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Napoleon II

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Napoleon II
French co-prince of Andorra (en) Fassara

22 ga Yuni, 1815 - 7 ga Yuli, 1815
Napoleon - Louis XVIII of France (en) Fassara
King of the Romans (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte
Haihuwa Faris, 20 ga Maris, 1811
ƙasa Faransa
Mutuwa Vienna, 22 ga Yuli, 1832
Makwanci Les Invalides (en) Fassara
Faris
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Tarin fuka)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Napoleon
Mahaifiya Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma
Abokiyar zama Not married
Ahali Émilie Pellapra (en) Fassara, Eugène de Beauharnais (en) Fassara, Alexandre Colonna-Walewski (en) Fassara, Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire (en) Fassara, Charles Léon (en) Fassara, William Albert, 1st Prince of Montenuovo (en) Fassara da Eugen Megerle von Mühlfeld (en) Fassara
Yare House of Bonaparte (en) Fassara
Karatu
Harsuna Faransanci
Malamai Johann Baptist von Foresti (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a drawer (en) Fassara da hafsa
Kyaututtuka
Digiri colonel (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Cocin katolika

Napoleon II (Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte; 20 Maris 1811 – 22 Yuli 1832) an yi jayayya da Sarkin Faransa na 'yan makonni a 1815. Dan Sarkin sarakuna Napoleon na I da Marie Louise na Ostiriya, ya kasance Yarima Imperial na Faransa kuma Sarkin Roma tun lokacin haihuwa. Bayan mutuwar mahaifinsa, ya rayu sauran rayuwarsa a Vienna kuma an san shi a cikin kotun Austrian a matsayin Franz, Duke na Reichstadt don rayuwarsa ta girma (daga fassarar Jamusanci na sunansa na biyu, tare da lakabin da ya kasance. Sarkin Ostiriya ya ba shi a karni na 1818). An ba shi sunan barkwanci L'Aiglon ("Eaglet") bayan shahararren wasan Edmond Rostand, L'Aiglon.

Lokacin da Napoleon I na yi ƙoƙarin yin murabus a ranar 4 ga watan Afrilu 1814, ya ce ɗansa zai yi sarauta a matsayin sarki. Duk da haka, wadanda suka yi nasara a kawancen sun ki amincewa da dansa a matsayin magajinsa, kuma an tilasta wa Napoleon na daya yin murabus ba tare da wani sharadi ba bayan wasu kwanaki. Duk da cewa Napoleon II bai taba mulkin Faransa a zahiri ba, a taƙaice shi ne Sarkin sarakuna na Faransa bayan faduwar mahaifinsa na biyu. Ya rayu mafi yawan rayuwarsa a Vienna kuma ya mutu sakamakon tarin fuka yana da shekaru 21.

Dan uwansa, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, ya kafa daular Faransa ta biyu a 1852 kuma ya yi mulki a matsayin Sarkin sarakuna Napoleon III.

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Empress Marie Louise da ɗanta Napoleon, Sarkin Roma, na François Gérard, 1813.

Haihuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Napoleon ll a ranar 20 ga watan Maris 1811, a Fadar Tuileries, ɗan Sarkin sarakuna Napoleon I da Empress Marie Louise. A wannan rana ya yi ondoyé (bikin gargajiya na Faransanci wanda ake ɗauka a matsayin farkon baftisma, gajeriyar baftisma) ta Joseph Fesch tare da cikakken sunansa Napoleon François Charles Joseph. Baftismar, wanda aka yi wahayi daga bikin baftisma na Louis, Grand Dauphin na Faransa, an yi shi a ranar 9 ga watan Yuni 1811 a Notre Dame de Paris. Karl Philipp, Yariman Schwarzenberg, jakadan Austria a Faransa, ya rubuta game da baftisma: {{Blockquote|The baptism ceremony was beautiful and impressive; the scene in which the emperor took the infant from the arms of his noble mother and raised him up twice to reveal him to the public [thus breaking from long tradition, as he did when he crowned himself at his coronation] was loudly applauded; in the monarch's manner and face could be seen the great satisfaction that he took from this solemn moment. An saka shi a cikin kulawar Louise Charlotte Françoise de Montesquiou, zuriyar François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, wanda ake kira Governess of the children of France. Mai ƙauna da haziƙanci, gwamanati ta tattara ɗimbin littattafan da aka yi niyya don baiwa jarirai tushe mai ƙarfi a cikin addini, falsafa, da al'amuran soja.[1]

Hakkokin magada[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Napoleon II

A matsayinsa na kawai ɗan halal na Napoleon na I, ya riga ya kasance bisa tsarin mulki yarima Imperial kuma magaji, amma Sarkin sarakuna kuma ya ba dansa salon Sarkin Roma. Bayan shekaru uku, daular Faransa ta farko ta rushe. Napoleon na ga matarsa ta biyu da ɗansu na ƙarshe a ranar 24 ga watan Janairu 1814.[2] A ranar 4 ga watan Afrilu 1814, ya yi murabus don goyon bayan dansa mai shekaru uku bayan yakin kwanaki shida da yakin Paris. Yaron ya zama Sarkin Faransa a ƙarƙashin sunan mulkin Napoleon II. Duk da haka, a ranar 6 ga watan Afrilu 1814, Napoleon I ya yi murabus kuma ya yi watsi da hakkinsa na kursiyin Faransa kawai, har ma na zuriyarsa. Yarjejeniyar Fontainebleau a cikin karni na 1814 ta ba wa yaron 'yancin yin amfani da lakabin Yariman Parma, na Placentia, da na Guastalla, kuma mahaifiyarsa ta kasance mai suna Duchess na Parma, na Placentia, da na Guastalla.

Mulki[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A ranar 29 ga watan Maris 1814, Marie Louise, tare da rakiyar ta, sun bar Fadar Tuileries tare da ɗanta. Tasharsu ta farko ita ce Château de Rambouillet; sa'an nan, saboda tsoron gaba da sojojin abokan gaba, suka ci gaba zuwa Château de Blois.[3] A ranar 13 ga watan Afrilu, tare da tawagarta sun ragu sosai, Marie Louise da ɗanta mai shekaru uku sun dawo Rambouillet, inda suka sadu da mahaifinta, Sarkin sarakuna Francis I na Austria, da Sarkin sarakuna Alexander I na Rasha. A ranar 23 ga Afrilu, rakiyar rundunar Ostiriya, uwa da danta sun bar Rambouillet da Faransa har abada, don gudun hijira a Ostiriya.[4]

Hoton Moritz Daffiner
Hoton gadon mutuwa, Franz Xaver Stöber ya zana shi.
Kabarin Napoleon II a Les Invalides, Paris.

Girmamawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Coats of arms[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  • Yarjejeniyar Sarkin Roma
  • Fadar Sarkin Roma

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. "Napoleon II: King of Rome, French Emperor, Prince of Parma, Duke of Reichstadt" . The Napoleon Foundation . napoleon.org. March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  2. "Château de Fontainebleau" . Musee-chateau- fontainebleau.fr. Retrieved 2012-08-28.
  3. "(N.275.) Arrete par lequel la Commission du Gouvernement se constitue sous la présidence M. le Duc d'Otrante" . Bulletin des lois de la République française (in French). 23 June 1815. p. 279.
  4. G. Lenotre, le Château de Rambouillet, six siècles d'histoire , ch. L'empereur , Éditions Denoël, Paris, 1984 (1930 reedition), pp. 126–133, ISBN 2-207-23023-6