Kogin Senegal

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Kogin Senegal
Pont Faidherbe Saint Louis.jpg
General information
Tsawo 1,050 km
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 13°48′52″N 10°49′49″W / 13.8144°N 10.8302°W / 13.8144; -10.8302
Kasa Muritaniya, Senegal da Mali
Hydrography (en) Fassara
Tributary (en) Fassara
Watershed area (en) Fassara 419,575 km²
Drainage basin (en) Fassara Senegal River basin (en) Fassara
River mouth (en) Fassara Tekun Atalanta

Kogin Senegal (Larabci: نهر السنغال Nahr As-sinigāl, Faransanci: Fleuve Sénégal) rafi ne mai tsawon kilomita 1,086 (675 mi) a Yammacin Afirka wanda ya zama iyaka tsakanin Senegal da Mauritania. Tana da kwarin magudanar ruwa mai nisan kilomita 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi), matsakaicin kwararawar 680 m3/s (24,000 cu ft/s), da fitowar shekara 21,5 km3 (5.2 cu mi). Muhimman masu bautar ƙasa sune Kogin Falémé, Kogin Karakoro, da Kogin Gorgol. Kogin ya kasu kashi biyu da zarar ya wuce Kaédi reshen hagu, wanda ake kira Doué, yana tafiya daidai da babban kogin zuwa arewa. Bayan kilomita 200 (mil 120) rassan biyu sun sake komawa cikin 'yan kilomita kaɗan daga ƙarƙashin Pondor.

A cikin 1972 Mali, Mauritania da Senegal sun kafa Organisation don la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS) don sarrafa kwarin kogin. Guinea ta shiga cikin 2005. A halin yanzu, kawai ana amfani da kogin sosai don jigilar kayayyaki da fasinjoji. OMVS sun duba yuwuwar ƙirƙirar tashar mai tafiya 55 m (180 ft) a faɗi tsakanin ƙaramin garin Ambidédi a Mali da Saint-Louis, nisan mil 905 (562 mi). Za ta bai wa Mali marar ruwa hanya kai tsaye zuwa Tekun Atlantika.

Ruwa na ruwa a cikin kwarin Kogin Senegal yana da alaƙa ta kusa da na Kogin Gambiya, kuma galibi ana haɗa su biyu a ƙarƙashin wani yanayi da ake kira Senegal-Gambia Catchments. Nau'ikan kwaɗi uku da kifi ɗaya ne kaɗai suka mamaye wannan yanayin.

Kogin yana da manyan madatsun ruwa guda biyu a kan hanyar sa, Dam ɗin Manantali a Mali da Dam ɗin Maka-Diama da ke kan iyakar Mauritania da Senegal. Tsakanin akwai Félou Hydroelectric Plant, wanda aka gina a 1927, amma aka maye gurbinsa a 2014. Ginin Gouina Hydroelectric Plant upstream na Felou a Gouina Falls ya fara ne a 2013.

Labarin ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Babban ruwan Senegal shine kogunan Semefé (Bakoye) da Bafing waɗanda duka sun samo asali ne daga Guinea; sun kafa wani karamin sashi na iyakar Guinea -Mali kafin su hadu a Bafoulabé a Mali. Daga can, kogin Senegal yana kwarara zuwa yamma sannan arewa ta hanyar Talari Gorges kusa da Galougo da kan Gouina Falls, sannan ya zarce a hankali ya wuce Kayes, inda ya karɓi Kolimbiné. Bayan yawo tare tare da Karakoro, yana tsawaita tafarkin tsohon a kan iyakar Mali -Mauritania zuwa wasu kilomita goma zuwa Bakel inda yake gudana tare da Kogin Falémé, wanda kuma yana da tushe a Guinea, daga baya yana tafiya tare da wani ɗan ƙaramin yanki. Daga nan Guinea-Mali za ta gano mafi yawan iyakar Senegal da Mali har zuwa Bakel. Ƙasar ta Senegal na ci gaba da ratsawa ta cikin ƙasa mai ɗanɗano a arewacin Senegal, inda ta ke iyaka da Mauritania har zuwa cikin Tekun Atlantika. A cikin Kaedi yana karɓar Gorgol daga Mauritania. Ta ratsa Boghé ta isa Richard Toll inda Ferlo ke haɗa shi daga Lac de Guiers na cikin Senegal. Yana wucewa ta Rosso kuma, yana gab da bakinsa, a kusa da tsibirin Senegal wanda garin Saint-Louis yake, sannan ya juya kudu. An raba shi da Tekun Atlantika ta bakin siririn yashi mai suna Langue de Barbarie kafin ya shiga cikin tekun da kansa.

Kogin yana da manyan madatsun ruwa guda biyu a kan hanyarsa, madatsar ruwa ta Manantali a Mali da Dam na Maka-Diama da ke kan iyakar Mauritania da Senegal, kusa da mashigar ruwa, yana hana samun ruwan gishiri zuwa sama. Tsakanin Manantali da Maka-Diama akwai Félou Hydroelectric Plant wanda aka kammala shi a 1927 kuma yana amfani da weir. An maye gurbin tashar wutar lantarki a shekarar 2014. A shekarar 2013, an fara gina Ginin Gouina Hydroelectric Shuka a saman Felou a Gouina Falls.

Kogin Senegal yana da kwarin magudanar ruwa mai nisan kilomita 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi), matsakaicin kwararawar 680 m3/s (24,000 cu ft/s), da fitarwar shekara -shekara na 21.5 km3 (5.2 cu mi).[1][2] Muhimman masu bautar ƙasa sune Kogin Falémé, Kogin Karakoro, da Kogin Gorgol.

Ƙasar Kaédi kogin ya kasu kashi biyu. Reshen hagu da ake kira Doué yana gudana daidai da babban kogin zuwa arewa. Bayan kilomita 200 (mil 120) rassan biyu sun sake komawa cikin 'yan kilomita kaɗan daga ƙarƙashin Pondor. Ana kiran doguwar ƙasar tsakanin rassan biyu Île á Morfil.[1]

A cikin 1972 Mali, Mauritania da Senegal sun kafa Kungiyar don la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal (OMVS) don sarrafa kwarin kogin. Guinea ta shiga cikin 2005.

A halin yanzu, ana amfani da ruwa mai iyaka sosai don jigilar kayayyaki da fasinjoji. OMVS sun duba yuwuwar ƙirƙirar tashar mai tafiya 55 m (180 ft) a faɗi tsakanin ƙaramin garin Ambidédi a Mali da Saint-Louis, nisan mil 905 (562 mi). Za ta bai wa Mali marar ruwa hanya kai tsaye zuwa Tekun Atlantika.[1]

Ruwa na ruwa a cikin kwarin Kogin Senegal yana da alaƙa ta kusa da na Kogin Gambiya, kuma galibi ana haɗa su biyu a ƙarƙashin wani yanayi da ake kira Senegal-Gambia Catchments. Kodayake wadatar jinsi tana da matsakaiciya, nau'in kwaɗi uku da kifaye ɗaya ne kawai ke mamaye wannan yanayin.[3]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An san wanzuwar Kogin Senegal ga farkon wayewar Bahar Rum. Pliny Dattijon ya kira shi ko wani kogin Bambotus (wataƙila daga '' behemoth '' na Phoenician don hippopotamus)[4] da Nias ta Claudius Ptolemy. Hanno dan Carthaginian ya ziyarce shi a kusa da 450 KZ a lokacin tafiyarsa daga Carthage ta cikin ginshiƙan Herakles zuwa Theon Ochema (Dutsen Kamaru) a Tekun Guinea. Akwai ciniki daga nan zuwa duniyar Bahar Rum, har zuwa rugujewar Carthage da gidan kasuwancin sa na yammacin Afirka a 146 KZ.

Tushen Larabawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A farkon tsakiyar zamanai (kimanin 800 AZ), Kogin Senegal ya dawo da hulɗa da duniyar Bahar Rum tare da kafa hanyar kasuwanci tsakanin Sahara tsakanin Maroko da Masarautar Ghana. Masana ilimin ƙasa, kamar al-Masudi na Bagadaza (957), al-Bakri na Spain (1068) da al-Idrisi na Sicily (1154), sun ba da wasu daga cikin farkon kwatancen Kogin Senegal.[5] Masana ilmin yanayin ƙasa na farko sun yi imanin cewa kogin Senegal na sama da kogin Neja na sama sun haɗu da juna, kuma sun kafa kogi ɗaya da ke gudana daga gabas zuwa yamma, wanda suka kira "Yammacin Nilu".[6] (A zahiri, wasu daga cikin magudanar kogin Senegal suna kusa da Kogin Niger a Mali da Guinea.) An yi imanin ko dai reshen yamma ne na Kogin Nilu na Masar ko kuma an ɗora shi daga tushe ɗaya (daban -daban ana zato ga wasu manyan abubuwan ciki. tabkuna na Dutsen Wata, ko Girkin Ptolemy (Γειρ)[7] ko rafin Gihon na Littafi Mai -Tsarki).[8]

Yammacin Nilu (Kogin Senegal zuwa Nijar) bisa ga al-Bakri (1068)
Western Nile (Senegal-Niger River) according to Muhammad al-Idrisi (1154)
Course of the "River of Gold" (Senegal-Niger) in the 1413 portolan chart of Mecia de Viladestes.
Slave trade along the Senegal River, kingdom of Cayor
Mutumin Moorish, yankin Trarza na kwarin Kogin Senegal, Abbé David Boilat, 1853
Boat on Senegal River
Young boys swimming in the Senegal River
Senegambia region, detail from the map of Guillaume Delisle (1707), which still assumes the Senegal connected to the Niger; this would be corrected in subsequent edititions of Delisle's map (1722, 1727), where it was shown ending at a lake, south of the Niger.
Route of the Senegal, map from 1889

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 SENEGAL-HYCOS: Renforcement des capacités nationales et régionales d’observation, transmission et traitement de données pour contribuer au développement durable du bassin du Fleuve Sénégal (Document de projet préliminaire) (PDF) (in Faransanci), Système Mondial d’Observation du Cycle Hydrologique (WHYCOS), 2007, archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2013.
  2. UNH/GRDC Composite Runoff Fields V 1.0 data for Dagana.
  3. Freshwater Ecoregions of the World (2008).
  4. Pliny, Natural History, Lib. 5, Ch.1 (p. 380)
  5. A translation of al-Bakri's 1068 account is found in Levtzion & Hopkins, (2000, Corpus: (p. 77).
  6. The term "Nile" seems to have been applied quite early to the Senegal.
  7. Geographia, Book IV, Chapter 6, Section 13.
  8. e.g.