Musulman Tibet

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Wikidata.svgMusulman Tibet
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Musulmi
Babban Masallacin Lhasa

Musulman Tibet, wanda kuma aka sani da Kachee sun haɗa al'umma marasa rinjaye a yankin Tibet. Duk da kasantuwar su Musulmai amma ana kallon su a matsayin hatartattun ƴan Tibet a Gwamnatance, in banda Musulman Hui, da sau tari ake ware su. Kalmar harshen Tibeti ta Kan je na nufin Kashmiri da Kashmir an san shi a Kanchee Yul (Yul na nufin Ƙasa).

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shigarwa zuwa tsohon masallaci a Lhasa (1993)

Abokan hulɗa na farko da Tibet da duniyar Islama sun fara ne a tsakiyar karni na takwas lokacin da ya haɓaka daga haɗin kasuwanci ta hanyar siliki da kasancewar sojojin musulmai a kwarin Fergana . Duk da karancin ilimin da duniyar Islama ke da shi game da Tibet, akwai wasu ayyukan Musulunci na farko da suka ambaci Tibet. Ɗaya daga cikin irin wannan tushe ya fito ne daga aikin da Abu Sa'id Gardezi ya rubuta mai suna Zayn al-Akhbar . A ciki, aikin ya ambaci muhalli, asalin ban mamaki na Tibetan (ta hanyar Himyarites), allahntakar sarki, manyan albarkatu (kamar musk) da bayanin hanyoyin kasuwanci zuwa da daga Tibet. Wata majiyar kuma, Hudud al-Alaam (Yankunan Duniya) wanda marubuci da ba a sani ba ya rubuta a 982 ko 983 a Afghanistan, ya ƙunshi musamman labarin ƙasa, siyasa da taƙaitaccen bayanin yankunan Tibet, birane, garuruwa da sauran ƙauyuka. Wannan tushe ya fara ambaton kasancewar Musulmai a Tibet kai tsaye ta hanyar bayyana cewa Lhasa yana da masallaci guda ɗaya da ƙaramin Musulmi.

A lokacin mulkin Sadnalegs (799-815), an daɗe ana yaƙi da ƙasashen Larabawa zuwa Yammacin Turai. Ya bayyana cewa 'yan Tibet sun kame sojojin Larabawa da yawa kuma sun matsa su yin hidima a kan iyakar gabas a cikin shekara 801. 'Yan Tibet suna aiki har zuwa yamma kamar Samarkand da Kabul . Sojojin larabawa sun fara samun galaba, kuma gwamnan Kabul na Tibet ya miƙa wuya ga Larabawa kuma ya zama Musulmi kusan 812 ko 815

Ciniki mai yawa tare da Kashmir, Ladakh, da Baltistan suma sun kawo Musulmai zuwa Tibet musamman bayan karbuwa ko haɓaka kasancewar Islama a waɗannan yankuna tun daga ƙarni na sha huɗu. Ci gaban Musulmai ya ci gaba a matsayin sakamakon yarjejeniyar Tibet-Ladakhi na 1684 inda gwamnatin Tibet ta ba da izinin ayyukan kasuwanci daga Ladakh su shiga Lhasa kowace shekara uku. Yawancin Musulmin Kashmiri da Ladakhi sun shiga waɗannan ayyukan tare da wasu mazauna a Tibet.

A lokacin mulkin Dalai Lama Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (1617 - 1682), al'ummar Musulmai na dindindin sun zauna a Tibet. An ba su izinin zaɓar majalisar wakilan su, su sasanta rigimar shari'ar ƙungiyarsu da shari'ar Musulunci, kuma an ba su wasu filaye don gina masallaci kusa da Lhasa .

Yawan Musulman Kashmiri a Nepal (asali suna da alaƙar kasuwanci tare da danginsu a Tibet) sun tsere zuwa Tibet farawa daga 1769 sakamakon mamayar kwarin Kathmandu ta Prithvi Narayan Shah . Tun farkon karni na goma sha bakwai, Ningxia da sauran Hui na arewa maso yammacin (Musulman China) sun fara zama a yankunan Tibet na gabas (kamar a Amdo ). Sun yi auratayya da 'yan Tibet na gida kuma sun ci gaba da yin hulɗa ta kasuwanci tare da sauran Musulmai a cikin China.

Wani sabon tashin hankali na sabbin mazauna Musulmai ya fara bayan cin Dogra na Tibet a 1841. Da yawa daga cikin sojojin Kashmiri da na Ladakhi (wadanda aka kama a matsayin fursunoni lokacin da suke fada da sojojin Dogra) sun tsaya a baya don zama a Tibet. Wasu 'yan Hindu Dogras kuma sun zauna a Tibet kuma daga baya sun musulunta.

Bayan nasarar da kasar Sin ta yi kan Tibet a shekarar 1950, Musulman Tibet sun fuskanci munanan zalunci kamar 'yan uwansu' yan Buddha. Tun daga wannan lokacin, Musulman China (tare da Han da sauransu) sun zauna a Tibet. Gwamnatin China ta sanya Musulmin Tibet a matsayin Hui. Koyaya, ana kiran musulman Tibet da suna Zang Hui (Hui na Tibet) yayin da suke magana da Tibet kuma suna da al'adar abin duniya kusan iri ɗaya da takwarorinsu na Buddha. Hui na Tibet na Lhasa (ba kamar sauran Musulman Tibet da ke zaune a wani wuri ba) suna ɗaukar kansu sun bambanta da Musulman China kuma wani lokacin suna yin aure tare da wasu 'yan Tibet (ciki har da Buddha) maimakon' yan uwansu Musulmai daga China.

Tambayar zama ɗan ƙasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 1959, Firayim Minista Jawaharlal Nehru ya yanke shawarar cewa Barkor Khache 'yan asalin Indiya ne. Harafin farko da al'ummar Barkor Khache da ke Lhasa suka rubuta shi ne ga Musulman Tibet da ke Kalimpong a 1959: [1]

Bayan tawayen Tibet na 1959, gwamnatin jihar Jammu da Kashmir ta ba 'yan gudun hijirar Musulmin Tibet mazaunin zama/jihar. Gwamnati kuma ta ba da haƙƙin jefa ƙuri'a ga majalisar dokokin Jammu da Kashmir .

Tuba a Qinghai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Salar sun yaɗa addinin Islama ga tsohon Kargan Tibet na Buddha a Lamo-shan-ken. Wasu mutanen Tibet a Qinghai da suka musulunta yanzu ana ɗaukar su 'yan kabilar Hui .

Kusa da ƙauyen Tibet na Skya Rgya a Qinghai, Musulmai suna zaune kusa da kogin Yellow a cikin garin Dong sna kilomita 20 kuma gwamnatin China ta yi musu rajista a matsayin Hui. Tsofaffi "Hui" a wannan ƙauyen suna magana da Sinawa marasa kamala amma suna magana da cikakkiyar 'yan Tibet kuma suna ciniki tare da Tibet akai -akai, suna cewa asalin su' yan Tibet ne. Ofaya daga cikinsu, mutumin da aka haifa a 1931 ya ce "Muna da jini ɗaya; magabatanmu ɗaya ne. Mun kasance muna auratayya da juna, muna al'adu iri ɗaya kuma muna bin ƙa'idodin gargajiya iri ɗaya. Ma Bufang ne ya musuluntar da mu. ”

Matan Tibet suna auren maza Musulmai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan Salars sun koma Xunhua, sun musuluntar da 'yan ƙabilar Tibet kuma matan Salar sun ɗauki matan Tibet a matsayin mata. 'Yan kabilar Tibet sun yi shagulgulan bikin Sallar da amarya ta watsa hatsi da madara a kan doki.

Matan Tibet sune ainihin matan Salars na farko da suka isa yankin kamar yadda aka rubuta a cikin tarihin baka na Salar. 'Yan kabilar ta Tibet sun amince su bar matansu' yan Tibet su auri maza Salar bayan sun gabatar da wasu bukatu da dama don biyan bambancin al'adu da addini. Hui da Salar sun aura saboda kamanceceniyar al'adu da bin addinin Musulunci iri daya. Tsofaffin Salars sun auri matan Tibet amma ƙananan Salars sun gwammace su auri wasu Salars. Han da Salar galibi ba sa aure da juna sabanin auren matan Tibet da maza Salar. Salars duk da haka suna amfani da sunayen Han. Dangin Salar patrilineal sun fi iyaka fiye da dangin kabilar Han a yadda suke hulɗa da al'adu, al'umma ko sakewa. Maza Salar galibi suna aurar da mata da yawa ba Salaar ba kuma sun auri matan Tibet a matsayin mata bayan sun yi hijira zuwa Xunhua bisa lamuran tarihi da tarihin mutane. Salasa kusan ta musamman ta ɗauki matan da ba Salafawa ba a matsayin mata kamar matan Tibet yayin da ba su taɓa aurar da matan Salar ga mazan da ba Salaar ba sai maza Hui waɗanda aka ba su izinin auren matan Salar. A sakamakon haka Salars sun haɗu sosai da sauran kabilu.

Salars a Qinghai suna zaune a bankunan biyu na kogin Yellow, kudu da arewa, ana kiran na arewa Hualong ko Bayan Salars yayin da na kudu ana kiransu Xunhua Salars. Yankin arewa na kogin Yellow shine cakuda Salar da ƙauyukan Tibet da ba a daina ba yayin da yankin kudu da kogin rawaya ya kasance Salar mai ƙarfi ba tare da rata tsakaninsa ba, tunda Hui da Salars sun tura 'yan Tibet a yankin kudu a baya. Matan ƙabilar Tibet da suka musulunta, maza Salar ne suka ɗauke su a matsayin mata a bankunan biyu na kogin. Kalmar baffan uwa (ajiu) ana amfani da ita ga 'yan Tibet ta Salars tunda Salars suna da asalin asalin Tibet. 'Yan kabilar Tibet suna shaida hanyoyin rayuwar Salar a cikin Kewa, ƙauyen Salar kuma ana amfani da shayi na man shanu na Tibet. Sauran tasirin al'adun Tibet kamar gidajen Salar da ke da kusurwa huɗu tare da farin dutse a kansu sun zama wani ɓangare na al'adar Salar muddin Musulunci bai hana su ba. 'Yan kabilar Hui sun fara jituwa tare da yin auratayya da Salars a Xunhua bayan da suka yi hijira daga can daga Hezhou a Gansu saboda daular Ming ta kasar Sin tana mulkin Xunhua Salars bayan 1370 kuma jami'an Hezhou ke mulkin Xunhua. Yawancin Salars tare da sunan Ma suna da alama sun fito ne daga zuriyar Hui tunda yawancin Salars yanzu suna da sunan Ma yayin da a farkon yawancin Salars suna da sunan Han. Wasu misalan Hezhou Hui wanda ya zama Salars su ne ƙauyukan Chenjia (dangin Chen) da Majia (Ma dangi) a Altiuli inda dangin Chen da Ma Salars ne waɗanda suka yarda da zuriyar Hui. Salar da Hui duk sun raba bukukuwan aure, jana'iza, bukukuwan haihuwa da addu'o'i yayin da suke yin auratayya kuma suna yin addini iri daya tunda yawancin 'yan kabilar Hui sun koma yankin Salar a gabar kogin Yellow. Yawancin matan Hui sun auri maza Salar kuma a ƙarshe ya zama sananne ga Hui da Salar don yin aure saboda kasancewar su Musulmai fiye da Han, Mongols da Tibet. Harshen Salar da al'adunsa duk da haka ya yi tasiri sosai a ƙarni na 14 zuwa 16 a cikin asalin asalin su ta hanyar aure tare da Mongol da Tibet waɗanda ba Musulmai ba tare da lamuni da yawa da tasirin na Mongol da Tibet a cikin yaren su. Salars sun kasance masu yaruka da yawa a cikin Salar da Mongol sannan kuma a cikin Sinanci da Tibet yayin da suke kasuwanci sosai a lokutan Ming, Qing da Jamhuriyar China akan kogin rawaya a Ningxia da Lanzhou a Gansu.

Salars da Tibetans duka suna amfani da kalmar kawun uwa (ajiu a cikin Salar da Sinawa, azhang a Tibet) don nufin juna, suna nufin gaskiyar Salars zuriyar matan Tibet ne da ke auren maza Salar. Bayan amfani da waɗannan sharuɗɗan sau da yawa suna maimaita labarin tarihin yadda mazajen Salar 2,000 suka auri matan Tibet waɗanda su ne Salai na Farko da suka yi hijira zuwa Qinghai. Waɗannan sharuɗɗan sun nuna cewa 'yan Tibet sun kalli Salars daban da Hui. A cewar almara, auren tsakanin matan Tibet da maza Salar ya zo ne bayan sulhu tsakanin buƙatun da wani ɗan Tibet ya yi da masu hijira Salar. 'Yan Salar sun ce kwarin Wimdo wani dan kabilar Tibet ne ya mallake shi kuma ya bukaci Salars su bi dokoki 4 domin su auri matan Tibet. Ya bukace su da su sanya tutocin addu'o'in addinin Buddha na Tibet a kusurwoyi huɗu, su yi addu'a tare da ƙafafun addu'o'in Buddha na Tibet tare da mantra om mani padma hum kuma su rusuna a gaban mutum -mutumin Buddha. Salars sun ƙi waɗannan buƙatun suna cewa ba sa karanta mantras ko sunkuyar da mutum -mutumi tunda sun yi imani da allah mahalicci ɗaya kawai kuma musulmai ne. Sun yi sulhu a kan tutoci a cikin gidaje ta hanyar sanya duwatsu a kusurwoyin gidajensu maimakon tutocin addinin Buddha na Tibet. Wasu 'yan Tibet ba sa banbance Salar da Hui saboda addinin Musulunci. A cikin 1996, garin Wimdo yana da Salar ɗaya kawai saboda 'yan Tibet sun yi kuka game da kiran salla da masallacin da aka gina a yankin a farkon shekarun 1990 don haka suka kori mafi yawan Salai daga yankin. Salars sun kasance masu magana da harsuna biyu a Salar da Tibet saboda auratayya da matan Tibet da ciniki. Yana da ɗan ƙanƙanta ga ɗan Tibet ya yi Salar. Matan Tibet na Xiahe sun kuma auri maza Musulmai waɗanda suka zo can a matsayin yan kasuwa kafin shekarun 1930.

A gabashin Qinghai da Gansu akwai lokuta na matan Tibet da suka zauna a cikin addinin Buddha na Lama na Buddha yayin da suke auren maza Musulmin China kuma za su haifi ɗa daban -daban waɗanda za su kasance Buddha da Musulmai, ɗiyan Buddha sun zama Lamas yayin da sauran ɗiyan Musulmai ne. Hui da Tibet sun auri Salars.

Daular Qing daga baya kuma Jamhuriyar China Salar Janar Han Youwen ta haife shi ga wata mace 'yar Tibet mai suna Ziliha (孜 力 哈) kuma mahaifin Salar mai suna Aema (阿 额 玛). [2]

Mutanen Balti[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mutanen Balti na Baltistan a Pakistan da Kargil a Indiya zuriyar mabiya addinin Buddha ne na Tibet waɗanda suka koma addinin Noorbakshia na Musulunci. Tare da wucewar lokaci adadi mai yawa ya koma addinin Shi'a, sannan wasu kalilan suka koma addinin Musulunci na Sunni. Yarensu na Balti yana da tsattsauran ra'ayi da ra'ayin mazan jiya kuma ya fi kusa da Tibet na gargajiya fiye da sauran yarukan mutanen Tibet .

Nassoshi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :1
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20120322070922/http://www.xjmg.org/show.aspx?id=1081&cid=10

Hanyoyin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]