Muhalli

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Muhalli
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Muhalli a kan tambarin Amurka.

 Muhalli ko haƙƙin muhalli wani babban falsafa ne, akida, da harkar zamantakewa game da damuwa dan kare muhalli da inganta lafiyar muhalli, musamman kamar yadda ma'auni na wannan kiwon lafiya ke neman hada tasirin canje-canje ga muhalli akan mutane, dabbobi, tsire-tsire da abubuwan da ba su da rai. Yayin da muhalli ya fi mayar da hankali kan yanayin muhalli da yanayin da ke da alaka da akidar kore da siyasa, ilimin kimiyya ya haɗu da akidar zamantakewar zamantakewa da muhalli. An fi amfani da ilimin ilimin halitta a cikin harsunan nahiyar Turai, yayin da ake amfani da muhalli a cikin Ingilishi amma kalmomin suna da ma'anoni daban-daban.[1]

Muhalli

Muhalli yana ba da shawarar kiyayewa, maidowa da haɓaka yanayin yanayi da mahimman tsarin ƙasa abubuwa ko matakai kamar yanayin yanayi, kuma ana iya kiransa motsi don sarrafa gurɓatawa ko kare nau'ikan tsirrai da dabbobi. Saboda wannan dalili, ra'ayoyi kamar ƙa'idar ƙasa, ɗa'a na muhalli, bambancin halittu, ilimin halittu, da hasashen biophilia adadi galibi.

A mahimmin sa, muhalli wani yunƙuri ne na daidaita dangantaka tsakanin ɗan adam da tsarin halitta daban-daban waɗanda suka dogara da su ta yadda za a ba da dukkan abubuwan da suka dace daidai gwargwado. Matsakaicin ma'auni da sakamakon wannan ma'auni yana da rigima kuma akwai hanyoyi daban-daban don matsalolin muhalli da za a bayyana a aikace. Muhalli da abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli galibi ana wakilta su da launin kore, amma masana'antun tallace-tallace sun tsara wannan ƙungiyar don dabarar da aka fi sani da greenwashing. [2]

Muhall,i yana adawa da rashin muhalli, wanda ya ce duniya ba ta da rauni fiye da yadda wasu masana muhalli ke kula da su, kuma ta nuna yanayin muhalli a matsayin wuce gona da iri ga gudummawar ɗan adam ga canjin yanayi ko adawa da ci gaban ɗan adam.

Ma'anoni[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Muhalli yana nuni da harkar zamantakewa wanda ke neman yin tasiri a tsarin siyasa ta hanyar fafutuka, fafutuka, da ilimi don kare albarkatun ƙasa da muhalli.

Masanin muhalli shine mutum wanda zai iya yin magana game da yanayin mu na halitta da kuma kula da albarkatunsa mai dorewa ta hanyar canje-canje a manufofin jama'a ko halayen mutum. Wannan na iya haɗawa da ayyuka masu goyan baya kamar bayanan amfani, ayyukan kiyayewa, saka hannun jari a cikin albarkatu masu sabuntawa, ingantattun inganci a cikin tattalin arzikin kayan, canzawa zuwa sabon tsarin lissafin kamar tattalin arzikin muhalli, sabuntawa da sake farfado da haɗin gwiwarmu tare da rayuwar da ba ɗan adam ba ko ma zaɓi don samun. daya kasa yaro don rage amfani da matsa lamba a kan albarkatun.

Ta hanyoyi daban-daban (misali, fafutuka da zanga-zanga), masu rajin kare muhalli da kungiyoyin kare muhalli suna neman baiwa duniyar halitta babbar murya a cikin harkokin dan adam. [3]

Gabaɗaya, masana muhalli suna ba da shawarar kula da albarkatun ƙasa mai dorewa, da kariya (da maidowa, idan ya cancanta) na yanayin yanayi ta hanyar canje-canjen manufofin jama'a da halayen mutum. A cikin amincewa da ɗan adam a matsayin mai shiga cikin tsarin halittu, motsi ya dogara ne akan ilimin halitta, lafiya, da 'yancin ɗan adam.[4]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Lord Mahavira, Jain Tirthankar na ƙarshe, kuma ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin babban masanin muhalli.
Wannan muhalli me mai cike da tsafta

Damuwa game da kare muhalli ya sake faruwa a nau'i daban-daban, a sassa daban-daban na duniya, cikin tarihi. Ana iya samun farkon ra'ayoyin kare muhalli a cikin Jainism, addini daga tsohuwar Indiya wanda Mahavira ya farfado a karni na 6 BC. Jainism yana ba da ra'ayi da ke cikin hanyoyi da yawa masu jituwa tare da ainihin dabi'un da ke da alaƙa da gwagwarmayar muhalli, kamar kariyar rayuwa ta rashin tashin hankali, wanda kuma zai iya samar da ƙaƙƙarfan ƙa'idodin muhalli don kare muhalli na duniya. Koyarwar Mahavira a kan fahimtar juna tsakanin dukkan masu rai—da kuma abubuwa biyar na duniya, ruwa, iska, wuta, da sararin samaniya—sune tushen tunanin muhalli a yau.[5]

A Gabas ta Tsakiya, Halifa Abubakar a shekara ta 630 miladiyya ya umurci sojojinsa da cewa "Kada ku cutar da itatuwa, kuma kada ku kona su da wuta," kuma "Kada ku kashe ko daya daga cikin garken abokan gaba, sai dai abincinku." Litattafan likitanci na Larabci daban-daban a cikin ƙarni na 9 zuwa 13 sun yi magana game da muhalli da kimiyyar muhalli, gami da batun ƙazantawa. Marubutan irin wadannan littafai sun hada da Al-Kindi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, al-Tamimi, al-Masihi, Avicenna, Ali ibn Ridwan, Ibn Jumay, Isaac Israel ben Solomon, Abd-el-latif, Ibn al-Quff, da Ibn al-Nafis. Ayyukansu sun shafi batutuwa da dama da suka shafi gurɓata yanayi, kamar gurɓataccen iska, gurɓataccen ruwa, gurɓataccen ƙasa, da kuma yadda ake sarrafa ƙazamin ƙazamin gari. Sun kuma haɗa da kididdigar tasirin wasu yankuna na tasirin muhalli.

A Turai, Sarki Edward I na Ingila ya haramta kona da sayar da "kwal-kwal" a cikin 1272 ta hanyar shela a Landan, bayan hayakinsa ya zama abin bacin rai a ko'ina cikin birnin. Wannan man da aka saba yi a birnin Landan saboda karancin itacen da ake yi a yankin, an sanya masa suna na farko ne saboda ana iya samunsa da aka wanke a wasu gabar ruwa, inda aka kwashe shi a kan keken keke.[6]

Dokokin muhalli na farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Matsayin gurɓataccen iska ya tashi a lokacin juyin juya halin masana'antu, wanda ya haifar da dokokin muhalli na zamani na farko da aka zartar a tsakiyar karni na 19.

At the advent of steam and electricity the muse of history holds her nose and shuts her eyes (H. G. Wells 1918).[7]

Asalin motsin muhalli ya kasance a cikin martani ga karuwar gurɓataccen hayaki a cikin yanayi a lokacin juyin juya halin masana'antu. Fitowar manyan masana'antu da ci gaban ci gaban da ake samu a cikin kwal ya haifar da gurɓacewar iska da ba a taɓa gani ba a cibiyoyin masana'antu; bayan shekara ta 1900 babban adadin fitar da sinadarai na masana'antu ya kara karuwa na sharar dan adam da ba a kula da su ba. Na farko manyan-sikelin, dokokin muhalli na zamani sun zo a cikin nau'i na Biritaniya's Alkali Ayyukan Manzanni, wuce a 1863, don tsara deleterious iska gurbatawa (gaseous hydrochloric acid) bayar kashe ta hanyar Leblanc tsari, amfani da su samar da soda ash. An nada wani sifeton Alkali da wasu kananan sifetoci hudu domin dakile wannan gurbatar yanayi. A hankali an faɗaɗa nauyin da hukumar ke ɗauka, wanda ya ƙare a cikin Dokar Alkali ta 1958 wanda ya sanya dukkan manyan masana'antu masu nauyi waɗanda ke fitar da hayaki, ƙura, ƙura da hayaƙi ƙarƙashin kulawa.





Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Environmentalism–Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam- webster.com. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  2. Bowen, Frances, and J. Alberto Aragon-Correa. "Greenwashing in corporate environmentalism research and practice: The importance of what we say and do." (2014): 107-112.
  3. Robert Gottlieb, Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement (2005)
  4. PTI (20 April 2016). "Lord Mahavir was a great environmentalist: Fadnavis" . Times of India . Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  5. Aboul-Enein, H. Yousuf; Zuhur, Sherifa (2004), Islamic Rulings on Warfare , Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, p. 22, ISBN 978-1-58487-177-4
  6. Gari, L. (November 2002), "Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century", Environment and History, 8 (4): 475–88, doi :10.3197/096734002129342747 , S2CID 85197649
  7. In the Fourth Year: Anticipations of a World Peace, (London: Chatto & Windus), p. 100.