Jihadin Yara

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentJihadin Yara
Gustave dore crusades the childrens crusade.jpg
Iri religious war (en) Fassara
Bangare na Crusades (en) Fassara
Yakin Jihadin Yara, na Gustave Doré

Yaƙin Jihadin Yara ya kasance sanannen yaƙine da Kiristoci a Turai sukayi don kafa Masarautar ƙudus ta Latin ta biyu a cikin Holyasa Mai Tsarki, wanda aka ce ya faru a 1212. 'Yan yaƙin basasar sun bar yankunan Arewacin Faransa, ƙarƙashin jagorancin Stephen na Cloyes, da Jamus, karkashin jagorancin Nicholas. Tarihin gargajiyar na iya haɗuwa daga wasu abubuwan da suka faru na gaskiya da na almara waɗanda suka haɗa da wahayin da wani ɗan Faransa da wani Bajamushe, da niyyar musulmai a cikin ƙasa Mai Tsarki zuwa cikin Kiristanci cikin lumana, ƙungiyar yara da ke tafiya zuwa Italiya, da yara da ake sayarwa cikin bautar a Tunis.

Lissafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asusun gargajiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abubuwan bambance-bambancen tarihin daɗaɗɗen labarin Yaƙin Jihadin Yara yana da jigogi iri ɗaya. Yaro ya fara wa’azi a cikin Faransa ko Jamus; yayi ikirarin cewa Yesu ya ziyarce shi, wanda ya bashi umarnin jagorantar yakin Jihadi domin musuluntar da kirista cikin lumana. Ta hanyar jerin abubuwan al'ajabi da mu'ujizai, ya sami biyan yara har zuwa yara 30,000. Yana jagorantar mabiyansa kudu zuwa tekun Bahar Rum, tare da imanin cewa tekun zai rabu kan isowarsu, wanda zai bashi damar shi da mabiyansa suyi tafiya zuwa Kudus . Wannan baya faruwa. Ana sayar da yaran ga wasu 'yan kasuwa biyu, waɗanda ke ba yara da yawa izinin tafiya a kwale-kwale kamar yadda suke so. Daga nan sai a dauke mahajjatan zuwa Tunisia, inda 'yan kasuwa ke siyar da su a matsayin bayi ko kuma su mutu a cikin wani jirgin ruwan da ya kife a Tsibirin San Pietro da ke kusa da Sardinia a lokacin da ake yin haya .

Lissafin zamani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tatsuniya

A cewar masu bincike na kwanan nan, da alama akwai ƙungiyoyi biyu na mutane (na kowane zamani) a cikin 1212 a Jamus da Faransa. Abubuwan kamanceceniya guda biyu sun bawa marubutan tarihin daga baya damar haɗawa da ƙawata tatsuniyoyin.

Nicholas na Cologne a Jamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yara

A motsi na farko, Nicholas, makiyayi daga Rhineland a Jamus, yi ƙoƙari ya jagoranci rukuni a ƙetaren Alps da Italiya zuwa a farkon bazarar 1212. Nicholas ya ce teku za ta bushe a gabansu kuma ta bar mabiyansa su tsallaka zuwa ƙasa Mai Tsarki. Maimakon ya yi niyyar yakar Sarakan, sai ya ce za a ci masarautun Musulmai baya yayin da ‘yan kasarsu suka koma Katolika. Almajiransa sun tafi yin wa'azin kira don "Yaƙin Jihadi" a ƙasan ƙasashen Jamusawa, kuma sun hallara a Cologne bayan weeksan makonni. Jama'ar sun kasu kashi biyu, jama'a sun bi hanyoyi daban-daban ta Switzerland. Biyu daga cikin kowane mutum uku da ke cikin tafiya sun mutu, yayin da wasu da yawa suka koma gidajensu. Kimanin 7,000 suka isa Genoa a ƙarshen Agusta. Nan da nan suka yi tattaki zuwa tashar jiragen ruwa, suna tsammanin teku za ta raba a gabansu; lokacin da mutane da yawa basuyi baƙin ciki ba. Wasu kalilan sun zargi Nicholas da cin amanarsu, yayin da wasu suka zauna don jiran Allah ya canza shawara, tun da sun yi imanin cewa abin da ba za a taɓa tsammani ba daga ƙarshe ba zai yi hakan ba. Bandananan rukunin sun burge hukumomin Genoese, kuma sun ba da izinin zama ɗan ƙasa ga waɗanda suke so su zauna a garinsu. Mafi yawa daga cikin 'Yan Salibiyyar sun yi amfani da wannan damar. Nicholas ya ƙi ya ce an ci shi kuma ya yi tafiya zuwa Pisa, motsin sa na ci gaba da ɓarkewa a kan hanya. A cikin Pisa jiragen ruwa biyu da aka tura zuwa Falasdinu sun amince su hau da yawa daga cikin yaran waɗanda, wataƙila, suka sami nasarar isa Holyasa Mai Tsarki. Nicholas da wasu followersan mabiya masu aminci, a maimakon haka, sun ci gaba zuwa Papal States, inda suka haɗu da Paparoma Innocent III . Ragowar sun tashi zuwa Jamus bayan Pontiff ya gargaɗe su su kasance masu kyau kuma su koma gida ga danginsu. Nicholas bai tsira daga yunƙuri na biyu ba a ƙetaren tsaunukan Alps; bayan gida an kama mahaifinsa kuma an rataye shi a matsin lamba daga dangin da suka fusata wadanda danginsu suka halaka yayin bin yaran.

Wasu daga cikin mafi sadaukarwa membobin wannan Jihadi daga baya an ba da rahoton cewa sun yi yawo zuwa Ancona da Brindisi ; babu wanda aka sani ya isa Kasa mai tsarki.

Stephen na Cloyes a Faransa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tafiya ta biyu ta kasance karkashin jagorancin wani mai suna Stephen (Étienne) na Cloyes, wanda ya ce a cikin Yuni cewa ya ɗauki wasiƙa zuwa ga sarkin Faransa daga wurin Yesu. Manyan gungun matasa da ke kusa da shekarunsa sun kusanci shi, mafi yawansu suna da'awar suna da baiwar Allah ta musamman kuma suna ganin kansu masu ban al'ajabi. Da jan hankalin mabiya sama da 30,000 manya da yara, ya tafi Saint-Denis, inda aka ba da rahoton ya haifar da mu'ujizai. Bisa umarnin Philip II, wanda Jami'ar Paris ta ba da shawara, an nemi mutanen da su koma gida. Filibus kansa bai bayyana da burgewa ba, musamman ma tunda baƙinsa ya jagoranci ɗan ƙaramin yaro, kuma ya ƙi ɗaukansu da gaske. Amma, Stephen bai firgita ba kuma ya fara wa'azi a wani abbey da ke kusa. Daga Saint-Denis, Istifanus ya zagaya Faransa, yana yaɗa saƙonninsa yayin da yake tafiya, yana mai alkawarin kai ƙararrakin Kristi zuwa Urushalima. Kodayake Cocin na da shakku, koyarwarsa ya burge manya da yawa. Kadan daga cikin wadanda suka fara haduwa dashi sun mallaki aikinsa; an kiyasta cewa akwai kasa da rabin farkon 30,000 da suka rage, adadi da yake raguwa cikin sauri, maimakon ya bunkasa kamar yadda watakila ake tsammani.

A ƙarshen Yunin 1212, Istifanas ya jagoranci manyan Can cibiyyar daga Vendôme zuwa Marseilles . Sun rayu ne ta hanyar rokon abinci, yayin da akasarin suke ganin kamar sun gaji da wahalar wannan tafiya kuma sun koma ga danginsu.

Tarihin tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Majiya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cewar Peter Raedts, farfesa a Tarihin Zamani a Jami'ar Radboud Nijmegen, akwai kusan 50 tushe daga lokacin da ke magana game da jihadi, jere daga 'yan jimloli zuwa rabin shafi. Raedts ya kasafta tushen zuwa gida uku dangane da lokacin da aka rubuta su:

  1. Tushen zamani da 1220 ya rubuta cewa;
  2. Bayanai da aka rubuta tsakanin 1220 da 1250 (marubutan suna iya rayuwa a lokacin yaƙin jihadi amma sun rubuta abubuwan da suka tuna daga baya);
  3. Bayanan da aka rubuta bayan 1250 ta marubutan da suka karɓi bayanansu hannu na biyu ko na uku.

Raedts baya ɗaukar tushen bayan 1250 a matsayin mai iko, kuma waɗanda suke kafin 1250, yana ɗaukar kusan 20 kawai masu iko ne. Sai a cikin labaran da ba na izini ba daga baya ne ake nuna “yaƙin yara” kamar yadda marubutan irin su Vincent na Beauvais, Roger Bacon, Thomas na Cantimpré, Matthew Paris da sauransu suka nuna.

Nazarin tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kafin karatun da Raedts yayi na 1977, ba a da ɗan littattafan tarihi kaɗan da ke binciken Yaƙin Childrenananan Yara. Na farko sun kasance daga Bafaranshen nan G. de Janssens (1891) da Reinhold Rinhricht na Jamus (1876). Sun bincika kafofin amma basuyi nazarin labarin ba. Ba'amurken zamanin Dana Carleton Munro (1913-14), a cewar Raedts, ya ba da mafi kyawun binciken hanyoyin har zuwa yau kuma shi ne farkon wanda ya bayar da cikakken bayani mai ma'ana game da Jihadi da aka cire labarin almara. Daga baya, JE Hansbery (1938–99) ya buga gyaran aikin Munro, amma tun daga nan ba a yarda da shi ba bisa tushen tushe. Wani masanin ilimin hauka na Bajamushe Justus Hecker (1865) ya ba da fassarar asali game da yaƙin, amma ya zama takaddama game da "halin rashin lafiyar da ke damun addini" wanda tun daga nan aka ƙi yarda da shi.

P. Alphandery (1916) ya fara wallafa ra'ayinsa game da yakin jihadi a cikin 1916 a wata kasida wacce daga baya aka buga ta cikin sigar littafi a 1959. Ya dauki labarin yakin jihadi a matsayin nuna al'adun zamanin da na Innocents, a matsayin wani nau'in sadaukarwa wanda Innocents suka ba da kansu don amfanin Kiristendam ; duk da haka, ya dogara da ra'ayoyinsa akan wasu tushe mara tushe. [1]

Adolf Waas (1956) ya ga 'Yaƙin Jihadi na Yara a matsayin bayyanar tsoron Allah da kuma nuna adawa da ɗaukaka yaƙin mai tsarki. [2] HE Mayer (1960) ya ƙara haɓaka ra'ayoyin Alphandery na Masu laifi, yana cewa yara zaɓaɓɓun mutanen Allah ne saboda sune mafi talauci; da yake fahimtar tsafin talauci, ya ce "Yunkurin Yaran ya nuna nasarar da kuma gazawar ra'ayin talauci." [3] Giovanni Miccoli (1961) shine farkon wanda ya lura cewa majiyar zamani ba ta nuna mahalarta matsayin yara ba. Wannan fitowar ce ta lalata duk sauran fassarar, [4] sai dai watakila na Norman Cohn (1957) wanda ya gan shi a matsayin motsi na chiliastic wanda talakawa ke ƙoƙarin tserewa daga baƙin cikin rayuwar su ta yau da kullun. A cikin littafinsa Yara na Jihadi: Tarihin Zamani, Tarihin Zamani (2008), Gary Dickson yayi magana game da karuwar yawan "rashin yuwuwar" motsi a fadin Yammacin Turai a lokacin. Wadanda suka shahara saboda kauracewa duk wani nau'I na dukiya da kin shiga gidan sufi, zasuyi tafiya cikin rukuni-rukuni kuma su dogara da kananan gudummawa ko abinci daga wadanda suka saurari wa'azinsu don su rayu. Paparoman ya fitar da su daga waje, ya tilasta musu yin yawo kuma wataƙila sun ƙunshi babban ɓangare na abin da ake kira "Yaƙin Jihadi na Yara". Bayan yakin basasa bai yi nasara ba, Paparoma ya bayyana cewa masu bautar Nicholas da Stephen sun kunyata shugabannin kirista duka.

Masana tarihi sun sanya murƙushe cikin mahallin rawar da samari maza ke takawa a yakin basasa. [5] Malaman adabi sun binciko rawar da take takawa a cigaban tatsuniyar Pied Piper . [6]

Shahararrun asusun[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan karatun kimiyya akwai shahararrun juzu'i da ra'ayoyi game da Jihadin Yara. Norman Zacour a cikin binciken A Tarihin yaƙe-yaƙe (1962) gabaɗaya yana bin shawarar Munro, kuma ya ƙara da cewa akwai rashin kwanciyar hankali na zamani, yana kammala Yarjejeniyar Yara "har yanzu yana ɗaya daga cikin jerin fashewar zamantakewar jama'a, ta inda maza da mata na da. —Da yara ma - an sami saki ”.

Steven Runciman ya ba da labarin Yaƙin Jihadin Childrenananan yara a cikin littafinsa na Tarihin yaƙe-yaƙe . [7] Raedts ya lura da cewa "Duk da cewa ya faɗi labarin Munro a cikin bayanan nasa, amma labarin nasa yana da ban tsoro ta yadda hatta mai karancin karatu zai yi mamaki ko da gaske ne ya fahimce shi." Donald Spoto, a cikin wani littafin 2002 game da Saint Francis na Assisi, ya ce sufaye suna da kwarin gwiwa ya kira su yara, kuma ba yawo da talakawa ba, saboda ana daukar kasancewar talakawa masu tsoron Allah kuma Cocin tana jin kunyar dukiyarta sabanin talakawa. Wannan, a cewar Spoto, ya fara al'adun adabi ne wanda shahararren labarin yara ya samo asali. Wannan ra'ayin yana bin HE Mayer a hankali.

Gyarawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Masanin tarihin Holland din Peter Raedts, a cikin wani binciken da aka buga a 1977, shine farkon wanda ya sanya shakku kan labarin gargajiya na waɗannan abubuwan. Yawancin masana tarihi sun gaskata cewa su ba (ko ba da farko ba) yara ne, amma ƙungiyoyi masu yawa na "matalauta masu yawo" a cikin Jamus da Faransa. Wannan ya zo da yawa daga kalmomin "parvuli" ko "jarirai" da aka samo a cikin asusun biyu na taron daga William na Andres da Alberic na Troisfontaines . Babu wasu asusun daga lokaci wanda yake ba da shawarar shekaru ko kaɗan, amma ma'anar kalmomin biyu suna ba da ma'anar gaba ɗaya. Marubutan Zamani suna raba rayuwa zuwa manyan sassa huɗu tare da bambancin shekarun da ke tattare da su. Cocin daga baya ta zaɓi wannan rabe-raben zuwa lambar hada-hadar al'umma, tare da maganar tana nufin ma'aikatan albashi ko leburori wada5nda suka kasance matasa kuma basu da gado. Chronica regia Coloniensis, wanda aka rubuta a 1213 (shekara guda bayan da aka ce yakin jihadi ya faru), yana nufin masu murƙushe 'yan tawaye wadanda suka "bar garmaho ko keken da suke tukawa, da garken da suke kiwo", suna ƙarawa ra'ayin ba shine "puerti" zamanin ba, amma "puerti" ne mai mulkin al'umma. Wata ma'ana, pueri, ana fassara ta daidai cikin yara, amma a kaikaice na nufin "marasa ƙarfi". Da yawa daga cikinsu sun yi ƙoƙari su isa Holyasa Mai Tsarki amma wasu ba su yi niyyar zuwa ba. Rahotannin farko na abubuwan da suka faru, wanda akwai bambancin ra'ayi da yawa da aka fada tsawon ƙarnuka, bisa ga wannan ka'idar, galibi apocryphal ne . 

Raedts "matalauta masu yawo" ba tare da asusun yara ba an sake duba su a cikin 2008 ta Gary Dickson wanda ya ci gaba da cewa yayin da ba ta kasance ta ainihin yara ba, sun wanzu kuma sun taka muhimmiyar rawa.

A cikin zane-zane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yawancin ayyukan fasaha suna nuni ne ga Yaƙin Jihadi na Yara; wannan jeri an mai da hankali ne kan ayyukan da aka saita a Zamani kuma an fi mai da hankali kan sake ba da labarin abubuwan da suka faru. Jihadin Yara (disambiguation) .

Littattafai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • La Croisade des enfants ("Yunkurin Yaran Yara", 1896) na Marcel Schwob .
  • "Makarantar Chalet da Barbara" Elinor Brent-Dyer (1954), wasan Kirsimeti ya ambaci batun yaƙin yara.
  • Yakin Jihadin Yara (1958), littafin tarihin yara na Henry Treece, ya haɗa da labarin ban mamaki na Stephen na Cloyes da ke ƙoƙarin raba teku a Marseille.
  • Gates na Aljanna (1960), littafin da Jerzy Andrzejewski ya rubuta game da yakin basasa, tare da labarin da ke amfani da fasaha na hankali.
  • Tekun Rana da Faduwar rana (1965), wani ɗan gajeren labari daga Yukio Mishima (wani ɓangare na tarin mai taken Ayyukan Ibada ), ya nuna wani tsohon Bafaranshe wanda ya shiga cikin Jihadin Yara a lokacin yaro kuma, ta hanyar yanayi mai rikitarwa, ya sami rauni a Japan.
  • Jihadi a Jeans (Yaren mutanen Holland: Kruistocht a spijkerbroek ), labari ne na 1973 da marubucin Dutch Thea Beckman ya shirya kuma fim ɗin 2006 ya daidaita game da Yaƙin Childrenan Yara ta idanun matafiyi ɗan lokaci.
  • An Army of Children (1978), wani labari na Evan Rhodes wanda ke ba da labarin yara maza biyu, Katolika da Bayahude, suna cikin yaƙin Jihadin Yara.
  • Angeline (2004), wani labari da Karleen Bradford tayi game da rayuwar yarinya, Angeline, firist, da kuma Stephen na Cloyes bayan an siyar dasu zuwa bautar a Alkahira.
  • The Crusade of Innocents (2006), wani labari na David George, ya nuna cewa yaƙin Jihadin Childrenan yara wataƙila ɓarnar da aka yi game da Cathars a Kudancin Faransa ta shafa, da kuma yadda biyun suka hadu.
  • The Scarlet Cross (2006), wani labari ne na samartaka daga Karleen Bradford .
  • 1212: Shekarar Tafiya (2006), littafin da Kathleen McDonnell ta rubuta . Matashin ɗan littafin tarihin manya.
  • Sylvia (2006), wani labari daga Bryce Courtney . Yana bin wata yarinya yayin yaƙin Jihadi.
  • Crusade (2011), littafin tarihin yara wanda Linda Press Wulf ta wallafa.
  • Tarihin Gaske na Yunkurin Yara (2013), wani littafi mai hoto wanda Privo di Casato, ya ruwaito daga hangen nesa na Stephen na Cloyes.
  • 1212 (1985), wani rukuni na litattafan tarihi wanda yara da samari dan Denmark kuma dan jarida Carsten Overskov ya rubuta kan yara da matasa.

Comics[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Yunkurin Yaran yara (masu ban dariya), babban taken da ke rufe fitowar abubuwa bakwai masu ban dariya wanda aka buga don Vertigo (DC Comics) wanda da alama ya danganta taron da sauran abubuwan da suka faru kamar abin da ya faru na gaskiya wanda ya ba da labarin Pied Piper. An buga shi a cikin 2015 ta Vertigo Comics azaman Freeasar Kyauta: Tatsuniya game da Yaƙin Yara.
  • Innocent shōnen jūjigun (イ ン ノ サ ン 少年 十字 軍, The Crusade of the Innocent Boys), manga da Usamaru Furuya ya rubuta (Manga F Erotics, 2005 ~ 2011, juzu'i 3).

Wasanni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Cruciadă mai girma (en. Yaƙin Jihadin Yara) (1930), wasan Lucian Blaga wanda ya danganci Yakin.
  • Yunkurin Yaran yara (1973), wasan kwaikwayon da Paul Thompson ya fara gabatarwa a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Cockpit (Marylebone), London ta gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Matasa na Kasa .
  • Doguwar Maris Zuwa Urushalima (1978), wasan kwaikwayon da Don Taylor yayi game da labarin Bautar Jihadin Yara.
  • The Fire of Roses (2003), wani labari na Gregory Rinaldi
  • Jihadi na Hawaye (2004), littafin labari daga silsilar Tafiyar Rayuka ta CD Baker.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Masu kiɗa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Crusade (1998), kiɗan Craig Christie da Wayne Hosking .

Waƙa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • La Croisade des Enfants (1902), wanda ba kasafai ake gabatar da shi ba daga Gabriel Pierné, wanda ke dauke da kungiyar mawaka ta yara, dangane da La croisade des enfants ("Yunkurin Yaran") na Marcel Schwob .
  • "Yarjejeniyar Yara", wani wasan kwaikwayo na zamani da R. Murray Schafer, wanda aka fara yi a shekarar 2009.
  • "Yaƙin Jihadi na Yara", waƙa ce ta Sting daga kundin waƙarsa ta shekara ta1985 The Dream of the Blue Turtles . Ba game da taron kamar haka ba, amma amfani da sunan azaman misalin.
  • "Yaƙin Jihadi na Yara", waƙa ce ta Tonio K daga kundin waƙarsa ta shekara ta 1988 Bayanan kula daga Civilarshen wayewa .
  • "Untitled Track", waƙa ce ta The Moon Lay Hidden Beneath Cloud, wanda aka samo asali akan 10 "EP Yndalongg (1996), sannan aka sake fito da shi azaman waƙar" XII "akan CD Sauran akan Makamanku Ya Sauya (1999), wanda ke ba da labarin labarin Yaƙin Jihadin Yara kuma yana nuna cewa wahayin ya samo asali ne daga Iblis .
  • Ƙungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta Australiya mai ci gaba mai suna Cinema Prague ta sanyaya rangadinsu na shekara ta 1991 "Yunkurin ƙananan Yara" a matsayin isharar tunani game da shekarun mambobin ƙungiyar, don a lokacin, yawancin ƙungiyar har yanzu matasa ne.

Fina-finai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Gates zuwa Aljanna (1968), fim ɗin Andrzej Wajda na littafin Jerzy Andrzejewski .
  • Lionheart (1987), fim mai cike da tarihi / tsinkaye, wanda yake sakakke bisa labarin Bautar Jihadin Yara.
  • Yara don Sayarwa, wani ɓangaren Gumby wanda aka nuna a cikin fim ɗin 1995 Gumby: Fim ɗin .[ana buƙatar hujja], aka Wata Maris Cikin Lokaci (2006), hoton motsi wanda aka tsara akan balaguron bazata da wani ɗan wasan ƙwallon ƙafa daga ƙasar Netherlands ta zamani zuwa almara na Childrenan Yammacin Jamusanci wanda Nicholas ya jagoranta.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Alphandery, P. (1954). La Chrétienté et l'idée de croisade. 2 vols.
  2. Waas, A. (1956). Geschichte der Kreuzzüge
  3. Mayer, H.E. (1972). The Crusades
  4. Miccoli, G. (1961). "La crociata dei fancifulli". Studi medievali. Third Series, 2:407–43
  5. Kelly DeVries, "Teenagers at War During the Middle Ages" in The Premodern Teenager: Youth in Society, 1150–1650 (2002) ed by Konrad Eisenbichler pp 207–223.
  6. Bernard Queenan, "The Evolution of the Pied Piper," Children's Literature (1978) 7#1 pp: 104–114.
  7. Runciman, Steven (1951). "The Children's Crusade", from A History of the Crusades.

Bibliography[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]