Hakkin rayuwa

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Masu zanga-zangar Venezuelan a cikin 2014 tare da alamar da ke karanta "Aminci; 'Yanci; Adalci; Haƙƙin rayuwa" a cikin Mutanen Espanya

Haƙƙin rayuwa shine imani cewa wata halitta tana da yancin rayuwa kuma, musamman, bai kamata wata ƙungiya ta kashe shi ba, gami da gwamnati. Ma’anar ‘yancin rayuwa ta taso ne a cikin muhawara kan batutuwan da suka hada da hukuncin kisa, inda wasu ke kallonsa a matsayin rashin da’a; yaki, wanda wasu ke ganin ba daidai ba ne kuma mummunan aiki; zubar da ciki, inda wasu ke ganin bai kamata a kawo karshen rayuwar da ba a haifa ba da wuri; euthanasia, inda ake ganin ƙarshen rayuwar tsoho a waje da yanayin halitta ba daidai ba; rashin tausayi na 'yan sanda, wanda ake gani a matsayin cin zarafi na 'yancin rayuwa; kisan gilla, tare da wasu sun gaskata cewa babu wani misali na kisan kai da ya dace da gaske; da hakkin dabbobi, wadanda ake ganin rayuwarsu ta cancanci kariya kamar ta mutane. Mutane dabam-dabam na iya yin sabani a kan wanne daga cikin waɗannan fagagen ƙa'idar 'yancin rayuwa za ta iya aiki.

Zubar da ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton da ke nuna zubar da ciki na tiyata

Kalmar "haƙƙin rayuwa" ana amfani da ita a cikin muhawarar zubar da ciki ta hanyar waɗanda suke so su kawo karshen aikin zubar da ciki, ko a kalla rage yawan aikin, kuma a cikin mahallin ciki, kalmar hakkin rai ya kasance. Paparoma Pius XII ya ci gaba a lokacin 1951 Papal encyclical :

Kowane mutum, hatta yaron da ke cikin mahaifa, yana da hakkin rayuwa kai tsaye daga Allah ba daga iyayensa ba, ba daga kowace al'umma ko hukuma ba. Saboda haka, babu wani mutum, babu wata al'umma, babu ikon ɗan adam, babu kimiyya, babu alamu ko kaɗan ko likita, eugenic, zamantakewa, tattalin arziki, ko ɗabi'a wanda zai iya ba da ko ba da ingantaccen take na shari'a don zubar da gangan kai tsaye. na rayuwar mutum marar laifi… Paparoma Pius XII, Jawabi ga Ungozoma kan yanayin Sana'ar su Papal Encyclical, Oktoba 29, 1951. [1]

Shugaba Ronald Reagan ya gana da wakilan 'Yancin Rayuwa, 1981

A cikin 1966 taron kasa na Bishops Katolika (NCCB) ya tambayi Fr. James T. McHugh zai fara lura da abubuwan da ke faruwa a sake fasalin zubar da ciki a cikin Amurka An kafa Kwamitin Haƙƙin Rayuwa na Ƙasa (NRLC) a cikin 1967 a matsayin Ƙungiyar Haƙƙin Rayuwa don daidaita kamfen ɗin jahohinta a ƙarƙashin inuwar Babban Taron Kasa na Katolika na Bishops. [2] Don yin kira ga ƙarin fa'ida mai fa'ida, ƙungiyoyi masu zaman kansu, manyan shugabannin Minnesota sun ba da shawarar tsarin ƙungiya wanda zai raba NRLC daga sa ido kai tsaye na Babban Taron Kasa na Bishops Katolika da kuma farkon 1973 NRLC Daraktan Fr. James T. McHugh da mataimakinsa na zartarwa, Michael Taylor, sun ba da shawarar wani tsari na daban, wanda ke sauƙaƙe tafiyar NRLC zuwa ga 'yancin kai daga Cocin Katolika na Roman Katolika.

Da'a da hakkin rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Peter Singer a Dandalin Crawford 2017

Wasu masu amfani da ɗabi'a suna jayayya cewa "haƙƙin rayuwa" inda akwai shi, ya dogara da yanayin wanin kasancewa memba na nau'in ɗan adam. Masanin falsafa Peter Singer sanannen mai ba da wannan hujja ne. Ga Singer, haƙƙin rayuwa yana dogara ne akan ikon tsarawa da kuma hasashen makomar mutum. Wannan ya shimfiɗa ra'ayi ga dabbobin da ba ɗan adam ba, kamar sauran birai, amma tun da ba a haifa ba, jarirai da nakasassu masu tsanani sun rasa wannan, ya furta cewa zubar da ciki, rashin jinƙai na jarirai da da kisansu za a iya barta (amma ba wajibi ba) a cikin wasu yanayi na musamman, misali game da naƙasasshen jariri wanda rayuwarsa za ta kasance cikin wahala.

Masana ilimin halittu da ke da alaƙa da haƙƙin nakasa da kuma nazarin nakasassu al'ummomin sun yi jayayya cewa ilimin Singer ya dogara ne akan tunanin iyawar nakasa.

Hukuncin kisa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Paris ta mutu ranar 2 ga Yuli, 2008

Masu adawa da hukuncin kisa suna jayayya cewa cin zarafi ne na 'yancin rayuwa, yayin da magoya bayansa ke jayayya cewa hukuncin kisa ba cin zarafi ba ne na 'yancin rayuwa saboda 'yancin rayuwa ya kamata a yi amfani da shi tare da nuna rashin amincewa da adalci. 'Yan adawa sun yi imanin cewa hukuncin kisa shine mafi munin take hakkin dan adam, saboda hakkin rayuwa shine mafi muhimmanci, kuma hukuncin kisa ya keta shi ba tare da larura ba kuma yana haifar da azabtarwa ga wanda aka yanke wa hukunci. Masu fafutukar kare hakkin bil adama na adawa da hukuncin kisa, suna masu kiransa, "zalunci, rashin mutuntaka, da wulakancin hukunci." kuma Amnesty International ta yi la'akari da shi a matsayin "na karshe, wanda ba za a iya dawo da shi ba na 'Yancin Dan Adam".

Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da, a cikin 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, da 2016 kudurori marasa ma'amala da ke kira da a dakatar da aiwatar da hukuncin kisa a duniya, da nufin soke hukuncin kisa.

Kashe-kashen da jami'an tsaro ke yi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ka'idodin Ka'idojin Haƙƙin Dan Adam na Duniya don Tilasta Doka ya ƙirƙiri wani tsari wanda aka gane cewa dokokin haƙƙin ɗan adam na duniya suna da nauyi a kan duk 'yan wasan jiha, kuma hakan ya ce dole ne 'yan wasan jiha su sani kuma su sami damar yin amfani da ƙa'idodin ƙasa da ƙasa don haƙƙin ɗan adam. Haƙƙin rayuwa a mafi yawancin haƙƙin da ba za a iya raba shi ba ne ga kowane ɗan adam a doron ƙasa, duk da haka, akwai wasu yanayi da ake buƙatar 'yan wasan kwaikwayo na jihohi su ɗauki tsattsauran mataki, wanda zai iya haifar da kashe fararen hula da jami'an tsaro.

Abubuwan da suka dace don kashe jami'an tsaro an tsara su ta hanyar ka'idodin Haƙƙin Dan Adam na Duniya don tilasta doka. Duk wani mummunan mataki da jami’an tsaro za su dauka, dole ne a dau wasu ka’idoji da aka gindaya a sashin Amfani da karfi na littafin Aljihu kan ‘yancin dan Adam ga ‘yan sanda. Muhimmin ka'idar Littafin Aljihu [3] da ke tattare da amfani da karfi na kisa shi ne cewa duk sauran hanyoyin rashin tashin hankali ya kamata a yi amfani da su da farko, sannan a bi da su daidai gwargwadon amfani da karfi. Yin amfani da karfi daidai gwargwado zai iya, kuma a wasu yanayi, zai iya komawa ga karfi mai kisa idan jami'in tsaro ya yi imanin da gaske cewa kawo karshen rayuwar farar hula daya zai haifar da kare rayuwarsu, ko kuma ta 'yan uwansa farar hula, kamar yadda yake. wanda aka zayyana a cikin ya Halatta don Amfani da Makami na Littafin Aljihu. [3] Littafin Aljihu [3] kuma ya fayyace a cikin 'Bayanin Haƙƙin Amfani da Ƙarfi da Bindigogi' cewa akwai tsauraran matakan da ake bi don tabbatar da gaskiya a tsakanin hukumomin tilasta bin doka na jiha dangane da haƙƙinsu na yin amfani da ƙarfi.

Zanga-zanga a Ferguson a ranar 14 ga Agusta, 2014

Cibiyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa sun zayyana lokacin da kuma inda jami'an tilasta bin doka za su iya samun isasshen ƙarfi a hannunsu. Ƙungiyar Shugabannin 'Yan Sanda ta Duniya tana da 'Manufofin Samfura' waɗanda ke haɗa bayanai daban-daban daga manyan majiyoyi. Ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan tsare-tsaren ƙirar sun bayyana cewa jami'an tilasta bin doka za su yi amfani da ƙarfin da ya dace don samar da yanayi mai kyau zuwa ga ƙarshe, suna ba da takamaiman tunani ga lafiyar kansu da sauran farar hula. An bai wa jami'an tsaro ikon shiga cikin hanyoyin da sashen ya amince da su don kawo karshen wani lamari cikin aminci kuma an ba su ikon yin amfani da kayan aikin da aka bayar don warware batutuwan da suka faru a yanayin da ake buƙatar su kare kansu ko wasu daga lalacewa, zuwa kawo mutane masu juriya a ƙarƙashin kulawa, ko kuma a amince da abubuwan da suka faru ba bisa ƙa'ida ba. Ba a ambaci abin da ya kamata a fassara "mahimmancin ma'ana" a matsayin ma'ana ba, amma an yi nuni ga hanyar da mutum mai hankali ya yi don tantance yadda ya kamata mutum ya fuskanci yanayi. Duk da haka, an ba da haske ta hanyar abubuwan da suka faru irin su kisan Michael Brown da Darren Wilson ya yi a Ferguson, Missouri, wanda ya haifar da tashin hankali na jama'a, cewa akwai rikicewa da muhawara game da amfani da bindigogi da kuma kashe wuta. Sashen 'Tsarin Amfani da Makamai' yana ba da tsarin da dole ne jami'an tilasta bin doka su ci gaba yayin amfani da bindigogi. Ya bayyana cewa dole ne su bayyana kansu a matsayin jami'in tilasta bin doka, bayar da gargadi mai kyau, kuma su ba da isasshen lokaci don mayar da martani (idan har lokacin ba zai iya haifar da cutar da wakili ko wasu fararen hula ba) kafin a iya yin amfani da karfi mai kisa. a yi amfani da shi a cikin iyakokin dokokin duniya.

Yayin da Littafin Aljihu kan Hakkokin Dan-Adam na 'Yan Sanda ke bayyana yanayin ilimi wanda jami'an tilasta bin doka za su iya yin amfani da karfi mai kisa, yanayin zahirin da 'yan sanda suka yi kashe-kashen suna da dacewa. Rosenfeld [4] ya bayyana cewa, "akwai ɗimbin wallafe-wallafen da ke ba da dalilin gaskata cewa yanayin zamantakewa ma yana da wani ɓangare na yadda za a iya yin kisan gilla." Rosenfeld ya bayyana cewa, "akwai bincike da yawa da aka gudanar wanda ya danganta yadda jami'an tilasta bin doka ke amfani da karfi mai kisa zuwa yawan laifukan tashin hankali a yankin, girman yawan mutanen da ba na asali ba da kuma matsayin zamantakewar al'umma da abin ya shafa." Daidaita kwatancin yadda kashe-kashen ‘yan sanda ke iya faruwa a fadin hukumar abu ne mai wahala idan aka yi la’akari da bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin al’umma daga jiha zuwa jiha.

George Floyd mural Mauerpark Berlin, Mayu 2020

Perry, Hall da Hall [5] sun tattauna abubuwan da suka faru a duk faɗin Amurka na waɗanda suka zama masu tuhuma sosai kuma an rubuta su sosai a ƙarshen 2014, suna magana game da yin amfani da ƙarfi mai muni daga jami'an 'yan sanda farar fata a kan farar hula maza baƙi marasa makami. Babu wani hakki na doka wanda ya ba wa jami'an tsaro ikon yin amfani da karfi mai muni bisa la'akari da jinsin mutumin da suke mu'amala da su, akwai kawai hakki na doka don shiga cikin karfi na mutuwa idan akwai tsoro mai ma'ana ga rayuwar ku ko rayuwar wasu. Duk da haka, binciken Propublica na bayanan tarayya game da harbe-harben 'yan sanda tsakanin 2010 zuwa 2012, ya nuna cewa fararen hula maza bakar fata sun fi kashe 'yan sanda sau 21 fiye da matasan farar hula maza. Yin amfani da muggan ƙarfi daga jami'an tilasta bin doka a Amurka ya haifar da jin daɗin jama'ar Amurka cewa 'yan sanda ba su kare su ba. Tsarin shari'a ya fi gano cewa waɗannan jami'an sun yi aiki ne a cikin iyakokin doka saboda ayyukan mutanen da aka harbe an yanke hukunci cewa ya isa ya zama abin tambaya game da halin dan sandan ya ji tsoro ga rayukansu ko na wasu. Coppolo [6] ya binciki dokar Connecticut kuma ya ba da rahoton cewa yin amfani da ƙarfi dole ne a biyo bayan rahoton da ke tantance ko ƙarfin kisa na jami'an tilasta bin doka ya yi daidai da zama dole a cikin yanayi. Coppolo ya kuma bayyana cewa dole ne a ba da amsa mai ma'ana mai mutuƙar mutuƙar mutuƙar mutuƙar imani cewa gaskiyar da aka gabatar da ita na iya haifar da haƙiƙanin haɗarin mutuwa ko cutar da jiki.

A cikin Graham v. Connor, [7] wani mai ciwon sukari da ke fama da ciwon sukari wani jami'in da ya shaida al'amuran da suka sa ya yi zargin Graham, ya sa Graham ya sami raunuka da yawa, wanda ya ci gaba da kai karar 'yan sanda. amfani da karfi fiye da kima. Kotun kolin Amurka ba ta sami labarin ciwon sukari a cikin kanta da ke da yuwuwar yin barazana ga jami'in tilasta bin doka ba. Kotun Koli ta gano cewa dole ne a yi la'akari da jimillar al'amura a lokacin da lamarin ya faru a lokacin da ake yanke hukunci ga jami'in maimakon yin la'akari da abin da ya faru tare da yin la'akari da hankali, wanda a cikin yanayin Graham ya yanke shawarar cewa mai ciwon sukari ya haifar da halayyar halayyar. fuskar ta na iya zama barazana ga jami'an tilasta bin doka ko wasu farar hula. Wannan yana sa yana da wahala a iya gano abin da ya zama kyakkyawan bayanin ingantaccen yanayin da jami'in tilasta bin doka zai iya yin amfani da karfi na mutuwa. A cikin Tennessee v. Jami'in Garner [8] Elton Hymon ya amsa kiran sata; Lokacin da ya shiga bayan gidan da ake magana a kai, Hymon ya shaida wani ya gudu ya umarci wanda ake zargin, wanda daga baya aka bayyana shi a matsayin wani yaro dan shekara 15 mai suna Edward Garner, da ya tsaya. Garner ya fara hawan shingen, kuma Hymon ya ci gaba da harbe shi da da bindiga a bayan kai. Kotun kolin ta ce bisa ga gyara na hudu, jami'in tilasta bin doka da ke bin wani ba zai iya amfani da karfi mai kisa don kammala aikin ba sai dai idan jami'in ya yi imanin cewa mutumin yana da babbar barazana ga jami'in ko wasu. A Amurka inda Kwaskwarima na Biyu ya bai wa farar hula 'yancin ɗaukar makamai, kowane mutum ɗaya zai iya yin barazana ga rayuwar ɗan sanda ko wasu farar hula, kamar yadda mai yiwuwa, kowane mutum ɗaya na iya ɓoye makami.

A New Zealand, Rahoton Da'ar 'Yan Sanda na Shekara-shekara [9] ya gano cewa sama da shekaru goma 'yan sanda sun harbe tare da kashe mutane bakwai, daya daga cikinsu ba shi da wani laifi kuma duk shari'o'in da aka gano 'yan sanda suna aiki da hakkinsu na doka. New Zealand tana da tsayayyen tsari wanda duk wani ɗan ƙasa da ke son yin amfani da makami bisa doka dole ne ya bi ta; wannan yana haifar da yanayi ta hanyar da daidaitaccen farar hula ba zai haifar da barazana ga rayuwar jami'an tilasta bin doka ko kuma ta wasu ba.

Matsayin da dokokin kasa da kasa ke tsammanin jihohi su yi aiki iri daya ne a duk fadin hukumar, dole ne jami'an tsaro su yi amfani da karfi mai mutuƙar mutuwa lokacin da ainihin barazanar cutarwa ga jami'an tilasta bin doka ko wasu farar hula. Gaskiyar ita ce, kowace jiha ta bambanta a cikin abin da ya zama yanayin da ya dace ga jami'an tilasta bin doka don mayar da martani da karfi mai kisa saboda jihohi a duk faɗin duniya suna da nasu yanayi na musamman, doka, al'adu da yawan jama'a .

Euthanasia/Kisan kai/rataya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Injin Euthanasia (Ostiraliya)

Waɗanda suka yi imani da cewa mutum ya kamata ya yanke shawarar kashe kansa ta hanyar rataya suna amfani da hujjar cewa mutane suna da hakkin zaɓar, [10] yayin da masu adawa da halatta rataya suna jayayya a kan dalilin cewa dukan mutane suna da hakkin yin zabi. hakkin rayuwa. Ana kiransu da yawa a matsayin masu haƙƙin ɓata rai. [11]

Bayanan shari'a[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • A cikin 1444, Dokar Poljica ta bayyana 'yancin yin rayuwa "don babu abin da ya kasance har abada."
  • A cikin 1776, Sanarwar 'Yanci ta Amurka ta bayyana cewa, "dukkan mutane an halicce su daidai, cewa Mahaliccinsu ya ba su wasu haƙƙoƙin da ba za a iya raba su ba, cewa daga cikin waɗannan akwai Rayuwarr, 'Yanci da kuma neman Farin Ciki."
  • A cikin 1948, Yarjejeniya ta Duniya game da Haƙƙin Dan Adam, wanda Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da shi a cikin labarin na uku: Kowayanan da 'yancin rayuwa cikin aminci da kuma tsaro.
  • A shekara ta 1950, Majalisar Turai ta amince da Yarjejeniyar Turai kan 'Yancin Dan Adam, ta bayyana kare hakkin dan Adam na rayuwa a cikin Mataki na 2 . Akwai kebantattun hukuncin kisa na halal da kare kai, kama wanda ake zargi da gudu, da murkushe tarzoma da tayar da zaune tsaye. Tun daga wancan lokaci yarjejeniya ta 6 ta yi kira ga kasashe da su haramta hukuncin kisa sai dai lokacin yaki ko gaggawa na kasa, kuma a halin yanzu hakan ya shafi dukkan kasashen majalisar. Yarjejeniya ta 13 ta tanadi soke hukuncin kisa gabaɗaya, kuma an aiwatar da ita a yawancin ƙasashe membobin majalisar.
  • A cikin 1966, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da Yarjejeniyar Kasa da Kasa kan 'Yancin Bil'adama da Siyasa .Kowani dan adam yana da 'yancin rayuwa kuma wannan 'yancin yakamata a karesa kamar yadda doka tace sannan babu wani da zaiyi masa barazana da rayuwarsa.
  • A cikin 1969, an amince da Yarjejeniya ta Amurka kan 'yancin ɗan adam a San José, Costa Rica ta ƙasashe da yawa a Yammacin Yammacin Turai. Yana aiki a kasashe 23. Kowani mutum yana da 'yancin rayuwarsa da girmamata wannan 'yancin dole a girmamasa kamar yadda doka da oda tace
  • A cikin 1982, Yarjejeniya ta Kanada ta Hakkoki da 'Yanci ta sanya hakanKowani dan adam yana da 'yancin rayuwa cikin aminci da tsaron lafiyarsa da 'yancin kada ya kasance mai saba dokoki na shari'a.
  • A shekara ta 1989, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da Yarjejeniya kan 'Yancin Yara (CRC).
  • Doka ta asali ga Tarayyar Jamus ta ɗauki ƙa'idar mutunta ɗan adam gabaɗaya, har ma da haƙƙin rayuwa.
  • Cocin Katolika ta fitar da Yarjejeniya ta Hakkokin Iyali wanda a ciki ta bayyana cewa haƙƙin rayuwa yana nufin mutuncin ɗan adam kai tsaye.
  • Mataki na ashirin da 21 na Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Indiya, 1950, ya ba da tabbacin 'yancin rayuwa ga duk mutanen da ke cikin yankin Indiya kuma ya ce: "Babu wani mutum da za a hana shi hakkinsa na rayuwa da 'yancin kansa sai dai bisa tsarin da doka ta kafa." Mataki na 21 ya bai wa kowane mutum ainihin haƙƙin rayuwa da 'yancin kai wanda ya zama tushen haƙƙoƙi da yawa. [12]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "Address to Midwives on the Nature of Their Profession", 29 October 1951. Pope Pius XII.
  2. http://www.christianlifeandliberty.net/RTL.bmp K.M. Cassidy. "Right to Life." In Dictionary of Christianity in America, Coordinating Editor, Daniel G. Reid. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1990. pp. 1017,1018.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named auto
  4. Richard Rosenfeld, Founders Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.
  5. Alison V. Hall, University of Texas-Arlington, Erika V. Hall, Emory University, Jamie L. Perry, Cornell University.
  6. Attorney George Coppolo, Chief Attorney for the Connecticut General Assembly's Office of Legislative Research.
  7. Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
  8. Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985).
  9. Independent Police Conduct Authority Annual Report, 2011-2012, New Zealand.
  10. 1999, Jennifer M. Scherer, Rita James Simon, Euthanasia and the Right to Die: A Comparative View, Page 27
  11. 1998, Roswitha Fischer, Lexical Change in Present-day English, page 126
  12. Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India AIR 1978 SC 597