Jump to content

Harshen Tuamotuan

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Pa‘umotu
ReSamfuri:Okinao PaSamfuri:Okinaumotu
Reko PaSamfuri:Okinaumotu
Asali a French Polynesia
Yanki Tuamotus, Tahiti
Ƙabila 15,600 (2007 census?)[1]
'Yan asalin magana
4,000 in Tuamotu (2007 census)[2]
many additional speakers in Tahiti[2]
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 pmt
Glottolog tuam1242[3]
Pa‘umotu is classified as Definitely Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger


Tuamotuan, Pa ʻ umotu or Paumotu (Tuamotuan: ReTemplate:Okinao PaTemplate:Okinaumotu )</link> ko Reko PaTemplate:Okinaumotu</link> ) yaren Polynesia ne wanda mutane 4,000 ke magana a cikin tsibiran Tuamotu, tare da ƙarin masu magana 2,000 a Tahiti


Harafin Pa'umotu ya dogara ne akan rubutun Latin. [4]

Game da harshe

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihi da al'adu

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mutanen Pa'umotu a yau suna kiran tsibirinsu Tuamotu yayin da suke kiran kansu da harshensu a matsayin Pa'umotu (ko Paumotu). Pa'umotu yana ɗaya daga cikin harsuna shida na Polynesia da ake magana da su a cikin Faransanci Polynesia, sauran harsuna biyar sune Tahitian, Marquesan, Mangarevan, Rapa, da Austral .

Tasirin ziyarar farko a Turai ba ta da wani tasiri a siyasance. Harshen, duk da haka, yaren Tahitian ya shafe shi a ƙarshe, wanda fadada Turai ya shafe shi. Zuwan ƴan mishan na Turai a ƙarni na 19 kuma ya haifar da lamuni, gami da ƙirƙirar sabbin ƙamus na sabon bangaskiyar Pa'umotu, da fassarar Littafi Mai-Tsarki zuwa Pa'umotu.

Addinin asali na Tuamtus ya ƙunshi bautar wani babban halitta, Kiho-Tumu ko Kiho. An adana kuma an fassara waƙoƙin addini waɗanda ke bayyana halayen Kiho da yadda ya halicci duniya.

A cikin 'yan lokutan baya-bayan nan, Tuamotus sune wurin gwajin makaman nukiliya na Faransa akan atolls na Moruroa da Fangataufa .

Paumotu memba ne na ƙungiyar Polynesian na harsunan Oceanic, ita kanta rukuni ne na dangin Austronesia .

Wasu tasirin kasashen waje suna nan.

Yaduwar yanki

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Mummunan taswirar Tuamotu Archipelago

Ana magana da Pa'umotu a cikin manyan tsibirai na Tuamotu, waɗanda adadinsu ya kai fiye da ƙananan tsibirai 60. Yawancin mazaunan dā sun ƙaura zuwa Tahiti, wanda hakan ya sa harshen ya ragu.

A cikin 1970s, akwai adadin Pa'umotu da ke zaune a Laie, O'ahu, Hawai'i, da kuma wasu wurare a tsibirin O'ahu. An ba da rahoton cewa wasu suna zaune a California da Florida. Akwai kuma mutane da dama da ke zaune a New Zealand da aka ruwaito Pa'umotu, ko da yake sun fito daga Tahiti.

Pa'umotu yana da yaruka bakwai ko yankunan harshe: suna rufe Parata, Vahitu, Maraga, Fagatau, Tapuhoe, Napuka da Mihiro. [5] [6] Mutanen Pa'umotu na asali ƴan ƙauyuka ne, suna ƙaura daga wannan atom zuwa wani kuma ta haka ne suke ƙirƙirar yaruka iri-iri. ’Yan asalin ƙasar suna kiran wannan ɗabi’ar makiyaya a matsayin orihaerenoa</link> , daga tushen kalmomin ori</link> (ma'ana 'yawo'), haere</link> (ma'ana 'tafi') da noa</link> (ma'ana 'rashin takurawa'). [7]

Pa'umotu yayi kama da na Tahiti, kuma yawan Tahitian ya shafi Pa'umotu. [5] :101–108Da farko saboda rinjayen siyasa da tattalin arziƙin Tahiti a yankin, yawancin Pa'umotu (musamman waɗanda suka fito daga yammacin turai) suna harsuna biyu, suna magana da Pa'umotu da Tahitian. Matasa da yawa Pa'umotu da ke zaune a kan atolls kusa da Tahiti suna jin yaren Tahiti kawai kuma ba su da Pa'umotu.

Misali shi ne yadda Pa'umotu ke amfani da sautin murfi kamar k ko g, wanda a cikin Tahitian-Pa'umotu (haɗuwar harsuna) ya zama tasha. Misali, kalmar 'shark' a cikin Pa'umotu mago ce</link> , amma a cikin haɗakar harsunan biyu ya zama ma'o</link> . Haka abin yake da kalmomi irin su matagi</link> / mata'i</link> da koe</link> / 'oe</link> .

Waɗannan bambance-bambancen yare suna haifar da rarrabuwa tsakanin "Tsohon Pa'umotu" da "Sabon Pa'umotu". Yawancin ƙananan Pa'umotu ba su gane wasu kalmomi da kakanninsu suka yi amfani da su ba, kamar kalmar ua</link> don 'ruwan sama'.[ana buƙatar hujja]</link>Ƙananan Pa'umotu [ ] <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (November 2022)">da</span> kalmar toiti</link> don 'ruwan sama' a cikin Pa'umotu na zamani.

A cewar UNESCO, Pa`umotu "tabbas yana cikin haɗari " [8] Hakika, tun kafin shekarun 1960, yawancin mazauna tsibirin Tuamotu sun yi ƙaura zuwa Tahiti don neman ilimi ko damar aiki; [5] wannan jirgin na karkara ya ba da gudummawa sosai wajen raunana Pa'umotu, wanda wani lokaci ana kwatanta shi da " harshe mai mutuwa ". [9]

Tun daga shekarun 1950, harshen da ake amfani da shi wajen ilimi a Polynesia na Faransa shine Faransanci. Ba a koyar da ɗan Tahiti ko Pa'umotu a makarantu. [10]

Hukumar da ta keɓe, mai suna Académie pa'umotu [fr] tana kula da harshen Pa'umotu., ko Kāruru vānaga . [11] An ƙirƙira shi a cikin 2008, [12] yana bin tsarin Académie tahitienne . [13]

Babu tsarin nahawu da aka buga akan yaren Pa'umotu. Kalmomin Tahitian-Pa'umotu na yanzu suna dogara ne akan Littafi Mai Tsarki na Tahiti da fassarar Tahiti na Littafin Mormon.

Samfuran tushe don kwatancen Pa'umotu-Turanci shine al'adun Kiho-Tumu, wanda ya ƙunshi waƙoƙin addini na Pa'umotu da fassarar turanci.

Ilimin sauti

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
Consonants
Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ ⟨ g ⟩
M p t k ʔ ⟨ ` ⟩
Ƙarfafawa f



v
h
Rhotic r

Ana samun tasha glottal a cikin ɗimbin kalmomin lamunin Tahiti . Hakanan ana samunsa a cikin bambance-bambancen kyauta tare da /k/</link> da /ŋ/</link> a cikin wasu kalmomi da aka raba tsakanin Pa'umotu da Tahitian. Za a iya samun tasha mai ɗorewa a farkon kalmomin farko guda ɗaya. [14]

Wasula
Gaba Tsakiya Baya
Babban i u
Tsakar e o [15]
Ƙananan a

Gajerun wasula sun bambanta da dogayen wasali da tsayin wasali don haka sauti ne. Wasu nau'i-nau'i na wasali da ba iri ɗaya ba sun bayyana a cikin Pu'amotu, kuma ana fassara dogayen wasula a matsayin nau'i-nau'i na wasula iri ɗaya kuma an rubuta su ta hanyar ninka wasulan a kowane hali. A cikin matsayi mara ƙarfi, za a iya rasa bambanci tsakanin dogon da gajere. Matsayin damuwa yana da tsinkaya. Danniya na farko yana kan wasali na gaba kafin juncture, tare da dogayen wasulan da ke kirga wasula biyu da masu saurara da ba a kirga su a matsayin wasulan. Daya daga cikin kowane wasali biyu ko uku yana damuwa.. wato, mafi ƙarancin yanki don sanya damuwa shine wasula biyu, kuma matsakaicin shine uku. Idan aka danne dogon wasali, damuwa ya kan sauka kan gaba dayan wasalin, ba tare da la’akari da wane irin mora ba ne, sai dai idan dogon wasali ya zama na karshe. Babu fiye da wasali/mora mara nauyi da zai iya faruwa a jere, amma, idan na farkon wasula biyu ya yi tsayi, babu damuwa a tsakaninsu. Ba za a iya nanata nau'ikan ɗan gajeren wasali ɗaya ba. [16]

A zahiri, ana iya ganin kamanceceniya da yawa tsakanin sauran harsunan Polynesia a cikin ƙamus na Pa'umotu. 'Mace', alal misali, banza vahine</link> , kusa da Hawaiian da Maori wahine</link> . Wani misali kuma shine 'abu', wanda a cikin Pa'umotu mea ne</link> , kuma iri ɗaya ne a Samoan da Maori.

Masu magana da harshen Pa'umotu suna amfani da saurin magana da gangan, jinkirin magana, da salon magana na yau da kullun. Suna amfani da damuwa na jimla, wanda zai iya zama sautin sauti ko morphemic, da damuwa na farko, wanda ba sautin sauti ba. [17]

Bayanan kula da nassoshi

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  1. Samfuri:E17
  2. 2.0 2.1 Samfuri:Ethnologue18
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tuamotuan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. "Ethnologue".
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 See Charpentier & François (2015).
  6. Carine Chamfrault (26 December 2008). "L'académie pa'umotu, "reconnaissance d'un peuple"" [The Pa‘umotu Academy, “recognition of a people”]. La Dépêche de Tahiti (in Faransanci). Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  8. Wurm, Stephen (2001). "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger of Disappearing (2001)". unesco.org.
  9. Stimson, J. Frank (1965). "A dictionary of some Tuamotuan dialects of the Polynesian language". American Anthropologist. 67. doi:10.1525/aa.1965.67.4.02a00210.
  10. Vernaudon, Jacques (2015). "Linguistic Ideologies: Teaching Oceanic Languages in French Polynesia and New Caledonia" (PDF). The Contemporary Pacific. 27 (2): 433–462. doi:10.1353/cp.2015.0048. S2CID 152329866. |hdl-access= requires |hdl= (help)
  11. Présentation de l’académie Pa’umotu - Kāruru vānaga Archived 2023-07-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. “Arrêté n° 1910 CM du 23 décembre 2008 portant création de l’académie pa’umotu”.
  13. L’académie pa’umotu, “reconnaissance d’un peuple”, La Dépêche de Tahiti, 23 Dec 2008.
  14. Kuki (1973), p. 104
  15. Kuki (1973), p. 103
  16. Kuki (1973), p. 104–105, 108–112.
  17. Kuki, Hiroshi (March 1973). "Predictability of Stress in a Polynesian Language: Stress Patterns in Tuamotuan". Gengo Kenkyu (Journal of the Linguistic Society of Japan).

Kara karantawa

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Alexandre François (linguist). Missing |author1= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  •  

Hanyoyin haɗi na waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]