Muhalli

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Muhalli, muhalli ko kore gentrification tsari ne wanda a cikinsa tsaftace gurɓatacce ko samar da kayan more rayuwa masu kore yana ƙara ƙimar kadarorin gida kuma yana jan hankalin mazauna wurin masu arziki zuwa ƙazantar ƙazanta ko ƙazantar da su a baya. Koren abubuwan more rayuwa sun haɗa da filayen kore, wuraren shakatawa, rufin kore, lambuna da kore da kayan gini masu inganci . Waɗannan yunƙurin na iya warkar da cututtukan muhalli da yawa daga haɓaka masana'antu da ƙawata shimfidar birane. Bugu da ƙari, kore yana da mahimmanci don cimma makoma mai ɗorewa. Sannan Kuma Duk da haka, idan tare da gentrification, irin wannan yunƙurin na iya yin tasiri mai ban sha'awa na zamantakewa idan matalauta (musamman masu haya) sun yi gudun hijira ko kuma tilasta su biya mafi girma farashin gidaje. [1] Da farko Sieg et al. (2004), gentrification muhalli sabon ra'ayi ne, kodayake ana iya la'akari da shi azaman sabon matasan tsofaffi da manyan batutuwa na gentrification da adalci na muhalli . Kuma Nazari daban-daban sun yi nazari kan abubuwan da suka shafi zamantakewar ayyukan kore musamman dangane da arziƙin gidaje da ƙaura daga matsugunan ƴan ƙasa. Greening a cikin birane na iya zama duka lafiya da adalci.

Gentrification[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gentrification tsari ne da ake canza unguwa ta yadda za a iya kaiwa ga mai siye ko mai saka hannun jari. Ana aiwatar da tsarin sau da yawa a cikin unguwannin masu aiki da ƙananan mazauna ke zaune. Ci gaban ƙasa kamar gidaje na alfarma ko canza tsoffin masana'antu zuwa manyan benaye na zamani, suna jan hankalin masu saka hannun jari. Yayin da ake ci gaba da tafiya, ana korar mazauna masu karamin karfi zuwa waje ko kuma zuwa bayan unguwanni yayin da gidaje da hayar gidaje suka karu saboda bukata. Sannan Kuma Hakanan, yayin da mazauna matsakaici suka shiga unguwar da ke kewaye da kasuwancin suna canzawa don biyan sha'awa. Sau da yawa ƙananan hukumomi suna haɓaka haɓakawa ta hanyar manufofin da ke inganta '' sabunta birane ' . [2] Gabaɗaya, ana ɗaukar tsarin zai amfanar da tattalin arzikin cikin gida da inganta unguwanni. An gane gabaɗaya matakai uku na gentrification:

  1. 1960-1970s - wani tsari wanda ba bisa ka'ida ba wanda gwamnati ke jagoranta wanda ke fatan sake saka jari zuwa cikin birni.
  2. 1970s - ya yadu a manyan birane kuma ya yadu zuwa kananan garuruwa a fadin Arewacin Amirka. Haɓaka al'ummomin fasaha kamar Soho Manhattan don jawo hankalin mazauna da masu saka hannun jari.
  3. 1990s - babban ci gaba mai girma ya ƙaru cikin sikeli da sarƙaƙƙiya ta hanyar haɗin gwiwar jama'a da masu zaman kansu.

Yayin da ’yan kasa masu arziki suka fara neman ababen more rayuwa koren, biranen sun karkata akalarsu wajen aurar da raya birane tare da koren tsare-tsare duk suna bin irin wannan tsari. Kuma Ana iya ganin wasu daga cikin waɗannan tsare-tsare ta hanyar sauye-sauyen ababen more rayuwa daban-daban, da yadda mutane ke canza hanyoyin sufuri zuwa abubuwa kamar su keke da tafiya, da kuma ƙaura da mutane, duk abin da zai iya haifar da ƴancin unguwanni.

Tsarin birni da dorewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Birane da daidaikun mutane suna magance rikicin muhalli ta hanyar tsare- tsare da ayyuka masu dacewa da muhalli. A halin yanzu, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta kiyasta cewa kusan kashi 54% na mazauna duniya suna zaune a birane. Ana sa ran wannan adadin zai karu zuwa 66% nan da shekara ta 2050. A hanyoyi da yawa, birni yana aiki kamar kwayoyin halitta, cirewa, amfani da zubar da albarkatu a sararin samaniya da lokaci. Sabili da haka, nazarin yanayin birane na iya bayyana sau da yawa matsayi na iko. Misali, a cikin Amurka akwai mummunan alaƙa tsakanin samar da sararin kore na birane da Ba-Amurke da al'ummar Hispanic . Wuraren da aka bayar suna da ƙarancin kulawa da aikin ɗan sanda. Bugu da ƙari, koren sararin samaniya a cikin unguwanni masu wadata suna haɓaka ayyuka ga ƴan ƙasa masu arziki waɗanda ke taimakawa wajen kiyaye wani tsari na zamantakewa.

Dorewa kayan aiki ne da gwamnatoci da masu haɓaka suka yi amfani da su don haɓaka ayyukan kore a cikin birane. Ta hanyar bunkasa ci gaba mai dorewa ga kasashe masu tasowa, dorewar ta bayyana a matsayin shawarwarin duniya a taron koli na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na shekarata 1992 . A ka'idar, ana samun dorewa ta hanyar ma'auni na ginshiƙai uku - tattalin arziki, muhalli da daidaiton zamantakewa . Koyaya, a aikace har yanzu yana zama ƙalubale. Sashin daidaiton zamantakewa na dorewa ya damu da samar da al'ummomin gida damar shiga cikin yanke shawara da kuma amfana daga ayyukan ci gaba. [3] Haɗin gwiwar jama'a yana nufin tabbatar da cewa an biya bukatun gida da bukatun.

A cikin misalan da yawa, sake fasalin wuraren launin ruwan kasa (bangaren masana'antu bayan masana'antu) sun zama ginshiƙai don babban haɓakar korewar birane. Waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon suna kama da yanayin yanayin masana'antu da suka gabata - kusa da tsakiyar gari da bakin ruwa kuma suna buƙatar gyaran muhalli. Gyaran muhalli sau da yawa yana haɓaka dorewa ta hanyar tsare-tsare na birane kamar sabbin birane waɗanda ke haɓaka wannan shirin da ke mai da hankali kan gina biranen da za su iya rayuwa da tafiya .

Misalai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Barcelona[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton wurin da ba a ba shi ikon yin amfani da shi na Diagonal Mar kafin sake inganta shi.

Gundumar Sant Marti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton Diagonal Mar bayan sake haɓakawa.

Wani bincike na shekaru 15 (1990-2005) yayi nazarin tasirin zamantakewa ko haɓaka wuraren koren birane a cikin birnin Barcelona . A cikin shekarun 1990s da 2000, an ƙara sabbin wuraren shakatawa na koren birane guda 18 cikin shirin tsara birni. Da farko dai, yayin da aka ba Barcelona lambar yabo ta gasar Olympics ta 1992, birnin ya shirya taron ta hanyar ci gaban birane da yawa wanda ya yi tasiri ga sauyin wuraren jama'a . A baya, birnin ya damu da samar da wuraren shakatawa na birane don yin cudanya da motsa jiki. Koyaya, yayin da gasar Olympics ke gabatowa cikin sauri, masu tsara birane da gwamnatocin birni sun yi amfani da damar don haɓaka wuraren koren don manyan abubuwan da suka faru. Waɗannan sabbin nau'ikan wurare suna ba da fifikon kyawawan halaye na sararin koren birni a ƙoƙarin jawo hankalin masu yawon bude ido da ba da shimfidar wurare masu tunawa. Ana iya ganin gadon wuraren shakatawa na birni na mega a cikin manyan wuraren shakatawa guda uku a kusa da birnin - Parc del Port Olimpic, Parc del Poblenou da Parc de Diagnol Mar. Duk da waɗannan wuraren shakatawa guda uku sun canza alƙaluman unguwanni zuwa ga wadata. [4]

Birnin Barcelona ya fitar da shirinsa na dorewa mai taken Barcelona Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plana shekarata 2020. Wannan takaddar ba ta ƙunshi tsare-tsare don araha na gidaje ko tasirin zamantakewa wanda ya samo asali daga babban ci gaba. Aikin Diagonal Mar yana ba da misalin koren yunƙurin da ake haɗawa tare da manyan gyare-gyaren birane a wani wurin da ya gabata. A tarihi, yankin ya kasance cibiyar masana'antu kamar yadda yake kusa da Tekun Bahar Rum . Kuma Aikin Diagonal Mar ya haɗa da gidaje na alfarma, otal-otal uku, gine-ginen ofis guda uku, babban kanti da aka gina a cikin wani yanki mai koren birni. Sannan An soki aikin saboda rashin la'akarin shigar gida cikin tsarawa a matsayin rashin wuraren mu'amalar zamantakewa ga 'yan ƙasa.

Nazarin ya nuna cewa koren gentrification ya faru a cikin wasiƙa tare da haɓaka wuraren shakatawa a gundumar Sant Marti . Yin amfani da ma'aunin dukiya na unguwanni, marubutan sun ba da shawarar cewa sauye-sauyen al'umma na unguwar sun faru a cikin wani yanayi mai ban tsoro a shekarun 1990-2005. Bugu da ƙari, yankunan da ke kewaye da wuraren shakatawa sun sami cikakkun alamun waɗannan canje-canje yayin da aka sami karuwa a: mazauna da ke da digiri na farko, mazauna daga Arewacin duniya, samun kudin shiga gida ko sayar da gida da kuma raguwar yawan mazauna 65 da kuma mazan zama. kadai.

Kashi na Canjin Yawan Jama'a tsakanin 300m na Wuraren Wuta Idan aka kwatanta da Matsakaicin Gundumar Sant Marti
Lokacin Lokaci na Bayanai Sunan Park (Shekar Gina) Digiri na farko Gundumar Adadi. Sama da Shekaru 65 Matsakaicin Gundumar Baƙin Duniya na Arewa Matsakaicin Gundumar Kudin shiga na iyali Matsakaicin Gundumar
(1991-2006) Parc del Port Olimpic (1992) 27.92% 7.59% -1.52% 1.82% 7.4% 3.22% 19.21% 2.8%
(1991-2006) Parc del Poblenou (1992) 25.98% 7.59% -2.97% 1.82% 6.9% 3.22% 14.42% 2.8%
(2004-2006) Parc de Diagnol Mar (2002) 4.69% 1.37% -0.18% 0.06% 1.71% 2.19% 4.2% 2.1%

Birnin New York[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton Babban Layi kafin sake haɓakawa.

Babban Layi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hoton Babban Layi bayan sake fasalinsa.

Babban Layin, kusan tsayin mil 1.45 (2.33 km) wani babban wurin shakatawa na jama'a wanda aka gina akan layin jigilar kaya mai tarihi tare da yammacin Manhattan a cikin birnin New York. A baya ga sake haɓakawa, Babban Layin yana wakiltar lalacewar masana'antar New York, unguwar da ke kusa da Babban Layi, Chelsea, yana da yawan laifuffuka. Tun a shekarun 1980 gwamnatin birnin ta yi yunkurin yaga wannan idon. Dangane da mayar da martani, masu fafutuka sun yunƙura don adana wannan alamar tarihi kuma a maimakon haka sun haɓaka ra'ayin cewa za a iya mayar da Babban Layi ga al'umma a matsayin samar da amfanin jama'a. Kamar yadda Babban Layi ya samu ta hanyar CSX Transportation Inc. a cikin shekarar 1999, tarurrukan hukumar al'umma sun ba da wata hanya ta madadin amfani da za a gabatar. A daidai lokacin ne Joshua David da Robert Hammond suka kafa wata kungiya mai zaman kanta da suka kira Friends of the High Line wadda babbar manufarsu ita ce samun kudaden gwamnati da na masu zaman kansu don ceto gadar daga rugujewa. Shahararrun mashahuran mutane - Edward Norton, Martha Stewart da Kevin Bacon sun ba da tallafin kuɗi don aikin. Abokan Babban Layi sun gabatar da dabarun sake haɓakawa ga gwamnatin Bloomberg, suna haɓaka cewa za a iya canza gadar zuwa wurin shakatawa na jama'a. sannan Abokan Babban Layi sun ba da shawarar cewa hakan zai ba da fa'idodin tattalin arziƙi ga maƙwabtan da ke kewaye da kuma samar da kudaden shiga na haraji mai yawa. Gwamnatin Bloomberg ta amince da shirin. Magajin garin Bloomberg ya ba da sanarwar goyon baya ta hanyar cewa, “Hukuncin hukumar babbar nasara ce ga duk mazauna New York. Kuma Yana ba mu damar aiwatar da tsare-tsarenmu don adana wannan albarkatu mai cike da tarihi, samar da fili mai fa'ida ga jama'a da kuma ƙarfafa tattalin arzikin birninmu."

Shaidar da ke nuna cewa wannan aikin ya kunna wuta za a iya lura da shi ta hanyar hauhawar farashin gidaje da kuma nau'ikan ayyukan da ake jan hankalin High Line da kewaye. A cikin shekaru biyu 2 kacal, an samar da dala biliyan 2 na gine-ginen gidaje wanda ya ba da gudummawar ƙarin dala miliyan 900 na kudaden haraji. Bugu da ƙari, ƙaura na Whitney Museum of American Art kusa da shi yana ba da haske kan shaharar wurin shakatawa.

Babban Layi, kodayake an gabatar da shi azaman wurin shakatawa na jama'a, yana ba da damar wasu masu amfani da ayyuka. Abokan Babban Layi suna ba da izini ga wasu nau'ikan dillalai kawai kuma suna ba da masu gadi masu zaman kansu. Masu ziyara na Babban Layi na iya jin daɗin abinci na fasaha, giya mara ƙarancin ƙima da bincika manyan rumfunan kasuwanci na fasaha. Sannan Haɓaka haɓakar tattalin arziƙi da wasu nau'ikan amfani tare da sa ido yana haifar da haɓakar haɓakar wannan wuraren jama'a. [5] Wato, Babban Layin, kodayake sanannen gunkin birni, na iya gazawa wajen samar da wuraren buɗe ido da fa'idodi ga duk 'yan ƙasa don amfani da su. [5] A maimakon haka ya fi kama da wurin da ke da ''gata'' inda manyan ƴan ƙasa ke mamaye da'awar sararin samaniya.

A lokaci guda a cikin shekarar 2007, gwamnatin Bloomberg ta fitar da PlanNYC 2030: Mafi Girma, Greener New York wanda ke da nufin yaƙar sauyin yanayi ta hanyar faɗaɗa dorewa da aka auna tare da dabaru har 132. Buri ɗaya yana nuna ginshiƙi na zamantakewar ɗorewa ta hanyar samun burin cewa kowane ɗan ƙasa a cikin birni zai sami koren wuri a cikin nisan tafiya na mintuna 10 daga gidansu.

Vancouver[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Karya Creek[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsarin al'adar birni na Vancouver ya kasance mai tunawa da ƙaramin gari. Titunan da aka yi wa tsarin karfen ƙarfe suna cike da gidaje guda ɗaya, ana iya samun kasuwanci a kan manyan tituna kuma masana'antu sun ta'allaka ne a kan gaɓar teku da mashigai. Shakarar 1960s sun haifar da canji zuwa manyan yawa ta hanyar manyan gine-ginen zama a cikin tsakiyar gari. A cikin shekarata 1980s, sake fasalin wuraren brownsites (tsohon wuraren masana'antu) don haɓaka gidaje a yankin False Creek ya kasance sakamakon kasancewar wurin Expo 1986 . A baya can, wannan yanki shine cibiyar masana'antu kuma ya fara lalacewa yayin da masana'antu ke motsawa. [6] Bayan bikin baje kolin, hamshakin attajirin Hong Kong Li Ka-Shing ya sayi wurin a kan dala miliyan 320 kuma ya biyo bayan wasu abubuwan more rayuwa na alfarma. Waɗannan abubuwan haɓakawa sun haɓaka sautin ɗorewa waɗanda aka tallafawa ta takaddun tsarawa kamar Tsarin Dabarun Yankin Rayayyar Rayuwa shekarar (1996). Dabarun tsare-tsare na birane kamar haɓakar Smart Growth ya jaddada manufofin muhalli ta hanyar samar da yankunan birane masu tafiya da gauraye waɗanda za su rage bazuwar birane . Ƙimar Ci gaban Ƙwararre na Ƙaƙwalwa na Ƙarfafawa na Ƙaddamar da aka yi watsi da su na dabarun dabarun kamar yadda sukan yi watsi da mazauna masu karamin karfi. Samar da gidaje ya zama matsala a tsakanin shekarun 2001-2007 yayin da farashin ɗaki mai dakuna biyu na yau da kullun a ƙarshen yammacin Vancouver ya ƙaura daga $260,000 zuwa $650,000. A cikin shekarata 2008, majalisar birni ta karɓi EcoDensity a matsayin mafita ga wadatar gidaje wanda ya haɓaka ƙarin haɓakar cikin gari da kewaye. EcoDensity shine mafita ga wadatar gidaje maimakon samar da gidaje na zamantakewa. An gina hasumiya da yawa a cikin tsakiyar garin Gabas ta Tsakiya kusan 4,000 masu karamin karfi daga watan Yuni shekarata 2007-Janairu 2008. [7] Sharhi na EcoDensity, yana ba da shawarar cewa dabarar ba ta ƙididdige isasshen shigar da ɗan ƙasa a cikin matakan tsarawa.

Vancouver ya zama ɗaya daga cikin shahararrun birane a duniya don rayuwa yayin da yake ba da ra'ayoyin tsaunuka masu ban sha'awa da samun dama ga rairayin bakin teku masu yawa. Kamar yadda aka bai wa Vancouver gasar Olympics na lokacin sanyi na shekarar 2010, wanda ya haifar da haɓaka "Ruwan Millennium" tare da yankin Kudu maso Gabas na False Creek wanda ya zama wurin zama na ƙauyen 'yan wasan Olympics . Wannan aikin ya ƙunshi hanyoyin tafiya irin na Turai, koren rufi da halaye masu dorewa . Ba a samar da gidaje masu karamin karfi tare da wannan aikin ba kuma farashin gidaje mai daki guda daya ya kasance $500,000. [8] A ƙoƙarin rage tasirin muhalli, aikin ya inganta aikin maido da wurin zama wanda aka yi amfani da dattin da ya bari don ƙirƙirar tsibiri don tsutsawar tsuntsaye. A shekara ta shekarata 2006, an kori masu ruwa da tsaki, mutanen da ke zaune a cikin kwale-kwale a cikin ruwan False Creek, a wani yunƙuri na tsaftace yankin. [9] An tallata sake fasalin False Creek a matsayin wurin shakatawa ga sabbin mazauna da masu yawon bude ido kuma an inganta shi azaman sarari don nishaɗi. Masana sun yi nuni da cewa, an samu rabuwar kai tsakanin inganta jawabai kan muhalli da kuma batutuwan da suka shafi daidaito wanda ke haifar da rikici mai nasaba da sararin samaniya a cikin birni. [9] Ko da yake Vancouver wuri ne mai matuƙar kyawa don zama, haɓaka dorewa ta hanyar manufofin yin watsi da samar da rabon gidaje masu araha da ake buƙata.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Dooling 2009
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lees 2008
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Gould 2016
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Anguelovski 2017
  5. 5.0 5.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Loughran 2014
  6. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mills 1988
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lee 2008
  8. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Millenium Water 2018
  9. 9.0 9.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Quastel 2009

Cole, Helen VS; Garcia Lamarca, Melisa; Connolly, James JT; Anguelovski, Isabelle (2017-08-19). "Shin koren garuruwan suna lafiya da adalci? Buɗe alaƙar da ke tsakanin lafiya, sararin samaniya da gentrification. " Jaridar Epidemiology da Lafiyar Jama'a : jech-2017-209201. doi :10.1136/jech-2017-209201. ISSN 0143-005X.