Maganin gargajiya

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Maganin gargajiya
system of medicine (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na medicine (en) Fassara da alternative medicine (en) Fassara
Bangare na traditional, complementary and integrative medicine (en) Fassara
Maganin gargajiya a kasuwa a Antananarivo, Madagascar
Botánicas irin wannan a Jamaica Plain, Boston, yana ba da al'ummar Latino kuma suna sayar da magungunan jama'a tare da mutum-mutumi na tsarkaka, kyandir da aka yi wa ado da addu'o'i, bamboo mai sa'a, da sauran abubuwa.

Magungunan Gargajiya (wanda kuma akafi sani da likitan ƴan ƙasa ko likitancin jama'a ). Ya kasance wan nan ya ƙunshi fannonin likitanci na ilimin gargajiya, waɗanda suka bunƙasa tsawon tsararraki a cikin aƙidar al'ummomi daban-daban, gami da ƴan asalin ƙasar, kafin lokacin maganin zamani. Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta ayyana. Maganin gargajiya a matsayin “jimlar ilimi, fasaha, da ayyuka bisa ka’idoji, imani, da gogewa na asali ga al’adu daban-daban, ko an bayyana ko a’a, da ake amfani da su wajen kula da lafiya haka nan. kamar yadda yake a cikin rigakafi, tantancewa, ingantawa ko magance cututtukan jiki da na tabin hankali”. [1] Magungunan gargajiya sau da yawa ana bambanta da likitan ilimin kimiyya.


A wasu kasashen Asiya da Afirka, kusan kashi 80 cikin 100 na al'ummar kasar sun dogara ne da magungunan gargajiya domin bukatunsu na farko na kiwon lafiya . Lokacin da aka ɗauke shi a waje da al'adun gargajiya, ana ɗaukar magungunan gargajiya a matsayin wani nau'i na madadin magani . [1] Ayyukan da aka fi sani da magungunan gargajiya sun haɗa da magungunan gargajiya na Turai, magungunan gargajiya na kasar Sin, magungunan gargajiya na Koriya, magungunan gargajiya na Afirka, Ayurveda, magungunan Siddha, Unani, magungunan gargajiya na Iran, magungunan Musulunci na tsakiya, Muti, da Ifá . Sana'o'in kimiyya da ke nazarin likitancin gargajiya sun hada da herbalism, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, da kuma ilimin halin ɗan adam .

WHO ta lura cewa, duk da haka, "yin amfani da magungunan gargajiya ko ayyuka marasa dacewa na iya haifar da mummunan tasiri ko haɗari" kuma " ana buƙatar ƙarin bincike domin tabbatar da inganci da aminci" irin waɗannan ayyuka da tsire-tsiren masu magani da tsarin magungunan gargajiya ke amfani da su. [1]A sakamakon haka, WHO ta aiwatar da dabarun shekaru tara domin taimakawa kasashen mambobin kungiyar domin samar da manufofi masu tasiri da aiwatar da tsare-tsaren ayyuka da za su karfafa rawar da magungunan gargajiya ke takawa wajen kiyaye lafiyar jama'a.[2]

Amfani da tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihi na gargajiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin rubuce-rubucen da aka rubuta, binciken da aka yi na ganye ya samo asali ne shekaru 5,000 zuwa tsohuwar Sumerians, waɗanda suka bayyana ingantaccen amfani da magani ga shuke-shuke. A cikin magungunan Masar na d ¯ a, papyrus Ebers daga c. 1552 BC ya rubuta jerin magungunan jama'a da ayyukan likita na sihiri. Tsohon Alkawari kuma ya ambaci amfani da ganye da kuma noma game da Kashrut.[3]

Yawancin ganyaye da ma'adanai da aka yi amfani da su a Ayurveda an kwatanta su da tsoffin masana ganye na Indiya irin su Charaka da Sushruta a lokacin karni na 1 BC.[4] Littafin ganye na farko na kasar Sin shi ne Shennong Bencao Jing, wanda aka harhada a zamanin daular Han amma tun daga baya aka kara shi a matsayin Yaoxing Lun ( Maganin yanayin Ganyewar Magunguna ) a lokacin daular Tang . Mawallafin Hellenanci na farko da aka sani na ilimin ganye na zamani da na yanzu sun haɗa da Pythagoras da mabiyansa, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Dioscorides da Galen .

Tushen Romawa sun haɗa da Tarihin Halitta na Pliny da Celsus 's De Medicina . Pedanius Dioscorides ya zana kuma ya gyara mawallafin farko don De Materia Medica,[5] yana ƙara sababbin abubuwa; An fassara aikin zuwa harsuna da dama, kuma an ƙara sunayen Turkawa, Larabci da Ibrananci a cikinsa tsawon ƙarni. Rubutun Latin na De Materia Medica an haɗa su tare da ganyen Latin ta Apuleius Platonicus ( Herbarium Apuleii Platonici ) kuma an haɗa su cikin codex Anglo-Saxon Cotton Vitellius C.III.[6]Waɗannan rukunonin Girka na farko da na Romawa sun zama ƙashin bayan ka'idar likitancin Turai kuma Persian Avicenna (Ibn Sīnā, 980-1037), Persian Rhazes (Rāzi, 865-925) da Maimonides na Yahudawa suka fassara su. [5]

An yi amfani da wasu burbushin maganin gargajiya tun zamanin da. [7]

Medieval kuma daga baya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Magungunan 'yan asalin Larabci sun samo asali daga rikici tsakanin magungunan tushen sihiri na Badawiyya da fassarar Larabci na al'adun likitancin Hellenic da Ayurvedic . Larabawa sun yi tasiri a kan likitancin Spain daga 711 zuwa 1492. Likitoci na Musulunci da masanan kimiyyar ilmin halitta musulmi irin su al-Dinawari [8] da Ibn al-Baitar [9] sun fadada sosai akan ilimin likitancin mata. Shahararriyar rubutun likitancin Farisa shine Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, wanda shine farkon pharmacopoeia kuma ya gabatar da gwaji na asibiti . [10] [11] An fassara Canon zuwa Latin a karni na 12 kuma ya kasance ikon likita a Turai har zuwa karni na 17. Hakanan tsarin Unani na magungunan gargajiya yana dogara ne akan Canon .

Hieronymus Bock ya yi fassarar farkon rubutun Roman-Greek zuwa Jamusanci wanda aka buga a cikin 1546, ana kiransa Kreuter Buch . An fassara littafin zuwa Yaren mutanen Holland azaman Pemptades ta Rembert Dodoens (1517-1585), kuma daga Yaren mutanen Holland zuwa Turanci ta Carolus Clusius, (1526–1609), Henry Lyte ya buga a 1578 a matsayin A Nievve Herball . Wannan ya zama John Gerard 's (1545-1612) Herball ko Janar Tarihin Tsirrai . Kowane sabon aiki ya kasance tarin rubutun da ake da su tare da sababbin ƙari.

Ilimin jama'a na mata ya wanzu a layi daya da waɗannan matani. Har ila yau ana jera magunguna arba'in da huɗu, abubuwan maye, abubuwan ɗanɗano da abubuwan motsa rai da Dioscorides ya ambata a cikin pharmacopoeias na Turai. Puritans sun ɗauki aikin Gerard zuwa Amurka inda ya rinjayi magungunan 'yan asalin Amurka. [5]

Francisco Hernández, likitan Philip na biyu na Spain ya shafe shekaru 1571-1577 yana tattara bayanai a Mexico sannan ya rubuta Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus, yawancin nau'ikan da aka buga ciki har da wanda Francisco Ximénez ya buga. Dukansu Hernandez da Ximenez sun dace da bayanan kabilanci na Aztec a cikin ra'ayoyin Turai game da cututtuka kamar "dumi", "sanyi", da "danshi", amma ba a bayyana cewa Aztecs sun yi amfani da waɗannan nau'ikan ba. [12] Juan de Esteyneffer 's Florilegio medicinal de todas las enfermedas ya tattara matani na Turai kuma ya ƙara shuke-shuken Mexico guda 35.

Martín de la Cruz ya rubuta wani ganye a Nahuatl wanda Juan Badiano ya fassara zuwa Latin kamar Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis ko Codex Barberini, Latin 241 kuma aka ba Sarki Carlos V na Spain a 1552. Da alama an rubuta shi cikin gaggawa kuma mamayewar Turawa na shekaru 30 da suka gabata ya rinjaye shi. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún ya yi amfani da hanyoyin ƙabilanci don tattara ka'idodinsa waɗanda suka zama Tarihi Janar de las Cosas de Nueva España, wanda aka buga a 1793. [13] Castore Durante ya buga Herbario Nuovo a cikin 1585 yana kwatanta tsire-tsire masu magani daga Turai da Gabas da Yammacin Indiya . An fassara shi zuwa Jamusanci a cikin 1609 kuma an buga bugu na Italiyanci na ƙarni na gaba.

Mallakar Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin karni na 17 da 18 a Amurka, masu maganin gargajiya, mata akai-akai, sun yi amfani da magungunan ganye, cin abinci da leshi . [14] Magungunan gargajiya na Amirkawa na gargajiya sun gabatar da maganin zazzabin cizon sauro, ciwon zazzaɓi, scurvy, syphilis maras nauyi, da matsalolin goiter. [15] Yawancin waɗannan magungunan ganye da na jama'a sun ci gaba har zuwa karni na 19 zuwa karni na 20, [16] tare da wasu magungunan tsire-tsire waɗanda suka zama tushen ilimin harhada magunguna na zamani. [17]

Amfanin zamani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yaɗuwar magungunan jama'a a wasu yankuna na duniya ya bambanta bisa ga ka'idodin al'adu. [18] Wasu magungunan zamani sun dogara ne akan sinadarai na shuka waɗanda aka yi amfani da su a cikin magungunan jama'a. Masu bincike sun bayyana cewa da yawa daga cikin madadin jiyya ba su da "ƙididdigar ƙididdiga daga magungunan placebo ". [19]

watsa ilimi da halitta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Maganin ƴan asalin gabaɗaya ana yaɗa su ta baki ta hanyar al'umma, dangi da daidaikun mutane har sai an “tara”. A cikin wata al'ada da aka ba da, abubuwan ilimin likitancin na asali na iya zama sananne ga mutane da yawa, ko kuma waɗanda ke cikin takamaiman aikin warkarwa kamar shaman ko ungozoma . Abubuwa uku sun halatta matsayin mai warkarwa - akidarsu, nasarar ayyukansu da imanin al'umma. Lokacin da al'adar ta ƙi iƙirarin magungunan ƴan asalin, gabaɗaya iri uku na mabiya suna amfani da shi - waɗanda aka haife su kuma suka yi tarayya da su a cikinta waɗanda suka zama masu bi na dindindin, masu bi na ɗan lokaci waɗanda suka juya zuwa gare shi a lokutan wahala, da waɗanda suka yi imani kawai a takamaiman fannoni., ba a cikin duka ba.  

Ma'ana da kalmomi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ana iya ɗaukar magungunan gargajiya a wani lokaci a matsayin dabam da magungunan jama'a, kuma ana la'akari da sun haɗa da abubuwan da aka tsara na maganin jama'a. A karkashin wannan ma'anar magungunan jama'a akwai magungunan da aka dade suna yadawa da kuma amfani da su. Magungunan jama'a sun ƙunshi ayyukan warkaswa da ra'ayoyin ilimin halittar jiki da kiyaye lafiyar da wasu suka sani a cikin al'ada, ana watsawa ta hanyar yau da kullun azaman ilimin gabaɗaya, kuma kowa a cikin al'adar da ke da gogewa ta farko ya yi aiki ko amfani da shi.

Maganin jama'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Curandera yana yin limpieza a Cuenca, Ecuador

Kasashe da yawa suna da ayyukan da aka siffanta a matsayin magungunan jama'a waɗanda za su iya kasancewa tare tare da tsarin aikin likita na yau da kullun, tushen kimiyya, da kuma tsarin aikin likita wanda ke wakilta. Misalan al'adun magungunan jama'a sune magungunan gargajiya na kasar Sin, likitancin Iran, likitancin Koriya, likitancin Larabci, maganin gargajiya na Uygur, magungunan Kampho na Japan, magungunan daji na Aboriginal na gargajiya, 'yan asalin Hawaiian La'au lapa'au, da kuma maganin gargajiya na Jojiya, da sauransu.

Magungunan daji na Australiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Gabaɗaya, maganin daji da mutanen Aboriginal da Torres Strait Islander ke amfani da su a Ostiraliya ana yin su ne daga kayan shuka, kamar haushi, ganye da iri, kodayake ana iya amfani da kayan dabbobi kuma. Babban bangaren magungunan gargajiya shine maganin gargajiya, wanda shine amfani da kayan shuka na halitta don magance ko hana cututtuka.

Magungunan 'yan asalin Amurka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Magungunan ƴan asalin ƙasar Amurka da Alaska nau'ikan warkarwa ne na gargajiya waɗanda suka wanzu tsawon dubban shekaru. Akwai shuke-shuke ethnobotany da yawa da ke cikin maganin gargajiya ga ƴan asalin ƙasar Amirka kuma wasu har yanzu ana amfani da su a yau. Idan ya zo ga magungunan gargajiya na Amirkawa, ra'ayoyin da ke tattare da lafiya da rashin lafiya a cikin al'adun ba su da bambanci da ra'ayoyin addini da ruhaniya. [20] Masu warkarwa a cikin al'ummomin ƴan asalin suna da sunaye da yawa kama daga namiji ko mace zuwa likitan ganye ko ma shaman kuma ana ɗaukar su shugabannin ruhaniya ko na addini a cikin kabilun su. [20] Idan ana maganar waraka, masu warkarwa na ƙabilanci za su kalli halayen shuka don tantance ingancinta don maganin rashin lafiya. Takamaiman halayen shuka kamar siffar shuka, wari, launi, da ɗanɗano na iya taimakawa wajen tantance yadda za'a iya amfani da shuka azaman magani. [21] Kabilar Meskwaki sun gano cewa za su iya amfani da ruwan 'ya'yan itace daga Arum maculatum don saran maciji. [21] An yi la’akari da hakan ne daga bayyanar madarar ruwan da aka ce daga shukar wadda aka ce tana kama da dafin maciji, kuma siffar shukar ta yi kama da kan maciji. [21] 'Yan asalin ƙasar Amirka sun yi amfani da ganyen foxglove a matsayin magani ga wata cuta da ake kira ɗigon ruwa ko edema, wanda ruwa ne ke taruwa yawanci a cikin ƙananan ƙafafu, kuma dalilinsa na yau da kullum shine ciwon zuciya. [21] A cikin maganin zamani, ana amfani da tsantsa foxglove a ƙarƙashin sunan digitalis, kuma manufarsa ita ce matsakaicin bugun zuciya. [21] ’Yan asalin ƙasar Amirka sun yi nasara tare da wasu ayyukan likita, kamar su magance zazzaɓi, yanayin gastrointestinal, raƙuman fata, kafa ƙashi, da kuma haihuwar jarirai, da taimaka wa iyaye mata wajen samun waraka. [21] Wani bincike da aka gudanar a cikin wani asibitin IHS wanda ke ba masu warkarwa na Navajo damar ziyartar marasa lafiya ya gano cewa asibitin ya samu kashi 80 cikin 100 na nasara wajen dawo da marasa lafiya cikin hayyacinsu, wanda ya zarce adadin asibitocin sarrafa kwayoyin halitta a yau. [20] An zaɓi dangin Asteraceae da yawa don taimakon orthopedic da taimakon huhu, musamman nau'in Achillea da Artemisia . [22] Wani bincike da aka gudanar tsakanin kabilu 14 daban-daban a Arewacin Amurka ya gano cewa Asteraceae ita ce dangin tsire-tsire da aka fi amfani da shi don kayan magani. [22]

Natuvaidyam[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nattuvaidyam saiti ne na ayyukan likitanci na asali waɗanda suka wanzu a Indiya kafin zuwan maganin allopathic ko na yamma. Waɗannan ayyuka suna da nau'o'i daban-daban na ka'idoji da ra'ayoyin jiki, lafiya da cututtuka. An yi karo da juna da aron ra'ayoyi, magungunan da aka yi amfani da su da dabaru a cikin waɗannan ayyukan. Wasu daga cikin waɗannan ayyukan sun rubuta rubuce-rubuce a cikin yarukan yare kamar Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, da sauransu. yayin da wasu kuma ana ba da su ta baki ta hanyar na'urori daban-daban. Ayurveda wani nau'i ne na nattuvaidyam da ake yi a kudancin Indiya. [23] Sauran sun hada da kalarichikitsa (wanda ya shafi saitin kashi da tsoka), marmachikitsa (mahimmanci tabo tausa), ottamoolivaidyam (maganin kashi ɗaya ko magani na lokaci ɗaya), chintamanivaidyam da sauransu. Lokacin da aka sake fasalin tsarin likitanci a cikin karni na ashirin Indiya, yawancin ayyuka da dabaru na musamman ga wasu nattuvaidyam iri-iri sun haɗa cikin Ayurveda.

Maganin gida[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Maganin gida (wani lokaci kuma ana kiransa maganin kaka ) magani ne don warkar da cuta ko cuta wanda ke amfani da wasu kayan yaji, ganye, kayan lambu, ko wasu abubuwan gama gari. Magungunan gida na iya ko ba su da kaddarorin magani waɗanda ke magance ko warkar da cutar ko cutar da ake tambaya, kamar yadda ƴan ƙasa yawanci ke wucewa tare da su (wanda Intanet ta sauƙaƙe a cikin 'yan shekarun nan). Yawancin ana amfani da su ne kawai sakamakon al'ada ko al'ada ko kuma saboda suna da tasiri wajen haifar da tasirin placebo .

Ɗaya daga cikin mashahuran misalan maganin gida shine amfani da miya na kaji domin magance cututtuka na numfashi kamar mura. Sauran misalan magunguna na gida sun haɗa da tef ɗin duct domin taimakawa tare da kafa ƙasusuwan da suka karye; tef ko superglue don magance warts na shuka ; da Kogel mogel don magance ciwon makogwaro. A zamanin da, an damƙa wa iyaye mata duk wasu magunguna amma masu tsanani. Littattafan girke-girke na tarihi akai-akai suna cike da magunguna don dyspepsia, zazzabi, da gunaguni na mata. [24] Ana amfani da kayan aikin aloe don magance cututtukan fata. [25] Yawancin barasa ko narkar da abinci na Turai an sayar da su azaman magungunan magani. A cikin magungunan jama'ar kasar Sin, congees na magani (miyan shinkafa da aka daɗe tare da ganye), abinci, da miya suna cikin ayyukan jiyya. [26]

Suka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Damuwar tsaro[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ko da yake kasashe 130 suna da ka'idoji game da magungunan jama'a, akwai haɗarin da ke tattare da amfani da su (watau zoonosis, musamman kamar yadda wasu magungunan gargajiya ke amfani da sinadarai na dabba [27] [28] ). Sau da yawa ana ɗauka cewa saboda magungunan da ake zato na halitta ne cewa ba su da lafiya, amma ana haɗa matakan kiyayewa da yawa tare da amfani da magungunan ganye.

Amfani da nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wani lokaci magungunan gargajiya sun haɗa da sassan nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari, kamar jinkirin loris a kudu maso gabashin Asiya.

Dabbobin da ke cikin haɗari, irin su jinkirin loris, wasu lokuta ana kashe su don yin magungunan gargajiya. [29]

Har ila yau, an yi amfani da filaye na shark a cikin magungunan gargajiya, kuma duk da cewa ba a tabbatar da ingancin su ba, yana cutar da yawan kifin shark da kuma yanayin su.

Sana'ar hauren giwa ba bisa ka'ida ba za a iya gano wani bangare na masu siyan magungunan gargajiya na kasar Sin . Bukatar hauren giwa shine babban abin da ke haifar da farautar nau'ikan da ke cikin hadari kamar karkanda da giwaye. [30]

Pangolins na fuskantar barazana ta hanyar farautar namansu da sikelinsu, wadanda ake amfani da su wajen maganin gargajiya. Su ne dabbobi masu shayarwa da aka fi fataucinsu a duniya.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Ayurveda
  • Bioprospecting
  • Maganin jama'a
  • Maganin ganye
  • Jarrah (likita)
  • Tsire-tsire masu magani
  • Asalin kabilanci na Amurka
  • Labarin Tsofaffin Mata
  • Pharmacognosy
  • Magungunan gargajiya na Afirka
  • Maganin gargajiya na kasar Sin
  • Laburaren Ilimi na Gargajiya
  • Jerin nau'ikan madadin magani

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

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  2. "WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023". The World Health Organization. December 2013. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. Retrieved June 27, 2023. More than one of |archiveurl= and |archive-url= specified (help); More than one of |archivedate= and |archive-date= specified (help)
  3. "Ebers' Papyrus". Retrieved 28 December 2014.
  4. Girish Dwivedi, Shridhar Dwivedi (2007). History of Medicine: Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence (PDF). National Informatics Centre. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-10. Retrieved 2008-10-08.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Kay, MA (1996). Healing with plants in the American and Mexican West. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-8165-1646-9.
  6. Raphael, Sandra; Blunt, Wilfrid (1994). The Illustrated herbal. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-0-7112-0914-5.
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  8. (Régis ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", OISE Papers, in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
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  13. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Heinrich2005
  14. Rosalyn Fraad Baxandall, Linda Gordon, Susan Reverb, America's Working Women: A Documentary History, 1600 to the Present, W. W. Norton & Company, 1995, p. 50
  15. Madsen, Deborah L. The Routledge Companion to Native American Literature, Routledge, 2015
  16. Swerdlow JL. Medicine Changes: late 19th to early 20th century. Nature's Medicine: Plants that Heal. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society; 2000. pp. 158–91.
  17. Eugenia M. Fulcher, Robert M. Fulcher, Cathy Dubeansky, Pharmacology: Principles and Applications'', Soto Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014, p. 5
  18. Empty citation (help)
  19. The Economist, "Alternative Medicine: Think yourself better", 21 May 2011, pp. 83–84.
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  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :02
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  24. Catherine Esther Beecher Mrs. Beecher's Housekeeper and Healthkeeper 1874. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
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  26. Prince Wen Hui's Cook Bob Flaws and Honora Wolf 1985
  27. Africa’s growing risk of diseases that spread from animals to people
  28. Use of animal products in traditional Chinese medicine: environmental impact and health hazards
  29. Empty citation (help)
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