Joan of Arc

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Joan of Arc
Contemporaine afb jeanne d arc.png
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna unknown value
Haihuwa Domrémy-la-Pucelle (en) Fassara, 1412
ƙasa Kingdom of France (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Middle French (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Rouen, 30 Mayu 1431
Yanayin mutuwa Hukuncin Kisa (death by burning (en) Fassara)
Killed by Geoffroy Thérage (en) Fassara
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Jacques d'Arc
Mahaifiya Isabelle Romée
Ahali Catherine d'Arc (en) Fassara, Jacques of Arc (en) Fassara, Jean d'Arc (en) Fassara da Pierre d'Arc (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Middle French (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a soja
Kyaututtuka
Feast
May 30 (en) Fassara
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Hundred Years' War (en) Fassara
Siege of Orléans (en) Fassara
Battle of Jargeau (en) Fassara
Battle of Meung-sur-Loire (en) Fassara
Battle of Beaugency (en) Fassara
Battle of Patay (en) Fassara
March to Reims (en) Fassara
Siege of Paris (en) Fassara
Siege of Saint-Pierre-le-Moûtier (en) Fassara
Siege of La Charité (en) Fassara
Siege of Compiègne (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Cocin katolika
Jeanne d'Arc signature 16 mars 1430.svg

Joan na Arc (French: Jeanne d'Arc pronounced ['an da'];c. 1412 - 30 ga Mayu 1431) majiɓinciya ce ta Faransa, wanda aka karrama ta a matsayin mai kare ƙasar Faransa saboda rawar da ta taka a kewayen Orléans da kuma dagewarta kan nadin sarautar Charles VII na Faransa a lokacin Yaƙin Shekaru ɗari. Da yake bayyana cewa tana aiki ƙarƙashin divine guidance, ta zama shugabar soja wacce ta wuce matsayin jinsi kuma ta sami karɓuwa a matsayin mai ceton Faransa.

An haifi Joan ga wani ƙwararrun dangin ƙauye a Domrémy a arewa maso gabashin Faransa. A cikin karni na 1428, ta nemi a kai ta wurin Charles, daga baya ta shaida cewa wahayi daga mala'ika Michael, Saint Margaret, da Saint Catherine ya jagorance ta don taimaka masa ya ceci Faransa daga mamayar Ingilishi.

Da yake da tabbacin sadaukarwarta da tsarkinta, Charles ya aika Joan, mai kimanin shekara goma sha bakwai, zuwa ga kewayen Orléans a matsayin wani ɓangare na sojojin agaji. Ta isa birnin a watan Afrilun 1429, tana riƙe da tutarta da kuma ba da bege ga sojojin Faransa masu rauni. Bayan kwana tara da zuwanta, turawan Ingila suka watsar da kewayenta. Joan ya ƙarfafa Faransanci don yin fushi da Ingilishi a lokacin yakin Loire, wanda ya ƙare a wani gagarumin nasara a Patay, yana buɗe hanya ga sojojin Faransa don ci gaba a Reims ba tare da hamayya ba, inda Charles aka nada a matsayin Sarkin Faransa tare da Joan a gefensa. Waɗannan nasarorin sun karawa Faransa kwarin gwiwa, inda suka share fagen nasararsu ta karshe a yakin shekaru dari bayan shekaru da dama.

Bayan naɗin sarauta na Charles, Joan ta shiga cikin rashin nasara a kewayen Paris a watan Satumba na 1429 da kuma gazawar La Charité a watan Nuwamba. Gudunmawar da ta yi a wadannan kaye-kaye ya rage imanin kotun a gare ta. A farkon shekara ta 1430, Joan ta shirya ƙungiyar masu ba da agaji don taimaka wa Compiègne, wanda Burgundians—abokan Faransanci na Ingilishi suka kewaye. Sojojin Burgundian sun kama ta a ranar 23 ga watan Mayu. Bayan kokarin tserewa bai yi nasara ba, an mika ta ga turawan Ingila a watan Nuwamba. Bishop Pierre Cauchon ya gabatar da ita a gaban shari'a a kan zargin karkatacciya, wanda ya hada da saɓo ta hanyar sa tufafin maza, yin aiki a kan wahayin da ke da aljanu, da ƙin ƙaddamar da maganganunta da ayyukanta ga hukuncin ikkilisiya. An bayyana ta da laifi kuma an kone ta a kan gungumen azaba a ranar 30 ga watan Mayun 1431, tana da kimanin shekaru goma sha tara.

A shekara ta 1456, wata kotun bincike ta sake bincikar shari’ar Joan kuma ta soke hukuncin, ta bayyana cewa yaudara da kurakuran tsari ne suka gurɓata shi. An girmama Joan a matsayin shahidi, kuma ana kallonta a matsayin 'yar cocin Roman Katolika mai biyayya, farkon mata, kuma alamar 'yanci da 'yancin kai. Bayan juyin juya halin Faransa, ta zama alamar ƙasa ta Faransa. A cikin shekarar 1920, Cocin Roman Katolika ta ba da sunan Joan na Arc kuma, bayan shekaru biyu, an ayyanata ɗaya daga cikin tsarkakan Faransa. An nuna ta a cikin ayyukan al'adu da yawa, ciki har da wallafe-wallafe, zane-zane, sassakaki, da kiɗa.

Suna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An rubuta sunan Joan na Arc ta hanyoyi daban-daban. Babu daidaitaccen rubutun sunanta kafin karni na sha shida; Sunanta na ƙarshe yawanci ana rubuta su a matsayin "Darc" ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba, amma akwai bambance-bambancen kamar "Tarc", "Dart" ko "Ranar". An rubuta sunan mahaifinta a matsayin "Tart" a lokacin shari'arta. [1] An kira ta "Jeanne d'Ay de Domrémy" a cikin wasiƙar Charles VII ta 1429 tana ba ta rigar makamai. [1] Wataƙila Joan ba ta taɓa jin ana kiranta da suna "Jeanne d'Arc". Rubuce rubuce na farko na kiranta da wannan suna a cikin 1455, shekaru 24 bayan mutuwarta. [1]

Ba a koya mata karatu da rubutu ba a lokacin ƙuruciyarta, [2] don haka ta rubuta wasiƙunta. [1] Wataƙila daga baya ta koyi sa hannu a sunanta, kamar yadda wasu daga cikin wasiƙunta suke sa hannu, har ma ta koyi karatu. Joan ta kira kanta a cikin wasiƙun a matsayin "Jeanne la Pucelle" (Joan the Maiden) ko a matsayin "la Pucelle" (Bawa), tana mai jaddada budurcinta, kuma ta sanya hannu kan "Jehanne". A cikin karni na sha shida, ta zama sanannun da "Maid of Orleans". [1]

Haihuwa da tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A map of France, divided into various sections
Faransa, 1429 [3]

An haifi Joan na Arc a kusa da karni na 1412 a Domrémy, wani ƙaramin ƙauye a cikin kwarin Meuse yanzu a cikin sashen Vosges a arewa maso gabashin Faransa. Ba a san ranar haihuwarta ba kuma maganganunta game da shekarunta ba su da tabbas. [2] [lower-alpha 1] Iyayenta sune Jacques d'Arc da Isabelle Romée. Joan yana da ’yan’uwa uku da ’yar’uwa. Mahaifinta manomi ne mai kauye [2] mai kimanin 50 acres (20 ha) na ƙasa, [1] kuma ya ƙara samun kuɗin shiga iyali a matsayin jami'in ƙauye, yana karɓar haraji kuma yana jagorantar agogon gida.

An haife ta a lokacin Yaƙin Shekaru ɗari tsakanin Ingila da Faransa, wanda ya fara a cikin karni na 1337 [6] a kan matsayin yankunan Ingilishi a Faransa da kuma da'awar Ingilishi ga kursiyin Faransa. Kusan duk fadan ya faru ne a Faransa, wanda ya lalata tattalin arzikinta. [6] A lokacin haihuwar Joan, Faransa ta rabu a siyasance. Sarkin Faransa Charles VI yana fama da ciwon hauka akai-akai kuma sau da yawa ya kasa yin mulki; [7] ɗan'uwansa Louis, Duke na Orléans, da ɗan uwansa John the Fearless, Duke na Burgundy, sun yi jayayya game da mulkin Faransa. A cikin 1407, Duke na Burgundy ya ba da umarnin kashe Duke na Orléans, [3] yana haifar da yakin basasa. [7] Charles na Orléans ya gaji mahaifinsa a matsayin Duke yana da shekaru goma sha uku, kuma an sanya shi a hannun Bernard, Count of Armagnac; magoya bayansa sun zama sanannun "Armagnacs", yayin da magoya bayan Duke na Burgundy suka zama sanannun "Burgundians". [3] Sarkin Faransa na gaba Charles VII ya ɗauki lakabin Dauphin (magaji ga kursiyin) bayan mutuwar ƴan uwansa guda huɗu, kuma yana da alaƙa da Armagnacs. [8]


Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Joan in dress facing left in profile, holding banner in her right hand and sheathed sword in her left.
Wakilin farko na Joan na Arc, [1] zane na Clément de Fauquembergue (Mayu 1429, Rukunin Tarihi na Ƙasa na Faransa) [lower-alpha 2]
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Pernoud & Clin 1986.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Gies 1981.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Barker 2009.
  4. Lucie-Smith 1976, p. 6.
  5. Pernoud & Clin 1986, p. 265.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Aberth 2000.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Seward 1982.
  8. Vale 1974.


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