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Gurbacewar Aikin Noma

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Gurbacewar Aikin Noma
environmental pollution (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Gurɓacewa
Has cause (en) Fassara noma
Shafin yanar gizo sciencedirect.com… da stats.oecd.org…
Gurbacewar ruwa saboda noman a yankin Wairarapa na New Zealand (hotuna a 2003)

Gurɓacewar aikin noma na nufin "biotic" da "abiotic" da ke haifar da ayyukan noma waɗanda ke haifar da gurɓata yanayi ko lalata muhalli da muhallin halittu, da/ko haifar da rauni ga ɗan adam da muradun tattalin arziƙi su. Gurbacewar yanayi na iya fitowa daga maɓuɓɓuka iri-iri, kama daga gurɓatar ruwa mai tushe (daga wurin fitarwa ɗaya) zuwa ƙarin tarwatsewa, abubuwan da ke ƙasa, wanda kuma aka sani da Gurbataccen yanayi gurbacewar iska. Sau ɗaya a cikin mahalli waɗannan gurɓatattun abubuwa na iya yin tasiri kai tsaye a cikin muhallin halittu, watau kashe namun daji ko gurɓata ruwan sha, kuma illolin da ke ƙasa kamar matattun yankunan da ambaliyar ruwa ke haifarwa sun ta'allaka ne a cikin manyan ruwaye.

Ayyukan gudanar wa ko jahilcinsu, suna taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin adadin da tasirin waɗannan gurɓatattun abubuwa. Dabarun gudanarwa sun hada da sarrafa dabbobi da gidaje zuwa yaduwar magungunan kashe qwari da takin zamani a ayyukan noma na duniya. Mummunan ayyukan gudanarwa sun haɗa da ayyukan ciyar da dabbobi da ba a sarrafa su ba da wuce gona da iri da noma da Taki da rashin dacewa da wuce kima ko kuma rashin lokacin amfani da magungunan kashe ƙwari.

Gurɓatar aikin noma yana shafar ingancin ruwa sosai kuma ana iya samunsa a cikin tafkuna da koguna da wuraren dausayi da guraben ruwa da ruwan ƙasa. Abubuwan da ake gurɓata aikin gona sun haɗa da nama da abinci mai gina jiki da ƙwayoyin cuta da magungunan kashe qwari da ƙarfe da kuma gishiri. Noman dabbobi yana da tasiri mai girman gaske a kan gurɓataccen yanayi da ke shiga muhalli. Kwayoyin cuta da cututtukan da ke cikin taki na iya shiga cikin rafuka da ruwan karkashin ƙasa idan ba a kula da kiwo, adana taki a cikin ruwa da kuma sanya taki a gonaki yadda yakamata.[1] [2] Gurbacewar iska da noma ke haifarwa ta hanyar sauye-sauyen amfani da kasa da kuma ayyukan noma na dabbobi sun yi tasiri sosai kan sauyin yanayi, kuma magance wadannan matsalolin shi ne babban bangare na rahoton musamman na IPCC kan sauyin yanayi da kasa.[3]

Kafofin Abiotic.

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Maganin kashe ƙwari.

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Cropduster spraying pesticides.
Amfani da iska na maganin kashe kwari .

Ana amfani da maganin kashe ƙwari da na ciyawa ga kasar noma don magance ƙwari da ke kawo cikas ga noman amfanin gona. Rashin gurɓataccen ƙasa na iya faruwa lokacin da magungunan kashe qwari suka ci gaba da taru a cikin ƙasa, wanda zai iya canza tsarin ƙwayoyin cuta, ƙara haɓakar shuka na sinadarai, kuma yana da guba ga ƙwayoyin ƙasa.[4] Matsakaicin abin da magungunan kashe qwari da na ciyawa suka dawwama ya dogara da sinadarai na musamman na mahallin, wanda ke yin tasiri ga sauye-sauyen yanayi da haifar da kaddara da sufuri a cikin ƙasa. Hakanan magungunan kashe qwari na iya taruwa a cikin dabbobin da ke cin gurɓatattun kwari da ƙwayoyin ƙasa. Bugu da kari, magungunan kashe qwari na iya yin illa ga ƙwari masu fa’ida, irin su masu yin pollinators, da kuma maqiyan ƙw

wari (watƙu qwarin da ke farautar ƙwari ko qwari) fiye da yadda suke yi wa qwari da kansu. [5]

Leaching maganin kashe ƙwari.

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Leaching na maganin kashe ƙwari yana faruwa ne lokacin da magungunan kashe ƙwari suka haɗu da ruwa kuma suna motsawa ta cikin ƙasa, a ƙarshe yana lalata ruwan ƙasa . Adadin leaching yana da alaƙa da takamaiman ƙasa da halayen magungunan kashe qwari da matakin ruwan sama da ban ruwa. Leaching yana yiwuwa ya faru idan ana amfani da maganin kashe kwari mai narkewa da ruwa, lokacin da ƙasa ke ƙoƙarin zama yashi a cikin rubutu; idan yawan ruwa ya faru ne bayan aikace-aikacen magungunan kashe qwari; idan ikon adsorption na maganin kashe kwari zuwa ƙasa ya yi ƙasa. Leaching ba wai kawai ya samo asali ne daga wuraren da aka yi wa magani ba, har ma daga wuraren da ake hada magungunan kashe ƙwari, wuraren wanke kayan inji, ko wuraren zubarwa.[6]

Ana amfani da takin zamani don samar da kayan amfanin gona da ƙarin tushen abubuwan gina jiki, irin su Nitrogen, Phosphorus, da Potassium, waɗanda ke haɓaka haɓakar shuka da haɓaka amfanin gona. Duk da yake suna da fa'ida don haɓaka tsiro, kuma suna iya tarwatsa tsarin sinadirai na halitta da na ma'adinai na biogeochemical da haifar da haɗari ga lafiyar ɗan adam da muhalli.

Nitrogen takin mai magani yana ba da tsire-tsire da nau'ikan nitrogen waɗanda ke samuwa a ilimin halitta don ɗaukar shuka; watau NO (nitrate) da NH (ammonium). Wannan yana ƙara yawan amfanin gona da yawan amfanin gona, amma kuma yana iya yin illa ga ruwan ƙasa da ruwan sama, da gurɓata yanayi, da kuma lalata lafiyar ƙasa.[7]

Ba duk abubuwan gina jiki da ake amfani da su ta taki ba ne amfanin gona ke ɗauka, sauran kuma suna taruwa a cikin ƙasa ko kuma a rasa a matsayin malala. Takin Nitrate sun fi yin hasarar takin ƙasa ta hanyar zubar da ruwa saboda yawan narkewar sa da kama da caji tsakanin ƙwayoyin halitta da barbashi na yumbu maras kyau. Yawan aikace-aikacen takin mai ɗauke da nitrogen a haɗe tare da yawan narkewar ruwa na nitrate yana haifar da haɓakar kwararar ruwa a cikin ruwan sama da kuma shiga cikin ruwan ƙasa, wanda ke haifar da gurɓataccen ruwan ƙasa.[8] Matakan Nitrate sama da 10 mg/L (10 ppm) a cikin ruwan ƙarƙashin ƙasa na iya haifar da '' blue baby syndrome ' (samun methemoglobinemia) a jarirai da yiwuwar cutar thyroid da ciwon daji iri-iri.[9] Ƙimar Nitrogen, wanda ke rufe nitrogen na yanayi (N 2 ) zuwa ƙarin nau'o'in halittu, da denitrification, wanda ke juyar da mahaɗan nitrogen da ke samuwa zuwa N 2 da N 2 O, sune biyu mafi mahimmancin matakai na rayuwa da ke da hannu a cikin sake zagayowar nitrogen saboda sun kasance. mafi girman abubuwan shigar da abubuwan da ake samu na nitrogen zuwa yanayin halittu. Suna ba da izinin nitrogen don gudana tsakanin yanayi, wanda ke kusa da 78% nitrogen) da biosphere. Sauran mahimman matakai a cikin sake zagayowar nitrogen sune nitrification da ammonification wanda ke ɓoye ammonium zuwa nitrate ko nitrite da kwayoyin halitta zuwa ammonia bi da bi. Saboda waɗannan matakai suna kiyaye adadin nitrogen cikin kwanciyar hankali a mafi yawan yanayin halittu, babban kwararar nitrogen daga zubar da ruwa na aikin gona na iya haifar da tsangwama.[10] Sakamakon gama gari na wannan a cikin halittun ruwa shine eutrophication wanda hakan ke haifar da yanayin rashin ƙarfi da rashin ƙarfi - duka biyun suna da mutuƙar mutuwa da/ko lalata ga nau'ikan da yawa. Haɗin Nitrogen kuma yana iya sakin iskar NH 3 zuwa cikin sararin samaniya wanda daga nan za'a iya jujjuya su zuwa mahaɗan NO.[11] Mafi yawan adadin mahadi na NO x a cikin yanayi na iya haifar da acidification na halittun ruwa da haifar da al'amurran numfashi iri-iri a cikin mutane. Hakanan hadi yana iya sakin N 2 O wanda shine iskar gas kuma yana iya sauƙaƙe lalata ozone (O 3 ) a cikin stratosphere.[12] Ƙasar da ta karɓi takin nitrogen ma na iya lalacewa. Haɓaka abubuwan da ake samu na nitrogen zai ƙara yawan amfanin gonaki na farko, kuma a ƙarshe, ayyukan ƙananan ƙwayoyin ƙasa za su ƙaru a sakamakon yawan abubuwan da ake samu na nitrogen daga takin mai magani da carbon mahaɗi ta hanyar ruɓaɓɓen halittu. Saboda karuwar lalacewa a cikin ƙasa, abubuwan da ke cikin kwayoyin halitta za su ƙare wanda ke haifar da ƙananan lafiyar ƙasa gaba ɗaya.[13][14]

Ɗayan madadin daidaitattun takin Nitrogen shine Ingantattun takin mai magani (EEF) . Akwai nau'ikan EEF da yawa amma gabaɗaya sun faɗi cikin rukuni biyu, jinkirin sakin takin ko takin mai hana nitrification. Ana lulluɓe takin da aka saki sannu a hankali a cikin polymer wanda ke jinkirta da jinkirta sakin Nitrogen cikin tsarin aikin gona. Masu hana nitrification sune takin mai magani wanda aka lullube a cikin wani fili na sulfur wanda yake da matuƙar hydrophobic, wannan yana taimakawa wajen rage sakin Nitrogen. EEFs suna ba da ƙarancin ƙarancin nitrogen a cikin ƙasa kuma suna iya rage ƙyallen nitrogen da haɓakar mahaɗan NO x, duk da haka wallafe-wallafen kimiyya ya nuna duka tasiri da rashin tasiri wajen rage gurɓataccen nitrogen.

Phosphorus.

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Mafi yawan nau'in takin phosphorus da ake amfani da shi wajen ayyukan noma shine phosphate (PO 4 3- ), kuma ana shafa shi a cikin sinadarai na roba da suka haɗa da PO 4 3- ko kuma a cikin nau'ikan halitta kamar taki da takin zamani.[15] [16]

Phosphorus muhimmin sinadari ne a cikin dukkan kwayoyin halitta saboda irin rawar da yake takawa a cikin ayyukan tantanin halitta da ayyukan rayuwa kamar samar da acid nucleic da canja wurin makamashi na rayuwa. Koyaya, yawancin ƙwayoyin halitta, gami da amfanin gona na noma, suna buƙatar ƙaramin adadin phosphorus ne kawai saboda sun samo asali a cikin halittu masu ƙarancinsa. Ƙungiyoyin ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin ƙasa suna iya canza nau'ikan nau'ikan phosphorus zuwa nau'ikan tsire-tsire masu narkewa kamar su phosphate. Gabaɗaya ana ƙetare wannan matakin tare da takin gargajiya saboda ana amfani dashi azaman phosphate ko wasu nau'ikan shuka. Duk wani sinadarin phosphorus da tsire-tsire ba su dauka ba, to ana cusa shi zuwa ga barbashi na kasa wanda ke taimaka masa ya zauna. Saboda haka, yakan shiga cikin ruwan saman ne lokacin da ɓangarorin ƙasar da aka maƙalar da su suka lalace sakamakon hazo ko guguwa. Adadin da ke shiga cikin ruwan saman yana da ɗan ƙaranci idan aka kwatanta da adadin da ake amfani da shi a matsayin taki, amma saboda yana aiki azaman ƙayyadaddun sinadirai a mafi yawan mahalli, ko da ɗan ƙaramin adadin zai iya tarwatsa yanayin yanayin yanayin yanayin hawan jini na phosphorus biogeochemical. Ko da yake nitrogen na taka rawa a cikin algae masu cutarwa da furannin cyanobacteria waɗanda ke haifar da eutrophication, ana ɗaukar wuce gona da iri na phosphorus shine babban abin da ke ba da gudummawa saboda gaskiyar cewa phosphorus galibi shine mafi ƙarancin abinci mai gina jiki, musamman a cikin ruwa mai daɗi. Baya ga raguwar matakan iskar oxygen a cikin ruwa na sama, algae da cyanobacteria blooms na iya samar da cyanotoxins masu cutarwa ga lafiyar ɗan adam da dabbobi da kuma yawancin halittun ruwa.[17]

Matsakaicin adadin cadmium a cikin takin mai ɗauke da phosphorus ya bambanta sosai kuma yana iya zama matsala. Misali, mono-ammonium phosphate taki na iya samun abun ciki cadmium mai ƙasa da 0.14 mg/kg ko sama da 50.9 mg/kg. Wannan shi ne saboda dutsen phosphate da ake amfani da su wajen kera su na iya ƙunsar da adadin da ya kai 188 mg/kg cadmium (misalan adibas akan Nauru da tsibirin Kirsimeti). Ci gaba da yin amfani da takin mai-cadmium na iya gurɓata ƙasa da tsirrai.[18] [19] Hukumar Tarayyar Turai ta yi la'akari da iyaka ga abun ciki cadmium na takin phosphate. Masu samar da takin mai ɗauke da phosphorus yanzu suna zaɓar dutsen phosphate dangane da abun cikin cadmium.[20] Dutsen Phosphate yana ɗauke da matakan fluoride masu yawa. A sakamakon haka, yawan amfani da takin phosphate ya haifar da ƙara yawan ƙwayar fluoride na ƙasa. An gano cewa gurɓataccen abinci daga taki ba shi da ɗan damuwa yayin da tsire-tsire ke tattara ɗan ƙaramin fluoride daga ƙasa; Babban abin damuwa shine yuwuwar gubar fluoride ga dabbobin da ke cinye ƙasa mai gurɓatacce. Hakanan abin damuwa shine tasirin fluoride akan ƙananan ƙwayoyin ƙasa.[21]

Abubuwan rediyoactive

Abubuwan da ke cikin rediyoactive na takin sun bambanta da yawa kuma ya dogara da yawansu a cikin ma'adinan iyaye da kuma tsarin samar da taki. Matsakaicin adadin Uranium-238, na iya zuwa daga 7, zuwa 100, pCi/g a cikin dutsen phosphate kuma daga 1 zuwa 67 pCi/g a cikin takin phosphate. Inda ake amfani da takin phosphorus mai yawa na shekara-shekara, wannan na iya haifar da adadin uranium-238, a cikin ƙasa da magudanar ruwa wanda ya ninka sau da yawa fiye da yadda ake samu. Koyaya, tasirin waɗannan yana ƙaruwa akan haɗarin lafiyar ɗan adam daga gurɓataccen abinci na radionuclide kaɗan ne (kasa da 0.05 mSv/y).[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ƙwayoyin cuta.

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Taki da biosolids sun ƙunshi yawancin sinadirai da dabbobi da mutane ke cinyewa ta hanyar abinci. Al'adar mayar da irin waɗannan abubuwan sharar gida zuwa ƙasar noma yana ba da damar sake sarrafa kayan abinci na ƙasa. Kalubalen shi ne cewa taki da biosolids ba wai kawai sun ƙunshi abubuwan gina jiki irin su carbon, nitrogen, da phosphorus ba, amma suna iya ƙunsar gurɓatattun abubuwa, gami da magunguna da samfuran kulawa na sirri (PPCPs). Akwai nau'i-nau'i iri-iri da yawa na PPCPs da mutane da dabbobi suke cinyewa, kuma kowannensu yana da sinadarai na musamman a cikin yanayin ƙasa da na ruwa. Don haka, ba duka aka tantance tasirin su akan ƙasa, ruwa, da ingancin iska ba. Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) ta binciki tarkacen najasa daga masana'antar kula da ruwan sha a duk fadin Amurka don tantance matakan PPCPs daban-daban da ke akwai.[22]

Babban abubuwan shigar da ƙarafa masu nauyi (misali gubar, cadmium, arsenic, mercury) cikin tsarin aikin gona sune takin zamani, sharar gida kamar taki, da sharar kayan masana'antu. Takin da ba a saka ba musamman yana wakiltar hanya mai mahimmanci don karafa masu nauyi shiga ƙasa.[23] Wasu dabarun noma, kamar ban ruwa, na iya haifar da tarin selenium (Se) da ke faruwa a cikin ƙasa, wanda zai iya haifar da tafkunan ruwa na ƙasa mai ɗauke da adadin selenium mai guba ga namun daji, dabbobi, da mutane. Ana kiran wannan tsari da "Kesterson Effect," mai suna da sunan Kesterson Reservoir a cikin kwarin San Joaquin (California, Amurka), wanda aka ayyana a matsayin juji mai guba a cikin 1987.[24] Karfa masu nauyi da ke cikin muhalli na iya daukar su ta hanyar tsirrai, wanda hakan na iya haifar da illa ga lafiyar dan Adam a yayin da suka ci tsiron da abin ya shafa. Wasu karafa suna da mahimmanci don ci gaban shuka, duk da haka yawa na iya yin illa ga lafiyar shuka.[25]

Sharar gida na masana'antar ƙarafa, wanda galibi ana sake yin amfani da su zuwa takin zamani saboda yawan sinadarin zinc (mahimmanci ga ci gaban shuka), na iya haɗawa da karafa masu guba masu zuwa: gubar, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, da nickel . Mafi yawan abubuwa masu guba a cikin irin wannan taki sune mercury, gubar, da arsenic. Ana iya cire waɗannan ƙazantattun abubuwa masu cutarwa yayin samar da taki; duk da haka, wannan yana ƙara yawan farashin taki. Ana samun takin mai tsafta sosai, kuma wataƙila an fi saninta da takin mai narkewar ruwa mai ɗauke da shuɗi. Ana amfani da takin zamani irin waɗannan a kusa da gidaje, kamar Miracle-Gro . Ana amfani da waɗannan takin mai narkewa sosai a cikin kasuwancin gandun daji na shuka kuma ana samun su cikin manyan fakiti akan farashi mai ƙarancin farashi fiye da adadin dillali. Hakanan akwai wasu takin lambu masu rahusa mai rahusa wanda aka yi tare da kayan aikin tsafta, yana iyakance samarwa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Gudanar da ƙasa

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Zaizayar ƙasa da kuma lalata

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Soil erosion
Zaizayar ƙasa: ƙasa ta wanke daga gonar da aka noma ta wannan ƙofar kuma ta shiga cikin magudanar ruwa da ke bayansa.

Noma na ba da gudummawa sosai ga zaizayar ƙasa da rarrabuwar ƙasa ta hanyar kulawa mai zurfi ko rashin ingantaccen tsarin ƙasa.[26] An yi ƙiyasin cewa gurɓacewar filayen noma na haifar da raguwar haihuwa a kusan hekta miliyan 6 na kasa mai albarka a kowace shekara.[27] Tarin da ake samu a cikin ruwa mai gudu yana shafar ingancin ruwa ta hanyoyi daban-daban.[ana buƙatar hujja] Lalacewa na iya rage ƙarfin jigilar ramuka, koguna, koguna, da tashoshi na kewayawa. Hakanan zai iya iyakance adadin hasken da ke shiga cikin ruwa, wanda ke shafar biota na ruwa.[28] Sakamakon turbidity daga sedimentation zai iya tsoma baki tare da ciyar da halaye na kifi, rinjayar yawan kuzarin kawo cikas. Har ila yau, zubar da ruwa yana shafar sufuri da tara abubuwan gurɓataccen abu, ciki har da phosphorus da magungunan kashe ƙwari iri-iri.

Tillage da watsin nitrous oxide.

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Tsarin halittu na ƙasa na halitta yana haifar da fitar da iskar gas iri-iri, gami da nitrous oxide. Ayyukan sarrafa aikin gona na iya shafar matakan fitar da hayaki. Misali, an kuma nuna matakan noma suna shafar hayakin nitrous oxide.[29]

Madogarar halittu.

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Greenhouse gas daga fecal sharar gida

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Hukumar Abinci da Aikin Noma ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya (FAO) ta yi hasashen cewa kashi 18% na iskar gas mai gurbata muhalli na zuwa ne kai tsaye ko a kaikaice daga dabbobin duniya. Har ila yau, wannan rahoto ya nuna cewa hayakin da dabbobi ke fitarwa ya zarce na bangaren sufuri. Yayin da a halin yanzu dabbobi ke taka rawa wajen samar da hayaki mai gurbata muhalli, an yi kiyasin kiyasin kuskure ne.[30] Yayin da hukumar ta FAO ta yi amfani da kima a rayuwar dabbobi (watau dukkan bangarorin da suka haɗa da hayaƙi mai fitar da amfanin gona don ciyarwa, sufuri zuwa yanka, da dai sauransu), ba su yi amfani da wannan kima ba a fannin sufuri.[31]

Wata majiya mai tushe da'awar cewa ƙiyasin FAO ya yi ƙasa da ƙasa, yana mai bayyana cewa masana'antar kiwo ta duniya na iya ɗaukar nauyin kusan kashi 51% na iskar gas da ke fitar da iska maimakon 18%. Masu suka sun ce bambancin kiyasi ya fito ne daga amfani da bayanan da hukumar ta FAO ta yi. Ko da kuwa, idan rahoton FAO na kashi 18, cikin 100, daidai ne, wannan har yanzu ya sa dabbobi su zama na biyu mafi girma na greenhouse-gas- gurɓata yanayi.[32]

Wani samfurin PNAS ya nuna cewa ko da an cire dabbobi gaba ɗaya daga noma da abinci na Amurka, za a rage hayakin GHG na Amurka da kashi 2.6% kawai (ko kashi 28% na hayakin GHG na noma). Hakan ya faru ne saboda bukatar maye gurbin takin dabbobi da takin zamani da kuma maye gurbinsu da sauran kayan amfanin gonakin dabbobi, kuma a halin yanzu dabbobi suna amfani da kayan abinci da ba sa iya ci da kuma sarrafa fiber na mutum. Haka kuma, mutane za su sha wahala da ƙarancin ƙarancin abinci mai gina jiki ko da yake za su sami ƙarin kuzarin kuzari, mai yuwuwa haifar da ƙiba mai yawa.[33]

Biopesticides

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Biopesticides sune magungunan kashe qwari da aka samo daga kayan halitta (dabbobi, shuke-shuke, microorganisms, wasu ma'adanai). A matsayin madadin magungunan kashe ƙwari na gargajiya, magungunan biopesticides na iya rage gurɓatar aikin gona gabaɗaya saboda suna da lafiya don iyawa, yawanci ba sa tasiri ga marasa ƙashin baya masu fa'ida ko vertebrates, kuma suna da ɗan gajeren lokaci. [34] Wasu damuwa sun kasance cewa magungunan biopesticide na iya yin mummunan tasiri a kan yawan nau'in nau'in da ba a kai ba, duk da haka.

A {asar Amirka, EPA ne ke sarrafa magungunan biopesticide. Saboda magungunan biopesticide ba su da illa kuma suna da ƙarancin illar muhalli fiye da sauran magungunan kashe ƙwari, hukumar ba ta buƙatar adadin bayanai don yin rajistar amfani da su. An ba da izinin maganin ƙwayoyin cuta da yawa a ƙarƙashin Tsarin Tsarin Halitta na ƙasa, Ma'aikatar Aikin Noma ta Amurka, ƙa'idodi don samar da amfanin gona.

Gabatarwar nau'ikan

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nau'in cin zarafi

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Yellow Star Thistle.
Centaurea solstitialis, ciyawar cizon sauro, mai yiwuwa an gabatar da ita zuwa Arewacin Amurka a cikin gurbataccen iri na fodder. Ayyukan noma kamar noma da kiwo sun taimaka wajen yaɗuwar sa cikin sauri.[35] Yana da guba ga dawakai, yana hana tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire daga girma (rage bambancin halittu da kuma wulakanta yanayin halittu), kuma yana da shinge ta zahiri ga ƙaura na dabbobin asali.

Haɓaka aikin noma na duniya ya haifar da jigilar kwari, ciyawa, da cututtuka cikin haɗari zuwa sashe na zamani. Idan sun kafa, sun zama nau'in cin zarafi da za su iya yin tasiri ga yawan al'ummar jinsuna da kuma yin barazana ga samar da noma. Misali, jigilar ƙudan zuma da ake kiwon kudan zuma a Turai da jigilar su zuwa Amurka da/ko Kanada don amfani da su azaman masu yin pollin na kasuwanci ya haifar da bullo da wani tsohon duniya parasites zuwa Sabuwar Duniya. Wannan gabatarwar na iya taka rawa a raguwar ƙudan zuma na kwanan nan a Arewacin Amurka.[36] Hakanan nau'in da aka gabatar da aikin noma na iya haɗawa da nau'in asali wanda ke haifar da raguwar halittun halittu [35] da kuma yin barazana ga samar da noma.[5]

Rikicin muhalli (yanayin muhalli) da ke da alaƙa da ayyukan noma da kansu na iya sauƙaƙe kafa waɗannan halittun da aka gabatar.[37] gurɓacewar injuna, dabbobi da kiwo, da gurɓacewar amfanin gona ko iri kiwo suma na iya haifar da yaduwar ciyawa.[38]

Keɓewa (duba biosecurity ) hanya ɗaya ce da za a iya kayyade rigakafin yaduwar nau'ikan ɓarna a matakin manufofin. Keɓewa kayan aiki ne na doka wanda ke hana motsin abubuwan da suka kamu da su daga wuraren da nau'in ɓarna ke kasancewa zuwa wuraren da ba ya nan. Ƙungiyar Ciniki ta Duniya tana da ƙa'idodin ƙasa da ƙasa game da keɓewar ƙwari da cututtuka a ƙarƙashin Yarjejeniyar Aika Ma'aunin Tsafta da Tsaftar jiki. Ƙasashe ɗaya ɗaya galibi suna da nasu ƙa'idodin keɓe. A cikin Amurka, alal misali, Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona ta Amurka / Sabis na Kula da Lafiyar Dabbobi da Tsirrai (USDA/APHIS) tana gudanar da keɓewar gida (a cikin Amurka) da na waje (kayan da ake shigowa da su daga wajen Amurka). Sufetoci ne ke aiwatar da waɗannan keɓewar a kan iyakokin jihohi da tashoshin shiga.

Ikon Halittu.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yin amfani da magungunan ƙwayoyin cuta, ko yin amfani da magudanar ruwa, parasitoids, parasites, da ƙwayoyin cuta don magance ƙwari na noma, yana da yuwuwar rage gurɓacewar aikin gona da ke da alaƙa da sauran dabarun magance kwari, kamar amfani da magungunan kashe qwari. An yi muhawara ko'ina game da fa'idar gabatar da wakilai masu kula da halittun da ba na asali ba. Da zarar an sake shi, gabatarwar wakili na biocontrol na iya zama wanda ba zai iya jurewa ba. Matsalolin muhalli masu yuwuwa na iya haɗawa da tarwatsawa daga wuraren noma zuwa muhallin halitta, da kuma canza wurin baƙi ko daidaitawa don amfani da nau'in ɗan ƙasa. Bugu da ƙari, tsinkayar sakamakon hulɗar a cikin hadaddun yanayin muhalli da kuma yiwuwar tasirin muhalli kafin a saki na iya zama da wahala. Misali daya na shirin sarrafa kwayoyin halitta wanda ya haifar da lalacewar muhalli ya faru a Arewacin Amurka, inda aka gabatar da parasitoid na malam buɗe ido don sarrafa asu na gypsy da browntail asu. Wannan parasitoid yana da ikon yin amfani da nau'ikan masaukin malam buɗe ido da yawa, kuma wataƙila ya haifar da raguwa da ɓarna nau'ikan asu na asali na asali.

Binciken ƙasa da ƙasa don yuwuwar wakilai masu sarrafa ƙwayoyin halitta ana taimakon su daga hukumomi irin su Cibiyar Kula da Halittu ta Turai, Ma'aikatar Aikin Gona/ Sabis ta Binciken Aikin Noma ta Amurka (USDA/ARS), Cibiyar Kula da Halittu ta Commonwealth, da Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya don Kula da Halittu na Noxious. Tsire-tsire da Dabbobi. Domin hana gurɓacewar aikin gona, ana buƙatar keɓewa da kuma bincike mai zurfi kan yuwuwar ingancin kwayoyin halitta da tasirin muhalli kafin gabatarwa. Idan an amince da shi, ana ƙoƙarin yin mulkin mallaka da tarwatsa wakili na biocontrol a cikin saitunan aikin gona da suka dace. Ana ci gaba da kimanta ingancin su. [34]

Halittun Halittu (GMO)

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Top: Lesser cornstalk borer larvae extensively damaged the leaves of this unprotected peanut plant. (Image Number K8664-2)-Photo by Herb Pilcher. Bottom: After only a few bites of peanut leaves of this genetically engineered plant (containing the genes of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria), this lesser cornstalk borer larva crawled off the leaf and died. (Image Number K8664-1)-Photo by Herb Pilcher.
(Na sama) Ganyen gyada mara canzawa yana nuna barna mai yawa daga tsutsar masara ta Turai . (A ƙasa) Ganyen gyada da aka yi amfani da shi ta hanyar ilimin halitta don samar da gubar Bt ana kiyaye shi daga lalacewa na ciyawa.

Lalacewar ƙwayoyin halitta da tasirin muhalli

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da haka, amfanin gona na GMO na iya haifar da gurɓatar ƙwayoyin halittar nau'in tsiro na asali ta hanyar haɓakawa. Wannan zai iya haifar da ƙara yawan ciyawa na shuka ko kuma bacewar nau'in ƴaƴan itace. Bugu da ƙari, ƙwayar transgenic kanta na iya zama sako idan gyare-gyaren ya inganta dacewarsa a cikin yanayin da aka ba shi. [5]

Har ila yau, akwai damuwa cewa ƙwayoyin halitta marasa manufa, irin su pollinators da abokan gaba, na iya zama guba ta hanyar bazata na tsire-tsire masu samar da Bt. Wani bincike na baya-bayan nan da aka yi na gwada tasirin pollen masarar Bt da ke zubar da tsire-tsire a kusa da shukar madara a kan ciyar da tsutsa na malam buɗe ido ya gano cewa barazanar da al'ummar masarautar ta yi kaɗan. [5]

Amfani da shuke-shuken amfanin gona na GMO da aka ƙera don juriya na ciyawa kuma na iya ƙara yawan gurɓacewar noma a kaikaice da amfani da ciyawa . Misali, ƙaruwar amfani da maganin ciyawa a gonakin masara masu jure ciyawa a tsakiyar yammacin Amurka yana rage yawan ciyawa da ake samu ga tsutsa na malam buɗe ido . [5]

Dokokin sakin ƙwayoyin halitta da aka gyara sun bambanta dangane da nau'in ƙwayoyin halitta da kuma ƙasar da abin ya shafa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

GMO a matsayin kayan aiki na rage gurɓatawa.

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da yake ana iya samun wasu damuwa game da amfani da samfuran GM, yana iya zama mafita ga wasu batutuwan gurɓataccen aikin noma na dabba. Ɗaya daga cikin manyan hanyoyin gurɓata yanayi, musamman ma bitamin da ma'adinai a cikin ƙasa, ya zo ne daga rashin ingantaccen tsarin narkewa a cikin dabbobi. Ta hanyar haɓaka haɓakar narkewar abinci, yana yiwuwa a rage duka farashin samar da dabbobi da lalacewar muhalli. Misali ɗaya mai nasara na wannan fasaha da yuwuwar aikace-aikacen sa shine Enviropig .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Enviropig wani aladen Yorkshire ne da aka gyara ta hanyar gado wanda ke bayyana phytase a cikin sa. Hatsi, irin su masara da alkama, suna da phosphorus da ke daure a cikin wani nau'i na rashin narkewa da aka sani da phytic acid. Phosphorus, mai mahimmanci mai mahimmanci ga alade, an ƙara shi zuwa abinci, tun da ba za a iya rushe shi ba a cikin ƙwayar alade mai narkewa. A sakamakon haka, kusan dukkanin sinadarin phosphorus da ake samu a cikin hatsi a ɗabi'a yana lalacewa a cikin najasa, kuma yana iya taimakawa wajen haɓaka matakan ƙasa. Phytase wani enzyme ne wanda zai iya rushe phytic acid in ba haka ba, yana sa shi samuwa ga alade. Ƙarfin Enviropig don narkar da phosphorus daga hatsi yana kawar da ɓarna na wannan nau'in phosphorus na halitta (raguwa 20-60%), yayin da yake kawar da buƙatar ƙarin kayan abinci a cikin abinci.

Gudanar da dabbobi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gudanar da taki

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ɗaya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da ke haifar da gurɓatar iska, ƙasa da ruwa shine sharar dabbobi. A cewar wani rahoto na 2005, na USDA, fiye da tan miliyan 335, na sharar "bushe" (sharar da aka cire bayan an cire ruwa) ana samarwa a kowace shekara a gonaki a Amurka. [39] Ayyukan ciyar da dabbobi suna samar da taki kusan sau 100, fiye da adadin sludge na ɗan adam da ake sarrafa su a masana'antar ruwan sharar gida na Amurka kowace shekara. Gurbacewar tushen tushen takin noma ya fi wahalar ganowa, sa ido da sarrafawa. Ana samun yawan adadin nitrate a cikin ruwan ƙasa kuma yana iya kaiwa 50 mg/lita (iyakar umarnin EU). A cikin ramuka da darussan kogi, gurɓataccen abinci daga takin mai magani yana haifar da eutrophication. Wannan ya fi muni a cikin hunturu, bayan noman kaka ya fito da karuwar nitrates; Ruwan sama na lokacin sanyi yana ƙaruwa da zubar da ruwa da leaching, kuma akwai ƙarancin girbin shuka. EPA ta ba da shawarar cewa gonar kiwo ɗaya mai shanu 2,500 tana samar da sharar gida mai yawa kamar birni mai kusan mazauna 411,000. Hukumar Bincike ta Amurka ta bayyana warin a matsayin mafi girman matsalar fitar da dabbobi a matakin gida. Tsarin dabbobi daban-daban sun ɗauki hanyoyin sarrafa sharar da yawa don magance yawan adadin sharar da ake samarwa kowace shekara.

Amfanin maganin taki shine rage yawan taki da ake buƙata a kai da kuma shafa ga amfanin gona, da kuma rage takin ƙasa. Hakanan ana rage abubuwan gina jiki, ma'ana ana buƙatar ƙasan amfanin gona don taki da za a yada a kai. Hakanan maganin taki na iya rage haɗarin lafiyar ɗan adam da haɗarin rayuwa ta hanyar rage adadin ƙwayoyin cuta da ke cikin taki. Taki ko slurry na dabba da ba a haɗa shi ba ya fi mayar da hankali sau ɗari fiye da najasar gida, kuma yana iya ɗaukar kwayar cutar hanji, Cryptosporidium , wanda ke da wuyar ganewa amma ana iya wucewa ga mutane. Silage barasa (daga fermented rigar ciyawa) ya ma fi karfi fiye da slurry, tare da low pH da sosai high nazarin halittu bukatar oxygen. Tare da ƙananan pH, silage barasa na iya zama mai lalacewa sosai; yana iya kai hari ga kayan aikin roba, yana haifar da lalacewa ga kayan ajiya, da haifar da zubewar haɗari. Duk waɗannan fa'idodin za a iya inganta su ta hanyar amfani da tsarin sarrafa taki mai dacewa akan gonakin da ya dace dangane da albarkatun da ke akwai.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Maganin taki

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Takin zamani wani ingantaccen tsarin sarrafa taki ne wanda ya dogara da taki mai ƙarfi daga fakitin fakitin gado, ko daskararru daga mai raba taki. Akwai hanyoyi guda biyu na takin zamani, aiki da kuma m. Ana yin taki lokaci-lokaci yayin yin takin mai aiki, yayin da a cikin takin da ba a so ba. An gano takin da ke wucewa yana da ƙarancin iskar iskar gas na kore saboda rashin cikar bazuwar da ƙarancin iskar gas.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Rabuwar ruwa mai ƙarfi.
[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya raba taki ta hanyar injiniya zuwa wani yanki mai ƙarfi da ruwa don sauƙin gudanarwa. Liquids (4-8% busassun ƙwayoyin halitta) za a iya amfani da su cikin sauƙi a cikin tsarin famfo don dacewa da yaduwa a kan amfanin gona da kuma m juzu'i (15-30% busassun al'amarin) za a iya amfani da matsayin rumfa kwanciya, yada a kan amfanin gona, taki ko fitarwa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Anaerobic narkewa da lagoons
[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Anaerobic lagoon a cikin kiwo

Narkewar anaerobic shine maganin ilimin halitta na sharar dabbobi ta hanyar amfani da ƙwayoyin cuta a cikin yankin da babu iska, wanda ke inganta rugujewar daskararrun ƙwayoyin halitta. Ana amfani da ruwan zafi don dumama sharar don ƙara yawan yawan iskar gas . [40] Ruwan da ya rage yana da wadataccen abinci mai gina jiki kuma ana iya amfani da shi a gonaki a matsayin taki da iskar methane da za a iya konawa kai tsaye a kan murhun biogas ko a cikin injin janareta don samar da wutar lantarki da zafi. Methane yana da kusan sau 20 mafi ƙarfi a matsayin iskar gas fiye da carbon dioxide, wanda ke da mummunan tasirin muhalli idan ba a sarrafa shi da kyau ba. Maganin anaerobic na sharar gida shine hanya mafi kyau don sarrafa warin da ke tattare da sarrafa taki. [40]

Lagoons masu kula da ilimin halitta suma suna amfani da narkewar sinadarin anaerobic don rushe daskararru, amma a hankali. Lagoons ana kiyaye su a yanayin zafi sabanin dumama tankunan narkewa. Lagos na buƙatar manyan filayen ƙasa da babban adadin dilution don yin aiki yadda ya kamata, don haka ba sa aiki sosai a yawancin yanayi a arewacin Amurka. Lagoons kuma suna ba da fa'idar rage warin kuma ana samar da iskar gas don zafi da wutar lantarki.

Nazarin ya nuna cewa GHG yana raguwa ta amfani da tsarin narkewar iska. Rage watsi da GHG da ƙididdigewa na iya taimakawa ramawar ƙarin farashin shigarwa na fasahohin iska mai tsabta da sauƙaƙe ɗaukar kayan fasahar muhalli don maye gurbin lagoons na anaerobic na yanzu.

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