeri. An saka wannan sunan ne don kada a manta da gudummawar daya bayar a wajen kera makamai na yaki kamar su Takubba, Kwakwali, Sulke da da sauransu.
  • Kofar Nasarawa
  • Kofar Gidan Rumfa : Wannan ita ce babbar ƙofar fadar Kano, wanda sarki ya gina. Yanzu kuma ana kiranta da Kofar Kudu.
  • Sabuwar Kofa: An gina ta ne bayan da Kano ta fada hannun Turawan mulkin mallaka a shekarar 1903.
  • Kofar Dan Agundi
  • Kofar Naisa
  • Kofar Gadankaya
  • Kofar Dukawiya
  • Kofar Kabuga
  • Kofar Waika
  • Kofar Ruwa
  • Kofar Dawanau
  • Kofar Wambai
  • Kofar Mazuga
  • Kofar Mata  
Kofa a cikin Katsina

An kewaye fadar da katanga wacce ake kira "Ganuwar Gidan Sarki", wanda yanzu babu shi. Ana kiran babbar kofa da take kaiwa zuwa gidan sarautar "Kofar Soro", ma'ana Kofar Soro, yayin da kofar da ke bayan gidan fadar ana kiranta Kofar Bai, wacce yanzu ta tafi. A cikin garin katsina, akwai kofofi kusan 7 a kowane kusurwar masarautar. An gina kofofin ne domin bada damar motsawa da fita, akwai wasu kofofin da ba su wanzu yanzu, wadannan kofofin sune; Kofar Turmi, Kofar Keke, Kofar Angulu, Kofar Gazobi da Kofar Waziri.

  • Ofofar Agulu: Wannan ƙofar tana da buɗewa biyu. kalmar "Agulu" suna ne da ake bawa bawan sarki. Shi ne mai kula da Gateofar kuma mai kula da zartar da hukuncin kisa.
  • Ofofar Keke: An yi wannan ƙofa ne bayan zuwan Turawan mulkin mallaka na Empireasar Ingila . Tana bayan fadar mai martaba sarkin Katsina. Turawan sun kasance suna shiga wannan kofar ne yayin da suka zo fada daga sashinsu a kan kekuna; An sanya wa kofar sunan keke, ko "Keke" a Hausance.
  • Ofofar Kwaura: An sanya wa ƙofar suna ne bayan sanannen jarumin Rimi wanda aka ba shi taken “Kwauran Katsina”, wanda aka canjawa ƙofar.
  • Ofofar Kwaya: Wannan Gateofar ta sami sunanta ne daga wani sarki na Habe da ake kira Sarkin Kwaya wanda ke mulkin wani ƙaramin gari da ake kira Kwaya, wanda ke kudu da Katsina. Aikin wannan mai mulki shi ne samar da masarauta ga masarautar Katsina kamar masara da dawa, gero, da masara don dukiyar sarki. An ce ta hanyar wannan kofa Wali Jodoma ne sarki ya kora daga Katsina, don haka sai ya wuce ta kofar, ya juya yana la'antar ta, yana cewa "Ba za a yi wani abin kirki a wannan Kofar ba sai dai shekaru 500 sun shude". Mutane sun gina gidaje kusa da kowace ƙofa a cikin garin Katsina banda ofofar Kwaya. Nowofar yanzu tana ɗaya daga cikin manyan kofofin shiga cikin Katsina daga garuruwa daban-daban. Shararar Fayif da Sabuwar Unguwa suna kusa da wannan kofar.  
  • Ofofar Durbi: Wannan ƙofa, kamar yadda tushen farko ya faɗi, ta samo sunanta ne daga masarautar Durbi ta Kusheyi. Derivedofar ta samo sunan ne lokacin da Durbawa suka fara mulkin masarautar Katsina. Lokacin da suka yi kaura zuwa Katsina daga garinsu, masarautar Durbi ta sauya suna zuwa Durbi-Katsina. Ana kiran sarkin masarautar Durbi da "Hakimin Katsina". Durbi ya kasance a cikin Mani tun mulkin Durbi Saddiku daga wajajen 1810-1835. Akwai kuma wasu sarakunan Durbi, kamar su Durbi Fandiku wanda ya yi mulki daga 1836-1860, Durbi Gidado (1860-1883), da Durbi Dikko (1891-1906). Durbawa suka shiga ta kofar gidan lokacin da suka iso Katsina. Sannan ana kiran ƙofar Kofar Durbi, ma'ana ofofar sarakuna daga Durbi. Wannan kofa a rufe take ga garuruwa kamar Filin Samji da Rimin Badawa.
  • Gateofar Guga: Wannan ƙofar tana da sunaye na asali guda uku: ana kiran ta Gateofar Yammawa saboda tana gabas da Katsina; Kofar Tsaro, wanda ke nufin "ƙofar tsaro" saboda an liƙa sojoji a ƙofar don hana kai hari ba zato ba tsammani; an fi saninta da theofar Guga, kalmar "Guga" tana fitowa ne daga matar Sarkin Gobir da ake kira Bawa Jan Gwarzo. Ta gudu daga mijinta zuwa Katsina ta wannan kofa, domin ta gargadi sarkin Katsina da aka fi sani da Muhammadu Jan Hazo (wanda ya yi sarauta daga 1740-1751) saboda shirye-shiryen da mijinta ke yi na kai wa Katsina hari. Bayan fatattakar masarautar Gobir, sarkin ya sauya masa suna zuwa wannan Kofar domin girmama mata biyayya.
  • Ofofar Sauri: Wannan ƙofa ce a yankin arewa maso yamma na Katsina, wacce ke kusa da Unguwar Rafukka, da Nasarawa, da Makera, da Yammawa. Theofar Sauri tana da tushe guda biyu game da asalin ta: kamar yadda tushen farko ya bayyana, Kofar Sauri ya samo sunan ne daga Sarkin Samari, wanda yake kusa da ƙofar. Da farko, an sanya sunan "Samari" ga ƙofar kafin ta canza zuwa "Samri", sannan "Sauri". A cewar majiya ta biyu, sunanta ya samo asali ne daga mulkin Sarki Ummarun Dallaje (1807-1835) lokacin da wani sarkin yaki da ake kira Danbaskore ya jagoranci afkawa garin Katsina. lokacin da ya gano duk kofofin suna rufe, sai sarkin garin Sauri "Sarkin Sauri" (yanzu Kaita), wanda yake amintacce ne ga Katsina, ya tare Danboskore ya kayar da shi. Lokacin da ya fito da nasara, sai ya sanya wata kofa a bangon Katsina, wacce ake kira da Kofar Sauri don tunawa da tatsuniyar Sarkin Sauri.
  • Ofar Marusa: Wannan ƙofa ana ɗaukarsa ɗayan tsoffin ƙofofi a cikin tarihin Katsina. Yana da aka ce an gina a cikin 15 karni. An gina ta tare da bangon Katsina, kuma ta sami sunanta ne daga wani mai mulkin Habe da ake kira Marusa Usman wanda ya yi mulkin Dutsi. An ce jarumi ne wanda ya shigo ya fita daga Katsina ta wannan kofa daga Dutsi. Wata majiyar ta ce daga wani mutum ne da ya kware a kamun bayi.
  • Gateofar Yan daka: An ce an gina shi a kusan ƙarni na 15. Kofar Yan Daka ta samo sunanta ne daga wani mai sarauta a Dustin Ma, wanda aka ba shi ikon "Yanɗakan Katsina" a masarautar ta Katsina. Gidansa yana kusa da ƙofar.

Masarautar Zazzau[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kofar Fada

Garin Zariya yana da kofofi guda shida wadanda tun farko aka gina su bayan gina katangar garin. Kofofin sun hada da wadannan banda na Jatau da na Galadima. Sarkin Kofa na Zazzau na yanzu shi ne Alhaji Mansur Dambo Mai-Sa'a.  

  • Ofofar Gayan: An ƙirƙiro wannan ƙofa ce don mutanen Gadar Gayan, don samun sauƙin shiga yayin shiga garin. Kalmar Gayan ta samo asali ne daga wani kogi mai suna Gayan da kuma wani gari mai suna Gadar Gayan.
  • Gateofar Kuyan Bana: Wannan ƙofa ita ce ta biyu da aka gina. Sunan ya samo asali ne daga wani sarkin yaki na Sarauniya Amina wacce aka fi sani da Mayaki Kuyan Bana. Sananne ne ga nasarorin nasa na almara a yaƙe-yaƙe da yawa.   Kuma Ya qarfafa karamin gari sai ya kira Kuyan Bana, kudu na Kwatarkwashi. Ya gina gidansa a Kuyan Bana kuma Sarauniya ta sanya shi mai kula da ƙofar.
  • Ofofar Kona: Wannan ƙofar ita ce ƙofa ta uku da za a gina. Theofar ta samo sunanta ne daga malaman addinin Musulunci guda biyu waɗanda suka zo garin Zariya da ake kira konawa. Lokacin da suka iso sai suka kwashe lokacin su a wajen garin Zariya ba tare da sun zo garin ba, lokacin da aka bude kofofin a inda suke, mutane suka fara kiran kofar tare da kofar Konawa, lokacin da suka kwashe shekaru a kusa da kofar.
  • Ofofar Kibo: Asalin ana kiran ƙofar Kofar Tukur Tukur. Mutanen Gobir, Zamfara, Yawuri, da Kabi sun kasance suna shigowa cikin garin Zariya daga wannan kofar. Kofar ta samo sunanta ne daga wani dutse da ke cikin garin Tukur Tukur. Tukur Tukur tsohon gari ne a wajen Zariya; a zamanin Sarkin zazzau Sambo, an yi yaƙi kusa da Tukur Tukur kusa da ƙofar. Kofar ta canza suna zuwa kibiya, "Kibo", daga baya.
  • Kofar Doka: Kofar Doka ita ce ta biyar da aka gina a Zariya. Tun asali ana kiransa ƙofar Kano. Ance ta samo sunanta ne daga bishiyar da take kusa da ƙofar da aka fi sani da "Bishiyan Doka", yayin da wata majiyar kuma ta ce ƙofar ta samo sunan daga mai tsaron ƙofar da ake kira "Doka".
  • Gateofar Bai: Wurin da aka sa ƙofar yana a bayan gidan sarkin zazzau. Kalmar "bai" na nufin a baya da hausa, wanda ke nufin Kofar bayan gidan sarki. Mutanen Bauchi galibi suna shigowa cikin garin ta wannan ƙofa.
  • Ofofar Jatau: An sa wa wannan ƙofa suna Jatau saboda shahararren sarki Habe wanda aka fi sani da Isiyaku Jatau, wanda ya yi sarautar Zazzau daga 1782 zuwa 1802.
  • Ofofar Galadima: Wannan ƙofar ta samo sunanta ne daga Galadiman Zazzau wanda aka sani da Daudu, wanda maroƙan suka san shi. Ofar tana dab da gidansa. Wasu kafofin sun ce Galadima Dokaje ne.
  • Ofofar Fada: Fada yana nufin fada. Wannan kofa ita ce babbar kofar shiga kofar fadar Sarkin Zazzau.

Kulawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The gates were formerly the responsibility of traditional rulers known as emirs, who assigned maintenance duties to the Sarkin Kofa. In 1959, the Federal Government of Nigeria declared the gates to be national monuments, and the responsibility transferred to the federal government. Some gates are falling into disrepair due to lack of maintenance.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Moody, HLB (1969). Bango da Kofofin garin Kano. Ma'aikatar Tarihi. Tarayyar Najeriya.