Nau'in ciwon sukari na 2

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Nau'in ciwon sukari na 2 (T2D), wanda aka fi sani da manya-fara ciwon sukari, wani nau'i ne na ciwon sukari wanda ke da alaƙa da hawan jini, juriya na insulin, da ƙarancin insulin dangi.[1] Alamomi na yau da kullun sun haɗa da ƙara ƙishiruwa, yawan fitsari, da asarar nauyi mara misaltuwa.[2] Alamun kuma na iya haɗawa da ƙãra yunwa, jin gajiya, da ciwon da ba sa warkewa.[2] Sau da yawa alamomi suna zuwa a hankali.[1] Rikice-rikice na dogon lokaci daga hawan jini sun hada da cututtukan zuciya, shanyewar jiki, ciwon ido na ido wanda zai iya haifar da makanta, gazawar koda, da rashin kwararar jini a cikin gabobi wanda zai iya haifar da yankewa.[3] Kwatsam yanayin hyperosmolar hyperglycemic na iya faruwa; duk da haka, ketoacidosis ba a saba gani ba.[4][5]

Nau'in ciwon sukari na 2 yana faruwa da farko sakamakon kiba da rashin motsa jiki.[3] Wasu mutane sun fi wasu haɗari ta hanyar kwayoyin halitta.[1] Nau'in ciwon sukari na 2 shine kusan kashi 90% na masu ciwon sukari, yayin da sauran kashi 10% na farko saboda nau'in ciwon sukari na 1 da ciwon sukari na ciki.[3] A cikin nau'in ciwon sukari na 1 akwai ƙananan matakin insulin don sarrafa glucose na jini, saboda asarar ƙwayoyin beta masu samar da insulin da ke haifar da autoimmune a cikin pancreas.[6][7] Ganewar ciwon sukari ta hanyar gwaje-gwajen jini kamar glucose plasma mai azumi, gwajin haƙuri na glucose na baka, ko haemoglobin glycated (A1C).[2]

Nau'in ciwon sukari na 2 ana iya yin rigakafinsa ta hanyar kasancewa mai nauyi na yau da kullun, motsa jiki akai-akai, da cin abinci yadda ya kamata.[3] Jiyya ya ƙunshi motsa jiki da canje-canjen abinci.[3] Idan matakan sukari na jini bai ragu sosai ba, ana ba da shawarar maganin metformin.[8][9] Mutane da yawa na iya ƙarshe kuma suna buƙatar allurar insulin.[10] A cikin waɗanda ke cikin insulin, ana ba da shawarar duba matakan sukari na jini akai-akai; duk da haka, ba za a buƙaci wannan a cikin masu shan kwayoyin ba.[11] Yin tiyatar Bariatric sau da yawa yana inganta ciwon sukari a cikin masu kiba.[12][13]

Adadin nau'in ciwon sukari na 2 ya karu sosai tun 1960 a layi daya da kiba.[14] Ya zuwa shekarar 2015 akwai kusan mutane miliyan 392 da aka gano suna dauke da cutar idan aka kwatanta da kusan miliyan 30 a cikin 1985.[15][16] Yawanci tana farawa a tsakiyar ko tsufa,[1] kodayake yawan ciwon sukari na 2 yana karuwa a cikin matasa.[17][18] Nau'in ciwon sukari na 2 yana da alaƙa da tsawon rayuwa na tsawon shekaru goma.[19] Ciwon sukari na ɗaya daga cikin cututtukan farko da aka kwatanta.[20] An ƙayyade mahimmancin insulin a cikin cutar a cikin 1920s.[21]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Causes of Diabetes". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. June 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. June 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "Diabetes Fact sheet N°312". World Health Organization. August 2011. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
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  5. Fasanmade OA, Odeniyi IA, Ogbera AO (June 2008). "Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and management". African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 37 (2): 99–105. PMID 18939392.
  6. MacKay, Ian; Rose, Noel, eds. (2014). The Autoimmune Diseases. Academic Press. p. 575. ISBN 978-0-123-84929-8. OCLC 965646175.
  7. Gardner, David G.; Shoback, Dolores, eds. (2011). "Chapter 17: Pancreatic hormones & diabetes mellitus". Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 978-0-07-162243-1. OCLC 613429053.
  8. Maruthur NM, Tseng E, Hutfless S, Wilson LM, Suarez-Cuervo C, Berger Z, Chu Y, Iyoha E, Segal JB, Bolen S (June 2016). "Diabetes Medications as Monotherapy or Metformin-Based Combination Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 164 (11): 740–51. doi:10.7326/M15-2650. PMID 27088241.
  9. Saenz A, Fernandez-Esteban I, Mataix A, Ausejo M, Roque M, Moher D (July 2005). Saenz A (ed.). "Metformin monotherapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD002966. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002966.pub3. PMID 16034881.Template:Retracted
  10. Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385–411. doi:10.2165/00003495-200565030-00005. PMID 15669880.
  11. Malanda UL, Welschen LM, Riphagen II, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Bot SD (January 2012). "Self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are not using insulin". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD005060. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005060.pub3. hdl:1871/48558. PMID 22258959.
  12. Cetinkunar S, Erdem H, Aktimur R, Sozen S (June 2015). "Effect of bariatric surgery on humoral control of metabolic derangements in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: How it works". World Journal of Clinical Cases. 3 (6): 504–9. doi:10.12998/wjcc.v3.i6.504. PMC 4468896. PMID 26090370.
  13. Ganguly S, Tan HC, Lee PC, Tham KW (April 2015). "Metabolic bariatric surgery and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an endocrinologist's perspective". Journal of Biomedical Research. 29 (2): 105–11. doi:10.7555/JBR.29.20140127. PMC 4389109. PMID 25859264.
  14. Moscou, Susan (2013). "Getting the word out: advocacy, social marketing, and policy development and enforcement". In Truglio-Londrigan, Marie; Lewenson, Sandra B. (eds.). Public health nursing: practicing population-based care (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-4496-4660-8. OCLC 758391750.
  15. Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, et al. (GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators) (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  16. Smyth S, Heron A (January 2006). "Diabetes and obesity: the twin epidemics". Nature Medicine. 12 (1): 75–80. doi:10.1038/nm0106-75. PMID 16397575.
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  19. Melmed, Shlomo; Polonsky, Kenneth S.; Larsen, P. Reed; Kronenberg, Henry M., eds. (2011). Williams textbook of endocrinology (12th ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders. pp. 1371–1435. ISBN 978-1-4377-0324-5.
  20. Leutholtz, Brian C.; Ripoll, Ignacio (2011). "Diabetes". Exercise and disease management (2nd ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-4398-2759-8. OCLC 725919496.
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