Jump to content

Mutanen Idoma

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Mutanen Idoma

Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Najeriya
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Harsunan Nijar-Congo

Idoma mutane ne da suka fi zama a yankunan yamma na Jihar Benuwai, Nijeriya, kuma ana iya samun ƙungiyoyin dangi a cikin Jihar Cross Ribas, ta Enugu, ta Kogi da ta Nasarawa a Nijeriya. Yaren Idoma an kasafta shi a ƙaramin rukuni na Akweya na yarukan Idomoid na dangin Volta–Niger, waɗanda suka haɗa da Igede, Alago, Agatu, Etulo, Ete da Yala na jihohin Benue, da Nasarawa, da Kogi da kuma Arewacin Kuros Riba. Rukunin rukuni na Akweya yana da alaƙa ta kut da kut da ƙungiyar Yatye-Akpa. Mafi yawan yankin yana cikin kudu, kudu da kogin Benuwai, kimanin kilomita sabain da biyu gabas da haduwarsa da kogin Neja. Idomas an san su 'mayaƙa' da 'mafarauta' na aji, amma masu karɓan baƙi da son zaman lafiya. Mafi yawan ɓangarorin ƙasar Idoma sun kasance ba su san Yammacin Turai ba har zuwa shekarun 1920, suna barin yawancin al'adun gargajiyar na Idoma ba cikakke. Yawan mutanen Idoma an ƙiyasta su kusan miliyan 3.5. Mutanen Idoma suna da wani basaraken gargajiya da ake kira Och'Idoma wanda shine shugaban majalisar masarautar gargajiya ta yankin Idoma. Ingilishi ne ya gabatar da wannan. Kowace al'umma tana da nata sarki na gargajiya kamar Ad'Ogbadibo na Orokam, Cif DE Enenche. Fadar Och'Idoma tana Otukpo, jihar Benuwai. Och'Idoma na yanzu, Elias Ikoyi Obekpa an saka shi a ofis a shekarar 1997 kuma muƙamin na rayuwa ne.[1][2]

Asali[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yankin Idoma a Najeriya

Tarihin gargajiya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tarihin mutanen Idoma ya sha gaban tarihin Jihar Benuwai (wanda aka kirkira 1976) da tarihin Jamhuriyar Nijeriya (wanda aka kirkira 1960). Al'adar baka da rawa ita ce hanyar farko wacce ta wuce tarihi a ƙasar Idoma kuma ana ɗaukar ta a matsayin cibiyar al'adu ta tsakiya. Tun daga ƙuruciya omaan ƙabilar Idoma galibi suna koyo daga tsofaffin labaransu na tsohuwar kuma ana goya su kusa da dangi, wanda ke samar da albarkatun tarihi da yawa. Lokacin da aka sa Idomas gaba ɗaya za su yi alfaharin gaya muku daga ina suke, kuma ba abin mamaki ba ne Idoma ya iya karanta aƙalla ƙarni huɗu na zuriyarsu. A tarihi, rashin amsa tambayar alamar "Wanene mahaifinka?" cire cancanta daga mahimman matsayi da taken a Idomaland. A dabi'ance, kauyuka da dama sun samo asalinsu ne daga magabata dayawa kuma gaba daya, kungiyoyin Idoma da yawa sun samo asalinsu ga magabata daya, wanda aka dauki “uba” na ƙungiyoyin daban-daban. Dangane da tarihin gargajiya, Iduh, mahaifin Idoma yana da yara da yawa waɗanda kowannensu ya kafa yankuna daban-daban. Saboda haka furcin: "Iduh mahaifin Idoma." “Iduh mahaifin Idoma Iduh wanda ya haifi duka Idoma Ya kuma haifi waɗannan yara: Ananawoogeno wanda ya haifi 'ya'yan Igwumale; Olinaogwu wanda ya haifi mutanen Ugboju; Idum wanda ya haifi mutanen Adoka; Agabi wanda ya haifi mutanen Otukpo; Eje wanda ya haifi mutanen Oglewu; Ebeibi wanda ya haifi mutanen Umogidi a Adoka, Edeh wanda ya haifi mutanen Edumoga da Ode waɗanda suka haifi mutanen Yala ”Duk da cewa za a iya samun wasu gaskiya ga abin da ke sama, ba za a iya cewa Idoma tana da asali guda ɗaya ba. Yawancin ƙungiyoyin Idoma da ƙananan ƙauyuka suna da tarihin kansu cikakke tare da labaru game da yadda mutanensu suka isa inda suke. Mutanen Otukpa sun fito ne daga kakanni uku: Owuno, Ameh-Ochagbaha da Oodo. Na farko ‘yan uwan juna ne da suka yi kaura daga Idah a Igalala yayin da Oodo ya yi kaura daga kasar Igbo. Kamar yadda mutum zai iya tunanin, canjin yanayin mutane a cikin lokaci yana sanya wahalar nazarin tarihin Idoma. Akwai wasu Idomas wadanda asalinsu 'yan ƙabilar Ibo ne kuma sun auri juna tare da yankin Arewacin ƙasar Igbo.

Tarihin ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Masana sun haɗu da tarihin baka tare da bayanan asalinsu da nazarin alaƙar dangi don gano asalin mutanen Idoma baki ɗaya. Wani mashahurin masanin Idoma EO Erim ya kawo bayanan asalinsu, wanda aka tattara daga yawancin kungiyoyin zamani a Idoma yana ba da shawarar cewa sun samo asali ne daga ƙabilu da yawa, kowannensu yana da asalin tarihin daban. Bugu da ƙari, wadatar zuriyar da ke akwai yana nuna kasancewar kabilu daban-daban waɗanda suka fito daga kakanninsu ban da Idu. A da yawa daga cikin waɗannan lamuran, da'awar asalin zuriya tana da goyon baya ta hanyar haɗin nasaba mai yawa da mallakan ɗumbin nasaba ɗaya. Erim yayi jayayya cewa yayin da Idu ya kasance jagorar ƙaura-amma ba shine "uba" na Idoma ba ta hanyar da aka ambata a cikin al'adun da ke sama. Waɗannan abubuwan biyun suna da wuya a yarda da ra'ayin kawai cewa kowane rukuni a ƙasar Idoma ya fito ne daga Idu.

Yawancin dangin Idoma suna da'awar asalin garin kakanninsu da ake kira Apa, arewa maso gabashin gabashin Idoma a yanzu saboda matsin lambar da maharan Arewa suka yi kamar 'yan shekaru 300 da suka gabata. Tarihin Apa yana daga cikin tsohuwar Daular Kwararafa (Masarautar Okolofa), hadaddiyar ƙungiyar mutane da yawa. Masu ba da labaru a wasu kabilun sun tabbatar da wanzuwar wannan masarauta, musamman Jukun wadanda suma suka yi amannar cewa sun taba yin wata kungiyar hadin gwiwa da ake kira Kwararafa. A cikin littafin tarihin Hausa na Kano Chronicle an ambaci cewa Zariya, karkashin Sarauniya Amina ta ci dukkan garuruwa har zuwa Kwarafara a karni na 15. A yanzu haka, akwai wata Karamar Hukuma a Jihar Benuwai da ake kira Apa kuma an ce nan ne gidan waɗanda suka yi ƙaura ta farko daga masarautar tarihi. Ga yawancin istsan kishin ƙasa na Idoma a yau, sunan Apa yana nuna alamun daɗaɗaɗɗen ɗaukaka, kuma wasu a fagen siyasa sun tafi har zuwa ba da shawarar cewa ya kamata ya zama sunan sabuwar jihar Idoma.

Sauran masanan suna nuni da shaidar tarihi da harshe da ke nuni da cewa Idoma tana da alaƙa da mutanen Igala zuwa yamma, suna mai cewa cewa al'ummomin biyu sun fito ne daga magabata daya. Angulu (1981) ya lura cewa Igala da Igbo suna da mahimmancin alaƙar tarihi, ta kakanni da kuma ta al'ada. Eri ance shine asalin asalin al'adun gargajiya na Umu-eri, ƙaramin rukuni na mutanen Ibo. Eri ya yi ƙaura daga yankin Igala kuma ya kafa alƙarya a tsakiyar kwarin kogin Anambara (a Eri-aka) a Aguleri inda ya auri mata biyu. Matar farko, Nneamakụ, ta haifa masa yara biyar. Na farko shi ne Agulu, wanda ya kafa Aguleri (Shugaban kakannin gidan masarautar Eri) (masarautar Ezeora da ta samar da sarakuna 34 har zuwa yau a Enugwu Aguleri), na biyu shi ne Menri, wanda ya kafa Umunri / Masarautar Nri, sannan ya biyo baya Onugu, wanda ya kafa Igbariam da Ogbodulu, wanda ya kafa Amanuke. Ta biyar ita ce 'ya mace mai suna Iguedo, wacce aka ce ita ce ta haifi wadanda suka assasa garin Nteje, da Awkuzu, Ogbunike, Umuleri, Nando da Ogboli a Onitsha. A matsayin ɗayan 'ya'yan Eri, Menri yayi ƙaura daga Aguleri, wanda yake har yanzu yake, haikalin kakannin duka Umu-Eri (Umu-Eri da Umu-Nri). Matarsa ta biyu Oboli ta haifi ọanòja, ɗa tilo wanda ya kafa Masarautar Igala a cikin jihar Kogi. [3] Daga cikin wannan rukunin, akwai wadanda suka yi amannar cewa kabilun biyu sun gudu daga masarauta daya a wani lokaci a tarihi. Yawancin waƙoƙin gargajiyar Idoma da harsunan "sirri" da ake magana yayin bikin al'adu na asali yaruka ne na Igala kuma akwai wasu Idoma da kansu waɗanda ke tabbatar da asalin Igala. Har yanzu akwai sauran ƙungiyoyin Idoma musamman a yankunan kudanci, wadanda ke ikirarin cewa kakanninsu sun isa wurin da suke yanzu daga yankin Arewa na yankin Igboland sakamakon rikicin filaye. Masana sunyi imanin cewa waɗannan mutane tabbas sun gudu daga Apa suma, sun daidaita kuma sun sake zama.

Kamar yadda aka ba da shawara, dalilai da yawa suna da wahalar nazarin asalin tarihin Idoma na mutanen Idoma baki ɗaya. A kowane hali, ana iya cewa duk da asalinsu, fatauci, aure, yare da sauran hulɗa tsakanin Idoma sun haɓaka al'adu kuma sun tsara asalin al'adunsu daban daban.

Wajen Binuwai[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Shahararren ra'ayin shine Idoma ƙungiya ce ta yare-ƙabilanci da aka samo asali a yankunan yamma na jihar Benuwe, Najeriya. Wannan saboda suna rukuni na biyu mafi girma a jihar kuma sun mamaye ƙananan hukumomi 9 (LGA's) waɗanda suka haɗa da: Ado, Agatu, Apa, Obi, Ohimini, Ogbadibo, Oju, Okpokwu da Otukpo . Baya ga yammacin yankin Benuwe, wannan ƙabilar tana da matsuguni a wasu sassan ƙasar, ciki har da Nassarawa, Kogi, Enugu da Kuros Riba. Al'adar ta tilasta wa maza yin doya ga matansu, Ba kamar sauran al'adun da ake sa ran mace ta yi duk ayyukan da suka shafi abinci ba, ba a barin mazajen Idoma koyaushe.

Launukan Gargajiya na Idoma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Yarinya Idoma sanye da kalar gargajiya tana shirya yam.

Launin gargajiya na mutanen Idoma launuka ne masu launin ja da baƙar fata. Wannan ya kasance ne kawai tun daga 1980s don haɓaka ainihin asalin Idoma.

Rawar gargajiya ta Idoma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An fi shahara da rawar gargajiya ta mutanen Idoma da Ogirinya rawa. Rawa ce mai kuzari da ke buƙatar tsalle (a tsaka-tsaka lokaci) a yatsun ƙafa cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci. Za'a iya kallon bidiyon rawar Ogirinya akan YouTube. Masu rawa suna saka tufafin Idoma (launuka na gargajiya) ana iya ganin su a duk hanyoyin haɗin yanar gizon.

Artan fasahar dijital ta masu rawa da kuzari daga ƙabilar Idoma da ke jihar Benuwe, Najeriya a cikin kayan al'adunsu na taguwar Ja da Baki.

Abincin Gargajiya (Miyan Okoho)[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An san mutanen Idoma da son abinci, kasancewar ana gudanar da bikin abinci na shekara-shekara a jihar Benuwe don bikin mata da nau'ikan abinci iri-iri na gargajiya. Mafi shahara a cikin abincin su shine miyan Okoho wanda aka yi shi da keɓaɓɓiyar shukar Okoho, naman daji da sauran kayan haɗi da yawa.

Addinin Gargajiya na Idoma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Da zuwan Kiristanci, Islama, da sauran addinai na baƙi, tsarin imani na gargajiya na mafi yawan ƙabilun ƙasar ya rinjayi al'adun yamma. Koyaya, mafi yawan mutanen Idoma har yanzu suna da imani sosai a cikin Alekwu, wanda ake gani a matsayin ruhohin kakanni- mahada ce tsakanin masu rai da matattu. Suna gudanar da bikin 'Aje Alekwu' na shekara-shekara inda masu koyar da al'adun gargaji ke taruwa tare da yin sadaukarwa wajen bautar kakanninsu a duk fadin kasar. Idomas suna da ƙawancen haɗuwa da ruhun Alekwu-kakannin kakanni wanda aka yi imanin cewa ya kasance a matsayin mai sa ido na iyalai da al'ummomi yayin da suke bincika munanan abubuwa kamar zina, sata da kisan kai.

Aure[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa al'adar aure da al'adun mutanen Idoma ba ta bambanta da ta Ibo da sauran al'adun kudu maso gabas, akwai wasu fannoni na musamman da suka banbanta al'adunsu. A wasu yankuna na Idoma dole ango da danginsa su gabatarwa da amarya zakara da wasu kuɗi a ranar aure bayan an riga an biya kudin amarya. Idan ta karba, alama ce ta yarda da rashin jin dadi idan ta ki kyautar. Duk da cewa babu wasu tabbatattun dalilai na tabbatar da bukatar zakara, ya kasance wani ɓangare ne mai ban sha'awa na bikin.

Sanannun mutanen Idoma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • 2baba Innocent Idibia, mawaƙi
  • Lawrence Onoja, tsohon gwamnan mulkin soja na jihar Filato da jihar Katsina, Najeriya kuma Babban Jami’in Ma’aikata
  • Jerry Agada, tsohon Ministan Ilimi na Jiha, marubuci kuma marubuci
  • David Mark, tsohon Shugaban Majalisar Dattawan Najeriya
  • Litinin Riku Morgan, Air Vice Marshal, tsohon shugaban hukumar leƙen asiri ta Najeriya
  • Abba Moro, tsohon Shugaban kungiyar Algon na jihar Benuwai, tsohon Ministan Cikin Gida, Sanata, masanin ilmi
  • Musa Ochonu, marubuci, masanin tarihi
  • Audu Ogbeh, tsohon Ministan Sadarwa, tsohon Shugaban PDP na kasa, tsohon Ministan Noma & Raya Karkara
  • Terry G --- Oche Amanyi, Mawaƙin Najeriya
  • Ahmedu 'Blackface Naija' Augustine Obiabo, mawaƙi
  • Ada Ameh, shahararriyar ‘yar fim din Nollywood
  • Susan Peters, Jarumar Nollywood
  • Chris Morgan, mawaƙan Bishara a Najeriya
  • Daniel Amokachi, Tsohon ɗan wasan ƙungiyar super eagle
  • Fasto Paul Enenche, Babban Fasto na Dunamis International Gospel Center
  • John Enenche, janar din sojan Najeriya
  • Ruth Ene Audu 'Néiza'; Youtuber da Shugaba, zafabrics
  • Tina Abah: mashahurinHollywood
  • Akbishop (Amb) Samson Mustapha Benjamin. Babban mai kula da tashin matattu ya Ministocin Ƙasa da Ƙasa
  • Hon. Sunday Ojo, tsohon Mataimakin Shugaban Jihar Benuwai, Marubucin, masanin ilmi

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Okpoga Cultural Dance". Retrieved August 27, 2019 – via www.youtube.com.
  2. "Benue Dance Troupe performance on Canada Day". Retrieved August 27, 2019 – via www.youtube.com.
  3. Angulu (1981) An Igbo Civilization: Nri Kingdom and Hegemony Hardcover – 1 Apr 1981 by M.Angulu Onwuejeogwu