Mafa

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Mafa

Mafa kuma ana kiransu Mafahay, wata ƙabila ce da ke cikin arewacin Kamaru, Arewacin Najeriya kuma sun watsu a wasu ƙasashe kamar Mali, Chadi, Sudan, Burkina Faso da Saliyo.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An fahimci cewa Mafahay, wata ƙabilar Mafa, sun yi ƙaura daga Roua da Sulede (wanda ke yamma da Durum ( Mofu dace)), zuwa arewa maso yamma. [1] Ƙabilar Bulahay, yayin, sun yi ƙaura zuwa yamma, tare da iyakokin kudu na yankin Mafa na yanzu. Daga ƙarshe kuma sun yi ƙaura zuwa arewa inda suka cakuɗa tare da Mafahay, suka zama Mafa na yanzu. [2]

Bayanan su[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mafa gidaje kusa da Maroua, Kamaru

Jimlar yawan mutane sun banbanta tsakanin 82,100 [3] da 150,000. [4] Hallaire [5] nuna cewa yawan mutane a yankin tsakanin mazauna 99 zuwa 140 a kowace murabba'in kilomita. [1]

A cewar Lavergne, [6] Mafa sun kasu kashi biyu, kasancewar su 'Mafa dace' (wanda ake kira Maf-Mafa ko 'Mafahay), da' Bulahai '. Mafas suna zaune ne a tsakiyar yankin arewacin Mandarawa, wanda yanki ne wanda yankin Arewa ya kafa a Mokolo Plateau da tsaunukan arewacin Mokolo . Al’ummar Mafa sun kasu zuwa kanana da yawa: Moskota; Koza; Gaboua (gundumar Koza); ( Mokolo arrondissement ). Hakanan akwai kusan Mafa miliyan daya a Kughum ( Arewa, Najeriya ). [3]

Mafa suna cikin rukunin yaren Chadi. Suna magana da yaren Mafa, [7] tare da yaruka daban-daban guda uku: Mafa-yamma, Mafa-tsakiya da Mafa-gabas. Tare da sauran yarukan da yawa na wasu mutanen Afirka (kamar Wuzlam ( Uldeme ), Muyang da Ɗugwor ( Dugur )), sun kasance wani ɓangare na rukunin Mafa-kudu. [2]

Yawan jama'ar su ne 15,00% Musulmi, 50% Kirista da 35% mabiya al'ada. Yawan Kiristocin ya ƙunshi Katolika (60%) da Furotesta (40%). [7]

Noma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Aikin Mafa na gargajiya ya dogara da nau'ikan dabarun sarrafa ƙasa. An tsare tsaunuka tare da ginannun tuddai, cewa a cewar wani marubuci, "sun kai wani yanayi na cikar kamala". Sauran hanyoyin ilimin kere-kere sun hada da :

  • ƙaramin ban ruwa
  • canalization
  • magudanan ruwa tsarin

Hakanan, masu aikin gona a cikin duwatsu suna yin yalwa iri-iri na tsarin sarrafa albarkatun ƙasa, gami da :

  • juyawar amfanin gona da shuka mai gauraya
  • agro-daji
  • biomass
  • gudanarwa mai gina jiki

Hakanan suna amfani da tsari mai mahimmanci na kiwon dabbobi wajen kula da albarkar ƙasarsu. Dabbobin sun hada da kananan dabbobi da kuma karancin shanu. A lokacin rani tsakanin Disamba da Mayu, an bar dabbobi suna yawo, don haka zai iya cin ragowar amfanin gona da ganyen daji.

A lokacin noma, ana sanya dabbobi a cikin alkalami kuma a ciyar da su. Takin da yake tarawa a cikin gidajen an tattara su, adana su kuma a ƙarshe ya bazu cikin filayen a ƙarshen lokacin rani. An nuna ƙarfi da dabara na sarrafa sinadarin Mafa da cewa ana amfani da turmi don narkar da ragowar girbi sannan kuma a ciyar da Kajin. [8]

Haƙar ma'adanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Mafa sun yi amfani da hanyoyin hako ma'adinai don bincika yashin baƙin ƙarfe da kuma amfani da shi don ma'adinaia Kamaru .

Yesu Mafa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin shekarun 1970, babban malamin Katolika na Faransa François Vidil ya haɗu tare da jama'ar Mafa don ƙirƙirar jerin zane-zane da ake kira Vie de Jesus Mafa (Rayuwar Yesu Mafa, ko kuma kawai Yesu Mafa), wanda ke nuna abubuwa daban-daban a rayuwar Yesu ta amfani da Baki zane maimakon Fari . Waɗannan hotunan haƙiƙa zane-zane ne na ainihin rayuwar duniyar Mafa, kuma tun daga lokacin sun zama sanannu a duk duniya, kuma watakila musamman tsakanin Ba'amurke Ba'amurke, a matsayin wani nau'I na zane-zane na Katolika.

Ba da daɗewa ba Josephites suka samo ayyukan, ƙungiyar addinai na ƙiristoci masu bautar Afirka-Amurkawa . Remainsarin ya kasance a makarantar seminar su a Washington, DC, inda cibiyar makiyayarsu ke ci gaba da siyar da kwafi.

Hakanan an ƙara tarin Jesus Mafa a ɗakin karatun Amurka.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hanyoyin haɗin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Bulahay Groups
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mafa - The Mandara Mountains Homepage. Retrieved June 03, 2013, to 16: 31 pm.
  3. 3.0 3.1 [Boulet, J., ‘Les groupes humains’, Le nord du Cameroun, des hommes, une region, Collection Memoires 102, (ed) Jean Boutrais, ORSTOM, Paris 1984:119
  4. Muller-Kosack, G., Cry for Death. Mandaras Publishing (www.mandaras.info). London, 1999 (4p)
  5. Hallaire, A., Paysans montagnards du Nord-Cameroun, Les monts Mandara, ORSTOM Editions, Collection, Paris 1991 26 Fig 5
  6. Lavergne, G., ‘Le pays et la population Matakam’, Bulletin de la Société d’Edudes Camerounaises 7, September 1944:7-73.
  7. 7.0 7.1 The Joshua project. Retrieved June 03, 2013, to 16: 56 pm.
  8. Fred Zaal (1 April 2016). Sustainable Land Management in the Tropics: Explaining the Miracle. Routledge. pp. 145–. ISBN 978-1-317-04776-6.