Jerusalem

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Globe icon.svgJerusalem
ירושלים (he)
القدس (ar)
Flag of Jerusalem (en) Emblem of Jerusalem (en)
Flag of Jerusalem (en) Fassara Emblem of Jerusalem (en) Fassara
Jerusalem Dome of the rock BW 14.JPG

Suna saboda Shalim (en) Fassara
Wuri
 31°46′44″N 35°13′32″E / 31.7789°N 35.2256°E / 31.7789; 35.2256
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaIsra'ila
Districts of Israel (en) FassaraJerusalem District (en) Fassara
Babban birnin
Isra'ila (1950–)
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 919,438 (2018)
• Yawan mutane 7,330.87 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Greater Jerusalem (en) Fassara
Yawan fili 125.42 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 754 m
Sun raba iyaka da
Ramat Rachel (en) Fassara
Mevaseret Zion (en) Fassara
Beit Zayit (en) Fassara
Hizma (en) Fassara
Al-Ram (en) Fassara
Ramallah (en) Fassara
Even Sapir (en) Fassara
Beit Yala (en) Fassara
Abu Dis (en) Fassara
Ora (en) Fassara
Bethlehem (en) Fassara
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 4 millennium "BCE"
Muhimman sha'ani
Tsarin Siyasa
Gangar majalisa Municipality of Jerusalem (en) Fassara
• Mayor of Jerusalem (en) Fassara Moshe Lion (en) Fassara (4 Disamba 2018)
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Lambar aika saƙo 91000–91999
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
UTC+02:00 (en) Fassara
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho 2
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo jerusalem.muni.il
Facebook: Jerusalem Twitter: Jlm_city Instagram: jerusalem_city Edit the value on Wikidata

Jerusalem (/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִםUrushalima; Larabci: القُدس‎ Al-Quds Al-Sharif ) [1] [2] [3] birni ne, da ke a Yammacin Asiya. Tana kan tudun Yahudawa tsakanin Tekun Bahar Rum da Tekun Gishiri, tana ɗaya daga cikin tsofaffin birane a duniya kuma ana ɗaukarsa birni mai tsarki ga manyan addinan Ibrahim guda uku: Yahudanci, Kiristanci, da Musulunci. Isra'ilawa da Falasdinawan duka suna ikirarin birnin Kudus a matsayin babban birninsu, yayin da Isra'ila ke rike da cibiyoyin gwamnatinta na farko a can kuma kasar Falasdinu a karshe ta yi hasashen cewa ita ce ke da kujerar mulki. Saboda wannan takaddama, ba a san da'awar ba a duniya.

A cikin dogon tarihinta, an halaka Urushalima aƙalla sau biyu, an kewaye ta sau 23, an kama ta kuma an sake kama ta sau 44, an kuma kai hari sau 52. Sashen Urushalima da ake kira birnin Dauda ya nuna alamun farko na zama a cikin ƙarni na 4 K.Z., a cikin siffar sansani na makiyaya. A lokacin Kan'aniyawa (ƙarni na 14 KZ), ana kira Urushalima da sunan Urusalim akan allunan Masarawa na da, mai yiwuwa ma'anar "Birnin Shalem " bayan gunkin Kan'aniyawa. A lokacin Isra’ilawa, an soma gagarumin aikin gine-gine a Urushalima a ƙarni na 9 K.Z. (Age II), kuma a ƙarni na 8 K.Z., birnin ya zama cibiyar addini da gudanarwa na Mulkin Yahudawa A cikin shekarar 1538, an sake gina ganuwar birnin a karo na ƙarshe a kewayen Urushalima a ƙarƙashin Suleiman Mai Girman Daular Usmaniyya. A yau waɗancan ganuwar suna bayyana Tsohon birni, wanda aka raba bisa al'ada zuwa kashi huɗu-wanda aka sani tun farkon ƙarni na 19 a matsayin yankin Armeniya, Kiristanci, Bayahude, da Musulmai. Tsohon birni ya zama Gidan Tarihi na Duniya a cikin shekarar 1981, kuma tana cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na duniya cikin haɗari. Tun daga shekara ta 1860, Urushalima ta yi girma fiye da iyakokin Tsohon birnin. A cikin shekarar 2015, Kudus tana da mazauna kusan 850,000, wanda ya ƙunshi Yahudawan Isra'ila kusan 200,000, Yahudawan Haredi 350,000 da Falasɗinawa 300,000. A cikin shekarar 2016, yawan jama'a ya kai 882,700, wanda yahudawa sun ƙunshi 536,600 (61%), Musulmai 319,800 (36%), Kirista 15,800 (2%), da 10,300 waɗanda ba a tantance su ba (1%).

Bisa ga Littafi Mai Tsarki na Ibrananci, Sarki Dauda ya ci birnin daga hannun Yebusiyawa kuma ya kafa ta a matsayin babban birnin Ƙasar Ingila na Isra’ila, kuma ɗansa, Sarki Sulemanu, ya ba da umarnin gina Temple na Farko. [5] Masana na zamani suna jayayya cewa Yahudawa sun fito daga al’ummar Kan’aniyawa da al’adunsu ta wurin haɓaka addini guda ɗaya—da kuma daga baya na tauhidi—addini da ke kan El/Yahweh. [6] [7] Waɗannan abubuwan da suka faru a farkon karni na 1 K.Z., sun ɗauki babban mahimmancin alama ga mutanen Yahudawa. [8] Sobriquet na birni mai tsarki (Hebrew: עיר הקודש‎ ) Wataƙila an haɗa shi da Urushalima a lokacin da aka yi hijira. Tsarkin Urushalima a cikin Kiristanci, wanda aka kiyaye shi a cikin fassarar Hellenanci na Littafi Mai Tsarki na Ibrananci, [9] wanda Kiristoci suka ɗauka a matsayin nasu "Tsohon Alkawari", [10] an ƙarfafa ta da labarin Sabon Alkawari na gicciye Yesu da tashinsa daga matattu a can. A cikin Islama na Sunna, Kudus ita ce birni na uku mafi tsarki, bayan Makka da Madina. [11] [12] Birnin shi ne alqibla ta farko, madaidaicin alkiblar musulmi (salah), [13] kuma a cikin al'adar Musulunci, Annabi Muhammadu (SWA) ya yi Tafiyar Dare a can a shekara ta 621, ya je al'arshi inda yayi magana da Allah, bisa ga yadda Alkur'ani ya bayyana. [14] [15] A sakamakon haka, duk da samun yanki na kawai0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi) , [16] Tsohon birni gida ne ga wurare da yawa na mahimmancin addini, daga cikinsu akwai Dutsen Temple tare da bangonsa na Yamma, Dome na Rock da Masallacin al-Aqsa, da Cocin Mai Tsarki.

A yau, matsayin birnin Kudus ya kasance daya daga cikin batutuwan da ke cikin rikicin Isra'ila da Falasdinu. A lokacin yakin Larabawa da Isra'ila a shekara ta 1948, yammacin birnin Kudus na daga cikin yankunan da Isra'ila ta kwace daga bisani kuma ta mamaye gabashin birnin Kudus, ciki har da tsohon birnin kasar Jordan daga baya. Isra'ila ta kwace Gabashin Kudus daga kasar Jordan a lokacin yakin kwanaki shida na 1967 sannan daga bisani ta mamaye birnin na Kudus, tare da karin yankunan da ke kewaye. [20] Ɗaya daga cikin Dokokin Isra'ila, Dokar Kudus ta 1980, tana nufin Urushalima a matsayin babban birnin ƙasar da ba a raba. Dukkan sassan gwamnatin Isra'ila suna birnin Kudus, ciki har da Knesset (majalisar dokokin Isra'ila), da gidajen Firayim Minista (Beit Aghion ) da kuma shugaban kasa (Beit HaNassi), da kuma Kotun Koli. Kasashen duniya sun yi watsi da mamayen a matsayin haramtacce kuma suna daukar Gabashin Kudus a matsayin yankin Falasdinawa da Isra'ila ta mamaye.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. A-Z Guide to the Qur'an: A Must-have Reference to Understanding the Contents of the Islamic Holy Book by Mokhtar Stork (1999): "JERUSALEM: Referred to in Arabic as Baitul Muqaddas (The Holy House) or Baitul Maqdis (The House of the Sanctuary)".
  2. Pan-Islamism in India & Bengal by Mohammad Shah (2002), p. 63: "... protector of Mecca, Medina and Baitul Muqaddas, the sacred places of pilgrimage of the Muslim world"
  3. In other languages: official Arabic in Israel: Larabci: أورشليم القدس‎, romanized: ʾŪršalīm al-Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); Template:Lang-grc; Template:Lang-hy.
  4. Pellegrino, Charles R. (1995). Return to Sodom & Gomorrah (Second revised ed.). Harper Paperbacks. p. 271. ISBN 0-380-72633-5. [see footnote]
  5. Much of the information regarding King David's conquest of Jerusalem comes from Biblical accounts, but some modern-day historians have begun to give them credit due to a 1993 excavation.[4]
  6. Tubb, 1998. pp. 13–14.
  7. Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
  8. Since the 10th century BCE:
  9. Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία.
  10. Joseph T. Lienhard, The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian Bible in History and Theology, Liturgical Press, 1995 pp. 65–66: 'The Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint because the early Christians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.'
  11. Third-holiest city in Islam:
  12. Middle East peace plans by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina".
  13. (P. M. ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. Template:Qref
  15. Empty citation (help)
  16. Empty citation (help)
  17. Walid Khalidi (1996) Islam, the West and Jerusalem. Center for Contemporary Arab Studies & Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, quotes the breakdown as follows: West Jerusalem in 1948: 16,261 dunums (14%); West Jerusalem added in 1967: 23,000 dunums (20%); East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums (5%); West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem by Israel: 67,000 dunums (61%)
  18. Aronson, Geoffrey (1995). "Settlement Monitor: Quarterly Update on Developments". Journal of Palestine Studies. University of California Press, Institute for Palestine Studies. 25 (1): 131–40. doi:10.2307/2538120. JSTOR 2538120. West Jerusalem: 35%; East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 4%; West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem by Israel: 59%
  19. Benvenisti, Meron (1976). Jerusalem, the Torn City. Books on Demand. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7837-2978-7. East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums; West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem by Israel: 67,000
  20. West Jerusalem comprises approximately one third of the municipal area of Jerusalem, with East Jerusalem comprising approximately two-thirds. On the annexation of East Jerusalem, Israel also incorporated an area of the West Bank into the Jerusalem municipal area which represented more than ten times the area of East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule.[17][18][19]