Kanada

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Globe icon.svgKanada
Canada (en)
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Flag of Canada (en) Fassara Arms of Canada (en) Fassara

Take O Canada (en) Fassara (1 ga Yuli, 1980)

Kirari «A Mari Usque Ad Mare (en) Fassara»
Official symbol (en) Fassara North American Beaver (en) Fassara
Suna saboda Stadacona (en) Fassara
Wuri
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 60°N 110°W / 60°N 110°W / 60; -110

Babban birni Ottawa
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 37,894,799 (2020)
• Density (en) Fassara 3.8 mazaunan/km²
Idiom (en) Fassara Turanci
Faransanci
Addini no value
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Amirka ta Arewa
Yawan fili 9,984,670 km²
• Ruwa 8.62 %
Wuri a ina ko kusa da wace teku Tekun Atalanta, Pacific Ocean (en) Fassara, Arctic Ocean (en) Fassara, Great Lakes (en) Fassara da Hudson Bay (en) Fassara
Wuri mafi tsayi Mount Logan (en) Fassara (5,959 m)
Wuri mafi ƙasa Arctic Ocean (en) Fassara (0 m)
Sun raba iyaka da
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Province of Canada (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 1 ga Yuli, 1867:  separated from (en) Fassara Birtaniya Q16721390, Q1191952 (Canadian Confederation (en) Fassara)
Ranakun huta
Patron saint (en) Fassara Joseph (en) Fassara, Jean de Brébeuf (en) Fassara, Saint Anne (en) Fassara da North American Martyrs (en) Fassara
Political organisation (en) Fassara
Tsarin gwamnati parliamentary monarchy (en) Fassara, constitutional monarchy (en) Fassara da tarayya
Majalisar zartarwa Queen's Privy Council for Canada (en) Fassara
Gangar majalisa Parliament of Canada (en) Fassara
• Queen of Canada (en) Fassara Elizabeth II (6 ga Faburairu, 1952)
• Firaministan Kanada Justin Trudeau (4 Nuwamba, 2015)
Majalisar shariar ƙoli Supreme Court of Canada (en) Fassara
Ikonomi
Nominal GDP (en) Fassara 1,653,042,795,255 US$ (2017)
Nominal GDP per capita (en) Fassara 44,870 US$ (2017)
Kuɗi Canadian dollar (en) Fassara
Descriptive identifier (en) Fassara
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Suna ta yanar gizo .ca (en) Fassara
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho +1
Lambar taimakon gaggawa 9-1-1 (en) Fassara
Lambar ƙasa CA
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo canada.ca
Twitter: Canada Edit the value on Wikidata
Tutar Kebek.
Kasar kanada

Kanada ko Canada ƙasa ce a nahiyar Amurka. Babban birnin ƙasar shine Ottawa. Justin Trudeau shine firaministan ƙasar daga shekara ta 2015.

Kanada yana da lardi goma (Alberta, British Columbia, Kebek, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland da Labrador, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Saskatchewan da Tsibirin Prince Edward) da yanki uku (Northwest Territories, Nunavut da Yukon).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al’ummomin Asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Asalin mazauna ƙasar sun rayu a cikin ƙasar Kanada ta yanzu shekaru dubbai kafin zuwan Bature na farko. Mutanen asali ana kiran su da ƴan asalin ƙasa ko Inuit, da Métis. Métis mutane ne waɗanda suka fito daga ƙasashen Farko da dangin Turai. Tare, waɗannan rukunin ukun ana kiransu "Yan Asalin," ko "Mutanen Farko." Turawa suna kiran su "Indiyawa", amma wannan yanzu ana masa kallon rashin ladabi. Mutane da yawa suna tunanin cewa mutanen farko da suka fara zama a Kanada sun fito ne daga Siberia ta amfani da gadar ƙasar Bering aƙalla shekaru 14,000 da suka gabata. Gadar ƙasar da ta haɗu da Asiya da Arewacin Amurka. Lokacin da mutanen Turai suka fara zuwa Kanada don zama, yawan 'Yan asalin ƙasar da ke zaune a Kanada tuni ya kasance tsakanin 200,000 zuwa miliyan biyu.

Turawan mulkin mallaka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Vikings shine farkon Bature da aka sani wanda ya fara zuwa ƙasar da ake kira Kanada yanzu, a cikin yankin da yanzu yake Newfoundland, wanda mai binciken Viking Leif Erikson ya jagoranta. Ba su dade ba, duk da haka. A farkon karni na 16, Turawa suka fara binciken gabar gabashin Kanada, inda suka fara da John Cabot daga Ingila a 1497, sannan daga baya Jacques Cartier a 1534 daga Faransa. Daga baya Alexander Mackenzie ya isa gaɓar tekun Pacific a kan ƙasa, inda kaftin James Cook da George Vancouver suka bi ta teku. Har ila yau, Turawan sun sayar da fatun bea ga ƙasashen Farko.

Faransa ta zaunar da wasu sassan Kanada, wasu kuma ta Burtaniya. A shekara ta 1605, aka gina Port-Royal a Acadia (wanda ake kira yau Nova Scotia) ta Faransawa, wanda Samuel de Champlain ya jagoranta, kuma a shekara ta 1608 ya fara sasanta Quebec. Birtaniyyawan sun mallaki yankunan Faransa bayan yakin Faransa da Indiya a Filayen Abraham kusa da Birnin Quebec a cikin 1759. Bayan Yaƙin Juyin Juya Hali na Amurka, mutane da yawa a cikin sabuwar Amurka sun so su kasance da aminci ga Biritaniya. Dubun-dubatar sun zo arewacin Kanada kuma suka zauna a Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, da Ontario. An kira su United United Loyalists. A lokacin Yaƙin 1812, Amurka ta yi ƙoƙari ta ci Kanada amma ta ci su.

Cigaba da faɗaɗawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ranar 1 ga Yuli, 1867, Kanada ta haɗu ƙarƙashin gwamnatin tarayya. Ya haɗa da lardunan Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, da Nova Scotia. Sir John A. Macdonald shi ne firaminista na farko. Manitoba, yankin Yukon, da Yankin Arewa maso Yamma sun zama ɓangare na Kanada a 1870. British Columbia sun haɗu a cikin 1871, da Tsibirin Prince Edward a 1873. An yi tawaye biyu na Kogin Red, a cikin 1869-70 da 1885, duka Louis Riel ya jagoranta. Ya yi yaƙi don ƙarin haƙƙoƙin mutanen Métis, haɗuwa tsakanin Faransa da ƙasashen Farko. Hanyar jirgin ƙasa a duk faɗin ƙasar, hanyar layin dogo ta layin Pacific ta ƙasar Kanada, wacce aka gama ta a shekarar 1885, ta samar da sauki ga mutanen kasar ta Canada zuwa yamma. Yawancin Turawa da yawa sun zo bakin tudu, don haka Alberta da Saskatchewan sun zama larduna a cikin 1905.

Farkon karni na 20[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sojojin Kanada sun yi Yaƙin Duniya na ɗaya don Mulkin Biritaniya. Yawancin ƴan Kanada sun mutu a wannan yaƙin fiye da kowane yaƙi. Kanada ta zama sananne sosai a matsayin ƙasa bayan nasarar da ta samu na kame Vimy Ridge daga Jamusawa a Faransa a 1917. An ba mata 'yancin yin zaɓe a ƙarshen yaƙin, wani ɓangare saboda taimakon da suka bayar wajen kera makamai yayin da maza ke yaƙin Turai. A cikin 1931, Kanada ta sami cikakken ƴancin kai. Sannan gwamnatin Kanada tayi duk shawarwari game da Kanada. Ma'aikatan jirgin ruwa na Sherman suna hutawa yayin da suke kiliya Ma'aikatan Kanada yayin yakin Normandy a watan Yunin 1944.

Crew of a Sherman-tank resting while parked
Tawagar Kanada a lokacin yaƙin Normandy a Yuni 1944.

Har ila yau mutanen Kanada sun yi yaƙin duniya na II. The Dieppe Raid a cikin 1942 yayi mummunan rauni kuma yawancin sojoji an kashe, an raunata su, ko an ɗauke su fursuna. Mutanen Kanada suna da mahimmanci a cikin 1944 a Normandy, kuma sun 'yantar da Netherlands daga Jamusawa.

Kanada a wannan zamanin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1949, Newfoundland da Labrador sun zama lardi na 10 na Kanada. A 1956, Lester Pearson na Kanada, wanda daga baya ya zama Firayim Minista, ya taimaka wajen kawo ƙarshen Rikicin Suez. Sakamakon haka, ya sami lambar yabo ta Nobel ta zaman lafiya. A cikin 1965, Pearson ya taimaka wa Kanada samo sabuwar tuta, Maple Leaf. Kafin wannan, 'yan ƙasar Kanada sun yi amfani da Red Ensign. A cikin 1982, Kanada ta canza tsarin mulkinta, gami da sabon Yarjejeniyar 'Yanci da Yanci na Kanada. Babban sashin Tsarin Mulki har yanzu shine Dokar 1867 ta Burtaniya ta Arewacin Amurka. Wasu 'yan Kanada Faransawa a yau suna son kafa ƙasarsu, ban da sauran Kanada. Lardin Quebec ya gudanar da zaben raba gardama (jefa kuri'a) a 1980, amma kusan kashi 40% ne suke so su raba. An sake gudanar da zaben raba gardama a shekarar 1995, inda kusan kashi 50% suka kada kuri’ar amincewa da barin Kanada. Tun daga wannan lokacin, ƙananan mutane a cikin Quebec sun so barin Kanada, amma har yanzu yana da mahimmanci ga siyasar Quebec. A yau, kusan kashi 25% na jama'ar Kanada suna magana da Faransanci a matsayin yarensu na farko. Mutane da yawa na iya magana da Faransanci da Ingilishi duka. Kodayake yawancin Kanada Kanada suna zaune a lardin Quebec, akwai al'ummomin da ke magana da Faransanci da mutane a duk faɗin Kanada. Misali, kashi 40% na mutanen lardin New Brunswick da 20% na waɗanda ke Manitoba suna da ƙaƙƙarfan asalin Faransa, kamar yadda wasu mutane ke yi a Ontario, galibi a kan iyakarta da Quebec. A cikin 1999, an kirkiro Nunavut a matsayin yanki na uku na Kanada, daga cikin Yankunan Arewa maso Yammacin Gabas, a cikin yarjejeniya da mutanen Inuit.

Gwamnati[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kanada tana da gwamnatin da ake kira masarautar tsarin mulki. Tana da masarauta (ma'ana sarki ko sarauniya ita ce shugabar waccan), kuma dimokiradiyya ce (ma'ana mutanen ƙasar suna mulkar ta). Shugabar ƙasa ita ce Sarauniya Elizabeth II, wacce a hukumance take Sarauniyar Kanada. Ta naɗa Gwamna Janar don wakiltar ta a ƙasar, amma, zaɓin Gwamna Janar Firayim Minista ne ya yi. Ikon Sarauniya galibi ana amfani da shi ne ta Janar Janar, a halin yanzu Julie Payette. Janar Gwamna, kamar masarautar Kanada (Sarki / Sarauniyar Kanada), ba ya siyasa kuma ya kasance sama da siyasa, kuma saboda wannan yawanci basa amfani da ikon su ba tare da shawarar Firayim Minista ko wasu ministocin ba. Shugaban gwamnati Firayim Minista ne. Firayim Minista na yanzu shi ne Justin Trudeau, wanda ya maye gurbin Stephen Harper a cikin Oktoba 2015. Kowane lardi da yanki suna da firaminista don jagorantar gwamnatinta. Ayyuka na yau da kullun na gwamnati suna gudana ta majalisar ministoci. Yawancin lokaci ana kafa majalisar zartarwa daga babbar jam'iyya a Majalisar. Majalisar Kanada tana zartar da dokokin kasar. Janar janar, mai aiki a madadin masarauta, na da damar hana doka (ma'ana doka ba za ta fara aiki ba) amma ba a yi amfani da wannan haƙƙin na ɗan lokaci ba. Akwai manyan jam’iyyu biyar a majalisar dokokin Kanada: Jam’iyyar Conservative, da New Democratic Party, da Liberal Party, da Bloc Québécois, da kuma Green Party. Baya ga jam'iyyun biyar da ke da 'Yan Majalisa a Majalisar, akwai wasu kananan jam'iyyu goma sha hudu da suka yi rajista da Zaɓen Kanada da kuma' yan majalisar da dama da ke zaune a matsayin 'Yancin Kai.

Mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Arziki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wasanni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Jami'an tsaron kasar kanada

Fannin tsarotsaro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kimiya da Fasaha[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sifiri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sifirin Jirgin Sama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sifirin Jirgin Kasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Al'adu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutane[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yaruka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Abinci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tufafi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Addinai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kanada ƙasa ce take da rabe-raben addinai, wanda ya ƙunshi addinai daban daban da al'adu. Babu wani tsayayyen addini a hukumance a ƙasar Kanada.[1] Akwai ƴanci na gudanar da addini a kundin tsarin mulkin ƙasar Kanada.[2] A ko wanne yanki a ƙasar ana gudanar da addini.[3][4] A baya Kanada ta taɓa zama ƙasar addinin Ƙiristanci kaɗai kafin daga baya ta zama ƙasa wadda bata da tsayayyen addini a hukumance.[5][6][7][8] Akasarin ƴan ƙasar Kanada basu ɗauki addini da muhimmanci ba a rayuwarsa ta Yau da kullum,[9] amma dai sunyi imani da Ubangiji.[10]

A wani jin ra'ayin jama'a da akayi a shekarar 2011, kaso 67.3 na ƴan ƙasar sun aiyana kansu a matsayin Kiristoci mabiya ɗarikar Katolika 38 sauran kuma na sauran aƙidu na addinin Kirista.[11][12] Mafiya girma a daga cikin ɗarikun Protestant sune masu bin cocin United Church of Canada (sunkan ƴan Kanada kaso 6.1 cikin ɗari), sai masu bin cocin Anglican Church of Canada (kaso 5.0 cikin ɗari), da cocin Baptism of Canada (1.9 cikin ɗari).[13] Tsarin ƙasar na baruwan ta da addini yana cigaba da faɗaɗa tun daga shekarun 1960.[14][15] A 2011, kaso 23.9 cikin ɗari suka aiyana kansu da baruwan su da addini, marasa addini na ƙaruwar a ƙasar tun daga 2001.[16] Musulunci shine addini na biyu mafi girma a Kanada bayan addinin Ƙiristanci, inda kaso 3.2 cikin ɗari na ƴan ƙasar Musulmai ne. Haka nan musulunci shine addini mafi saurin yaɗuwa a ƙasar.[17] Akwai mabiya Hindu kaso 1.5 cikin ɗari da kuma Sikh kaso 1.4 cikin ɗari na mutane Ƙasar Kanada.[13]

Hotuna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Moon, Richard (2008). Law and Religious Pluralism in Canada. UBC Press. pp. 1–4. ISBN 978-0-7748-1497-3. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  2. Scott, Jamie S. (2012). The Religions of Canadians. University of Toronto Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-4426-0516-9. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  3. Boyle, Kevin; Sheen, Juliet (2013). Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report. University of Essex – Routledge. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-134-72229-7. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  4. Roberts, Lance W. (2005). Recent Social Trends in Canada, 1960–2000. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 359. ISBN 978-0-7735-2955-7. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016.
  5. Bramadat, Paul; Seljak, David (2009). Religion and Ethnicity in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-4426-1018-7. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016.
  6. Bowen, Kurt (2004). Christians in a Secular World: The Canadian Experience. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-7735-7194-5. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  7. Gregory, Derek; Johnston, Ron; Pratt, Geraldine; Watts, Michael; Whatmore, Sarah (2009). The Dictionary of Human Geography. John Wiley & Sons. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-4443-1056-6. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  8. Berman, Bruce J.; Bhargava, Rajeev; Lalibert, Andre (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. UBC Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7748-2515-3. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  9. Punnett, Betty Jane (2015). International Perspectives on Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-317-46745-8. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016.
  10. Haskell, David M. (2009). Through a Lens Darkly: How the News Media Perceive and Portray Evangelicals. Clements Publishing Group. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-894667-92-0. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016.
  11. "Tabulation: Religion (108), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey". Statistics Canada. January 7, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
  12. "Canada's Changing Religious Landscape | Pew Research Center". Pewforum.org. June 27, 2013. Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named statcan1
  14. Hans Mol, "The secularization of Canada." Research in the social scientific study of religion (1989) 1:197–215.
  15. Noll, Mark A. (1992). A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-8028-0651-2. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
  16. "'No Religion' Is Increasingly Popular For Canadians: Report". HuffPost. May 15, 2013. Archived from the original on June 9, 2013. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
  17. "Muslims fastest growing religious population in Canada | National Post". News.nationalpost.com. Retrieved July 14, 2013.