Larabcin Chadi

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Larabcin Chadi
لهجة تشادية
'Yan asalin magana
1,100,000 (2006)
Baƙaƙen larabci
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3 shu
Glottolog chad1249[1]
Árabe chadiano.png

Larabcin Chadi (kuma aka sani da Shuwa / Shuwa / Suwa Larabci. [lower-alpha 1] Larabci: لهجة تشادية‎ , Baggara Larabci, kuma, kwanan nan, Larabcin Sudan ta Yamma) yana daya daga cikin nau'ikan larabci wanda ake amfani dashi kuma shine yaren farko na kusan mutane miliyan 1.6, [2] duka mazaunan gari da makiyays. Duk da cewa Chadi tana iyaka da ƙasashen Larabawa 2 a arewa da kuma gabashin ƙasar, amma yawancin masu magana da ita suna zaune ne a kudancin Chadi. Yankin nasa shine gabas daga yamma zuwa yamma a cikin Sahel, kimanin 1,400 miles (2,300 km) dogon ( 12 zuwa 20 digiri gabas ) by 300 miles (480 km) arewa zuwa kudu (tsakanin 10 da 14 digiri arewa latitude). Kusan dukkanin wannan yankin yana cikin Chadi ko Sudan . Hakanan ana magana da shi a wasu wurare kusa da Tafkin Chadi a ƙasashen Kamaru, Najeriya, Nijar . A ƙarshe, ana magana da shi a cikin yankin Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya da Sudan ta Kudu . Bugu da kari, wannan harshe hidima a matsayin harshen tarayyar al'umma a da yawa daga cikin yankin. A cikin yawancin kewayon sa, yana ɗaya daga cikin yarukan gida da yawa kuma galibi baya cikin manyan.

Daidaitaccen Larabci idan aka kwatanta shi da Larabcin Chadi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Suna da asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Wannan harshen ba shi da sunan asalin ƙasa wanda duk masu magana da shi suke rabawa, fiye da "Larabci". Ya samo asali ne a matsayin yaren asalin makiyayan shanu ( baggāra, daidaitaccen Larabci baqqāra بَقَّارَة , na nufin 'marayu', daga baqar [3] ). Tun lokacin da aka buga wani nahawun wani yare na Nijeriya a cikin shekarar 1920, [4] wannan ya zama sananne a ilimance kamar “Larabcin Shuwa”; duk da haka, ana amfani da kalmar "Shuwa" ne kawai tsakanin mutanen da ba Larabawa ba a cikin jihar Borno . A wajajen 2000, wani ƙwararren masanin harshen, Jonathan Owens ne ya gabatar da kalmar "Larabcin yammacin Sudan". [5] Hankalin ƙasa "Sudani" da Owen ya kira ba ƙasar Sudan ta zamani ba, amma Sahel gabaɗaya, yankin da ake yiwa laƙabi da bilad al-sudan, 'ƙasar baƙar fata', ta larabawa tun zamanin da . A zamanin Turawan mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya a Afirka, masu kula da mulkin mallaka suma sun yi amfani da "Sudan" da ma'anar Sahel baki ɗaya.

Ta yaya wannan yaren Larabci ya tashi ba a sani ba. A cikin 1994, Braukämper ya ba da shawarar cewa ya samo asali ne a Chadi wanda ya fara a 1635 ta hanyar haɗuwa da yawan masu magana da Larabci tare da yawan Fulani makiyaya. [6] [3] (Fulani mutane ne, ko gungun mutane, waɗanda suka samo asali daga ko kusa da gaɓar Tekun Atlantika amma sun faɗaɗa zuwa yawancin Sahel cikin ƙarni da yawa. )

A lokacin mulkin mallaka, an yi amfani da wani nau'in harshen larabci wanda aka fi sani da Turku a matsayin harshen yare. Har yanzu akwai 'yan mata larabawa a cikin Chadi a yau, amma tunda ba a bayyana su ba, ba a san ko sun fito daga Turku ba.

Rarrabuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Baggara belt
Kodayake ba a nuna a taswirar ba, kewayon Larabcin Chadi ya hadya da zirin Nijar da ke maƙwabtaka da Najeriya da Chadi .

Mafi yawan masu magana suna zaune ne a kudancin Chadi tsakanin digiri 10 da 14 arewa latit. A Chadi, yare ne na babban birnin ƙasar, N'Djamena, kuma zangonsa ya ƙunshi wasu manyan biranen kamar Abéché, Am Timan, da Mao . Yana da asalin ƙasar 12% na mutanen Chadi. Chadi Larabci ke haɗe harshen tarayyar al'umma [7] an yadu magana a cikin Chadi, don haka abin da Chadi Larabci da kuma ta harshen tarayyar al'umma a hade suna magana da wani wuri tsakanin 40% kuma 60% na yawan jama'ar Chadi. [8] [9]

A Sudan, ana magana da shi a kudu maso yamma, a kudancin Kurdufan da kudancin Darfur, amma ban da biranen al-Ubayyid da al-Fashir . Yanayinsa a cikin wasu ƙasashen Afirka ya haɗa da zamewar Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, rabin arewacin lardin Vakaga, wanda ke kusa da Chadi da Sudan; wani zamewa daga Kudancin Sudan a kan iyakarta da Sudan; da kuma kewayen tafkin Chadi wadanda suka hada da wasu kasashe uku, wadanda suka hada da na Najeriya ( jihar Borno ), da yankin Arewa mai nisa na Kamaru, da kuma a cikin sashen Diffa na yankin Diffa na Nijar. An kiyasta yawan masu magana a Nijar mutane 150,000.

A Nijeriya, kashi 10 cikin 100 na mutanen Maiduguri, babban birnin Borno, suna yi [10] da shi da kuma a ƙalla mazauna ƙauyuka 100,000 a wani wuri a cikin Borno.

Farkon karatun karni na 20[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1913, wani mai ba da mulkin mallaka na Faransa a Chadi, Henri Carbou, ya rubuta wani lafazin yare na yankin tsaunukan Ouaddaï, yankin gabashin Chadi da ke kan iyaka da Sudan. [11] A cikin 1920, wani mai kula da mulkin mallaka na Burtaniya a Najeriya, Gordon James Lethem, ya rubuta nahawun yarukan Borno, inda ya nuna cewa ana magana da yare ɗaya a Kanem (a yammacin Chadi) da Ouaddaï (a gabashin Chadi). [12]

Nahawu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An bayyana shi da asarar pharyngeals [ħ] da [ʕ], maganganun rikice-rikice tsakanin juna [ð], [θ] da [ðˤ], da diphthongs. [13] [14] Amma kuma yana da /lˤ/, /rˤ/ da /mˤ/ azaman karin kalmomin karin magana. Wasu misalai na ƙananan nau'i-nau'i don irin wannan ƙarfafawar sune /ɡallab/ "ya yi faɗuwa", /ɡalˤlˤab/ "ya yi fushi"; /karra/ "ya yaga", /karˤrˤa/ "ya ja"; /amm/ "kawu", /amˤmˤ/ "uwa". [13] Bugu da kari, Larabcin Najeriya yana da yanayin shigar da /a/ bayan gutturals (ʔ, h, x, q). [13] Wani sanannen fasalin shi ne sauya daidaitaccen Larabci V daga tafaʕʕal (a) zuwa alfaʕʕal ; misali, kalmar taʔallam (a) ta zama alʔallam . Mutum na farko kalmomin fi'ili ya bambanta da samuwar sa a cikin wasu yarukan na larabci ta yadda bashi da t . Don haka, mutum na farko na kalmar aikatau katab shine katáb, tare da damuwa akan salo na biyu na kalmar, yayin da mutum na ukun shine mai katab, tare da damuwa akan sautin farko. [13]

Mai zuwa samfurin ƙamus ne na Larabcin Chadi:

kalma ma'ana bayanin kula
anīna mu
'alme ruwa daskararren tabbataccen labarin 'al
īd hannu
īd idi
jidãda, jidãd kaza, (gama kai) kaza
šumāl arewa

Ma'anonin īd guda biyu sun fito ne daga kalmomi daban-daban na baya: * ʔīd "hannu".

A cikin Larabcin gargajiya, kaza (mufuradi) ita ce dajaja, kuma tare dajaj gabaɗaya .

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Kara karantawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Howard, Charles G. 1921. [1] Shuwa Labaran Larabci tare da Gabatarwa da ocamus na Oxford: Jami'ar Jarida, 1921, 114 pp.
  • Kaye, Alan S. 1982. Kamus Na Larabcin Najeriya . Malibu: Undena. Jerin: Bibliotheca Afroasiatica; 1. Wannan juz'i shine Turanci-Larabci. 90 pp.
  • Kaye, Alan S. 1987. Kamus na larabci-Turanci na Najeriya . Malibu: Undena. Jerin: Bibliotheca Afroasiatica; 2. 90 pp.
  • Owens, Jonathan. 1993. Nahawun Narabcin Najeriya . Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
  • Owens, Jonathan, ed. 1994. Larabawa da larabci a Yankin Tafkin Chadi . Rüdiger Köppe Verlag. Jerin: SUGIA (Sprache und Geschichte a cikin Afrika); 14.
  • Pommerol, Patrice Jullien de. 1999. J'apprends l'arabe tchadien . Karthala. 328 shafi na. Yaren N'Djamena.
  • Rumford, James, Rumford, Carol. 2020. Larabcin Chadi, L'Arabe Tchadien . Manoa Latsa. 122 shafi na.
  • Woidich, Manfred. 1988. [ Binciken Kaye 1987 ] . Jaridar American Oriental Society, Oct. - Disamba 1988, 108 (4): 663-665

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Larabcin Chadi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Ethnologue, Chad, entry for Arabic, Chadian Spoken
  3. 3.0 3.1 Watson 1996.
  4. Gordon James Lethem, Colloquial Arabic: Shuwa dialect of Bornu, Nigeria and of the region of Lake Chad: grammar and vocabulary, with some proverbs and songs, Published for the Government of Nigeria by the Crown Agents for the Colonies
  5. Owens 2003
  6. Owens 1993
  7. In French, the term for lingua franca is langue véhiculaire
  8. Pommerol 1997.
  9. Pommerol 1999.
  10. Owens 2007.
  11. Carbou 1913.
  12. Kaye 1993.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Owens 2006.
  14. Kaye, 1988


Cite error: <ref> tags exist for a group named "lower-alpha", but no corresponding <references group="lower-alpha"/> tag was found