Jami'a

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Wikidata.svgjami'a
Raffael 058.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na higher education institution (en) Fassara da cibiya ta koyarwa
Field of work (en) Fassara higher education (en) Fassara
Has quality (en) Fassara Q108401094 Fassara
Uses (en) Fassara university building (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i university history (en) Fassara
Model item (en) Fassara Jami'ar Oxford, University of Bologna (en) Fassara, Jami'ar al-Karaouine, University of Mumbai (en) Fassara da Keio University (en) Fassara
Wata lacca a Jami'ar West London.

Jami'a babbar cibiyar ilmantarwa ce. Kalmar jami'a ta fito ne daga Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, wanda ke nufin "ƙungiyar malamai da malamai ". Ɗalibai na iya zuwa jami'a don samun digiri na ilimi . Saɓanin karatun da suka yi a baya, kwasa-kwasan a jami'a kwararru ne. Mutumin da ke karatun nazarin halittu a jami'a yana da kwasa-kwasai da yawa game da ilmin halitta da ƙananan kwasa-kwasan a wasu fannoni kamar yare ko tarihi. Don samun digiri mafi girma, dole ne mutane suyi ɗan bincike.

Ba duk darussan ake bayarwa a jami'o'i ba. Galibi, jami'o'i suna ba da kwasa-kwasan da suka shafi ilimin . Galibi ba sa ba da kwasa-kwasan sana'a. A wasu lokuta kamar doka, inda akwai ilimin ilimi da maganganu na yau da kullun, jami'a tana yin akasarin ƙa'idojin batun. Cancantar a aikace wasu wurare ne.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsoffin gine-gine na Jami'ar Bologna, waɗanda aka kafa a 1088

Jami'o'in an haife su ne a Turai a lokacin Tsararru . Cibiyar farko ta wannan nau'in ita ce Jami'ar Bologna, wacce daga baya ta zama abin koyi ga sauran cibiyoyin ilimi .

Da farko, jami'o'in sun ƙirƙiro kansu ne bisa ƙirar ƙungiyoyin ƙwararru kuma kamar kusan duk abin da ke Tsakiyar Zamani, sun kasance suna ɗaure da Cocin Katolika . A farkon, sun yi aiki don koyar da abin da ake kira " zane-zane bakwai masu sassaucin ra'ayi " ( trivium da quadrivium ):

  • Trivium : nahawu, dabaru da lafazi .
  • Quadrivium : ilimin lissafi da lissafi, ilmin taurari da kiɗa .

Wannan farkon rarrabuwa ya haifar da rarrabuwa tsakanin fagen adabi da kimiyya. Daga ra'ayi guda, mafi tsufa jami'a a duniya ita ce jami'ar Qarawiyyin . Koyaya, koyar da addini ba shine ma'anar da yawancin mutane ke amfani da ita ba. Dole ne jami'a ta koyar da kowane fanni.

Ana kallon jami'a a matsayin ɗabi'a mai ƙa'ida wacce ta samo asali daga al'adar Kiristanci na zamanin da . [1] Turai mafi girma ilimi ya faru ga daruruwan shekaru a babban coci makarantu ko zuhudu makarantu (scholae monasticae). A can, sufaye da mata masu zuhudu suka koyar da darasi: shaidar waɗannan kwanakin sun koma karni na 6.

Jami'o'in Paris da Oxford membobin cocin ne suka kafa su. [2] Daga baya sarakuna suka kafa jami'o'in.

A farkon zamanin da, yawancin sabbin jami'oi an kafa su ne daga makarantun da suka kasance, yawanci idan waɗannan makarantu suka zama manyan wuraren manyan makarantu. [3] Paparoma Gregory VII ya inganta manufar jami'ar zamani a matsayin Dokar Papal 1079 . Ya ba da umarnin a kafa makarantu na babban coci, wadanda daga karshe suka rikide zuwa jami'o'in Turai na farko. [4]

Ƙungiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jami'a na iya haɗawa da cibiyoyi da yawa ko wurare daban-daban inda furofesoshi ke koyarwa . A cikin kowane harabar akwai fannoni da yawa da makarantun jami'a (galibi don koyarwa), da kuma ɗakunan gwaje-gwaje, sassan da cibiyoyin bincike. Yawancin makarantu suna da gidaje don ɗalibai a cikin gine-ginen da ake kira ɗakuna da tsari kamar ɗakunan karatu, ɗakunan karatu da wuraren motsa jiki don ɗaliban da ke zaune a ciki. Kowace makaranta tana ba da kwasa-kwasai da yawa waɗanda ɗalibai ke ɗauka don samun digiri. Mutumin da ke da babban iko na iko da ba da umarni a cikin jami'a shine shugaban jami'a, wanda ke jagorantar jami'ar tare da taimakon jam'iyyar mataimakin rektoci da na sauran gabobi kamar majalisar zamantakewar al'umma da hukumar mulki.

Sanannun jami'o'i[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masarautar Ingila[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bikin kammala karatu a Jami'ar Oxford .
  • Jami'ar Aberdeen
  • Jami'ar Aston
  • Jami'ar Birmingham
  • Jami'ar Bristol
  • Jami'ar Queens, Belfast
  • Jami'ar Cambridge
  • Jami'ar Coventry
  • Jami'ar Dundee
  • Jami'ar Durham
  • Jami'ar Edinburgh
  • Jami'ar Exeter
  • Jami'ar Glasgow
  • Jami'ar Leeds
  • Jami'ar London
  • Kwalejin Sarki ta London
  • Jami'ar Jami'ar London
  • Jami'ar Manchester
  • Jami'ar Bude
  • Jami'ar Oxford
  • Jami'ar St Andrews
  • Jami'ar Wales

sin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Peking
  • Jami'ar Tsinghua
  • Jami'ar Hong Kong

Jamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Berlin ta kyauta
  • Jami'ar Goethe Frankfurt
  • Jami'ar Tübingen

Malesiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Malaya
  • Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman

Meziko[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • UNAM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México . Babban jami'a mafi mahimmanci a Mexico da Latin Amurka
  • UdG, Jami'ar Guadalajara . Ita ce jami'a ta biyu mafi tsufa a cikin Meziko, ana ɗaukarta ɗayan manyan jami'o'i a Mexico.
  • IPN, Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • ITESM, Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey
  • ITAM, Instituto Tecnoloógico Autónomo de México

Sweden[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Chalmers
  • Cibiyar Karolinska
  • Jami'ar Lund
  • Royal Institute of Technology
  • Makarantar Tattalin Arziki ta Stockholm
  • Jami'ar Uppsala
  • Jami'ar Umeå

Kasar Finland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Akbo Akademi
  • Jami'ar Aalto
  • Jami'ar Helsinki

Taraiyar Amurka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Akwai ƙungiyar shahararrun jami'o'i da ake kira Ivy League . Sune:

  • Jami'ar Harvard
  • Jami'ar Princeton
  • Jami'ar Yale
  • Jami'ar Brown
  • Jami'ar Cornell
  • Kwalejin Dartmouth
  • Jami'ar Columbia
  • Jami'ar Pennsylvania

Wasu shahararrun jami'o'in kuma sune:

  • Cibiyar Fasaha ta California
  • Jami'ar Duke
  • Massachusetts Cibiyar Fasaha
  • Jami'ar Stanford
  • Jami'ar Chicago
  • Jami'ar Georgetown
  • Jami'ar California, Berkeley
  • Jami'ar Jihar Ohio
  • Jami'ar Jihar Illinois

Kanada[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Carleton
  • Jami'ar McGill
  • Jami'ar McMaster
  • Jami'ar Sarauniya
  • Jami'ar British Columbia
  • Jami'ar New Brunswick
  • Jami'ar Ottawa
  • Jami'ar Toronto
  • Jami'ar Waterloo
  • Jami'ar Western Ontario

Poland[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Warsaw
  • Jami'ar Jagiellonian

Japan[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Tokyo
  • Jami'ar Kyoto
  • Jami'ar Waseda
  • Jami'ar Osaka

Italiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Bologna

Ostiraliya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar (asa ta Australiya
  • Jami'ar Melbourne
  • Jami'ar Deakin
  • Jami'ar New South Wales

Chile[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Chile (Universidad de Chile)
  • Jami'ar Katolika ta Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)
  • Jami'ar Fasaha ta Metropolitan (Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana)

Turkiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Romania[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Kwalejin Naval "Mircea cel Batran" (ANMB)

Najeriya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Koriya ta Kudu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Jami'ar Kasa ta Seoul
  • Jami'ar Yonsei
  • Jami'ar Koriya

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Verger, Jacques. “The Universities and Scholasticism,” in The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume V c. 1198–c. 1300. Cambridge University Press, 2007, 257.
  2. Gordon Leff 1968. Paris and Oxford Universities in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries: an institutional and intellectual history. Wiley, 1968.
  3. Johnson P. 2000. The Renaissance: a short history. New York: Modern Library, p9.
  4. Thomas Oestreich 1913. Pope St. Gregory VII. In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.