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Masarautar Kano

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Masarautar Kano
geographical feature (en) Fassara da Emirate (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙasa Najeriya
Wuri
Map
 12°00′N 8°31′E / 12°N 8.52°E / 12; 8.52

Masarautar Kano Masarautar Hausa ce da ke Arewacin Najeriya a yanzu ta samo asali tun kafin shekara ta 1000 Miladiyya, kuma ta daɗe har zuwa lokacin da Sarki Ali Yaji Dan Tsamiya ya ayyana Sarautar Sarkin Kano a shekarar 1349. Daga nan sai aka maye gurbin masarautar da Sarkin Musulmi, a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Sarkin Musulmi Babban birnin yanzu shi ne birnin Kano na zamani a jihar Kano.[1]

Wuri[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kano tana arewacin yankin Jos Plateau, da ke yankin Savanna na Sudan da ke kudancin yankin Sahel.[2] Garin yana kusa da inda kogunan Kano da Challawa da ke kwararowa daga kudu maso yamma suka haɗu suka kafa kogin Hadejia, wanda daga ƙarshe ya ratsa tafkin Chadi zuwa gabas.[3][4] Yanayin yana zafi duk shekara. Ruwan sama yana canzawa, daga 350mm zuwa 1,300mm kowace shekara tare da ma'ana a kusa da 950mm, kusan duk yana faɗuwa a lokacin Yuni-Satumba. A al'adance noma ya dogara ne akan ɗaga ruwa don ban ruwa da ƙananan fakitin filaye tare da magudanar ruwa a lokacin rani, wanda aka sani da tsarin Shadouf.[5][6] A lokacin da mulkin ke bunƙasa, da rufin bishiya ya yi yawa kuma ƙasar ba ta ƙasƙanta fiye da yadda take a yau.

Tarihin farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sanin mu na tarihin farko na Kano ya fito ne daga littafin tarihin Kano, tarin al'adun baka da wasu tsofaffin takardu da aka yi a ƙarni na sha tara, da kuma binciken binciken kayan tarihi da aka gudanar kwanan nan.

A Karni na 7, tsaunin Dala, wani tudu a Kano, ya kasance wurin da al'ummar da ke yin aikin karfe. Ba a sani ba ko waɗannan Hausawa ne ko kuma masu magana da harsunan Nijar–Congo . Wasu majiyoyi sun ce mafarauta ne da aka fi sani da Abagayawa da suka yi hijira daga Gaya . Balarabe masanin al-Yaqubi, ya rubuta a shekara ta 872/873 CE (AH 259), ya bayyana wata masarauta da ake kira "HBShH" mai wani gari mai suna "ThBYR" wanda wani sarki mai suna "MRH" ya yi mulki (babu daya daga cikin waɗannan kalmomi da aka fadi, don haka nasu. ainihin lafazi na iya bambanta), wanda ke tsakanin Niger Bend da Masarautar Kanem. [7] Idan an kira sunan masarauta da sunan “Habasha” zai yi daidai da sauran rubutun larabci wadanda su ma ake magana da harshen Hausa, kuma za su kasance farkon maganar yankin Hausa.

Asalinsu Kano ana kiranta Dala, bayan tudu, kuma ana kiranta da ita a ƙarshen karni na 15 da farkon 16 daga majiyoyin Borno . Littafin tarihin Kano ya bayyana Barbushe, limamin ruhin Dalla, a matsayin mazaunin farko na birnin. [8] ( Elizabeth Isichei ta lura cewa bayanin Barbushe yayi kama da na mutanen Sao . ) Kamar yadda tarihin Kano ya nuna, Bagauda jikan jarumi Bayajidda ne, ya zama sarkin Hausawa na farko a Kano a shekara ta 999, ya yi sarauta har zuwa 1063. [9] [4] [10] Jikansa Gijimasu (1095–1134), sarki na uku, ya fara gina katangar birni a gindin tsaunin Dalla, kuma ɗan Gijimasu, Tsaraki (1136–1194), sarki na biyar, ya kammala su a zamanin mulkinsa. [4] Iyalan Bagauda sun ci gaba da faɗaɗa masarautar ta hanyar mamaye yankunan da ke kusa. Sun kafa masarautu masu yawa, masu laƙabi da suka fara da "Dan", wanda mafi mahimmancin su shine "Ɗan Iya". [11]

Ali Yaji[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ali Yaji (1349-1385) shi ne ya jagoranci shigar da addinan Ibrahim a Kano, ya kawo tsarkaka daga Wangara, mai yiwuwa Mali . Ya kara kaimi Kano tare da kaddamar da balaguro zuwa yankin Kwarafa wanda bai yi nasara ba. [12] Ya zama Sarkin Kano na Ƙarshe a shekarun 1350, bayan ya ci Rano da Santolo ya mai da Musulunci addinin ƙasa sannan ya shelanta kawo karshen Masarautar, Kano daga nan ta zama Sarkin Musulmi sannan shugabanninta suka ɗauki sarautar Sarkin Musulmi .

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Kano". Kano Online. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
  2. Okehie-Offoha, Marcellina; Matthew N. O. Sadiku (December 1995). Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Nigeria. Africa World Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-86543-283-3.
  3. "Kano". Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Ki-Zerbo, Joseph (1998). UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. IV, Abridged Edition: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century. University of California Press. p. 107. ISBN 0-520-06699-5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "un" defined multiple times with different content
  5. "Caravans Across the Desert: Marketplace". AFRICA: One Continent. Many Worlds. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Foundation. Archived from the original on 2 January 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  6. "50 Greatest Africans – Sarki Muhammad Rumfa & Emperor Semamun". When We Ruled. Every Generation Media. Retrieved 5 May 2007.
  7. al-Ya'qubi, "Tarikh" in Nehemiah Levtzion and J. F. P. Hopkins, transl, Corpus of Early Arabic sources for West African History (Cambridge University Press, 1981), p. 21.
  8. "Kano Chronicle" ed. H. R. Palmer in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 38 (1908) p. 63
  9. "Kano Chronicle" ed. H. R. Palmer,pp. 64-65.
  10. H. R. Palmer, ed. and trans. "The Kano Chronicle" Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 38 (1908), p. 65.
  11. "Kano Chronicle" ed. Palmer, pp. 66, 67.
  12. "Kano Chronicle," ed. Palmer, pp. 70-72.