Nelson Mandela

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela 1994.jpg
19. Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement (en) Fassara

2 Satumba 1998 - 1999
Andrés Pastrana Arango (en) Fassara - Thabo Mbeki (en) Fassara
10. President of South Africa (en) Fassara

10 Mayu 1994 - 14 ga Yuni, 1999
F. W. de Klerk (en) Fassara - Thabo Mbeki (en) Fassara
member of the National Assembly of South Africa (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Rolihllahla Mandela
Haihuwa Mvezo (en) Fassara, 18 ga Yuli, 1918
ƙasa Afirka ta kudu
Mazauni Houghton Estate (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Xhosa (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Houghton Estate (en) Fassara, 5 Disamba 2013
Makwanci Qunu (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa  (respiratory disease (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa
Mahaifiya Nosekeni Fanny
Abokiyar zama Evelyn Mase (en) Fassara  (5 Oktoba 1944 -  19 ga Maris, 1957)
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (en) Fassara  (14 ga Yuni, 1958 -  19 ga Maris, 1996)
Graça Machel (en) Fassara  (18 ga Yuli, 1998 -  5 Disamba 2013)
Yara
Ƴan uwa
Karatu
Makaranta University of the Witwatersrand (en) Fassara
University of South Africa (en) Fassara Bachelor of Arts (en) Fassara
University of Fort Hare (en) Fassara
University of London (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Xhosa (en) Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a ɗan/'yar siyasa, autobiographer (en) Fassara, Lauya, political activist (en) Fassara da political prisoner (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka Long Walk to Freedom (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Mamba American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Methodism (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa African National Congress (en) Fassara
South African Communist Party (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0541691
nelsonmandela.org
Nelson Mandela Signature.svg
hoton Nelson Mandela a shekarar 2008

Nelson Mandela an haife shine a wani gari mai suna Qunu da ke a gabas da kogin Mbashe a yankin gabashin birnin Cap.[1] A lokacin da ya samu shekara bakwai ya zama ɗan zuriarsa na farko da ya shiga makarantar boko.[2]

Farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Mahaifinsa ya rasu sanadin cutar tarin fuka (TB) a yayin da Mandela ya kai shekara tara 9 a Duniya. Saidai duk da halin maraici da ya tsinci kansa a ciki, Nelson Mandella ya ci gaba da karatu.[3]

Ilimi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Amma a lokacin da ya kammala shekararsa ta farko a jami´ar Fort Hare, an fidda shi daga makarantan a dalilin jagorancin da ya yi wa ´yan makarantar na tada tarzoma.[4] Bayan haka Nelson Mandela ya yi ƙaurin suna a Jami´ar birnin Johannesburg, inda a nan ya ci gaba da karatunsa har sai da ya samu ya kammala karatunsa na digirin farko ta fannin Shari'a[5]. A ɓangaren harkokin siyasa kuwa a shekara ta alif 1942 Nelson Mandela ya shiga Ƙungiyar ANC mai yaki da wariyar launin fata da ake nunawa baƙaƙen fatar Afrika ta Kudu.

Siyasa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Nelson Mandela a yayin da yake matashi
Nelson Mandela lokacin yana matashi

A shekara ta alif 1944 tare da haɗin gwuiwar Walter Sizulu da kuma OLivier Tambo, Mandela ya girka kungiyar matasan jam'iyyar ANC wadda daga nan ta duƙufa wajen neman 'yancin baƙaƙen fata da sauran al´ummomin da ake nunawa wariya a ko'ina a cikin Duniya. Don cimma wannan buri, Nelson Mandela ya sanya kafar wando daya da gwamnatin Daniel Malam wacce ta ƙaddamar da mulkin wariyar launin fata wato (Apartheid)a Afrika ta Kudu. Ta la´akari da yadda Ƙungiyar matasan yaƙi da Apartheid ke samun gindin zama sai gwamnati ta cafke Nelson Mandela tare da wasu muƙarrabansa guda 150 wanda aka jefa su a gidan kurkuku har tsawan shekaru biyar.

Gidan kaso[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1960 Turawan da ke mulki a Afrika ta kudu, suka ƙaddamar da kisan kiyashi da aka fi sani da suna ta´adin wato (Sharpeville), wanda a sakamakon sa mutane suka rasa rayukansu. Wannan ta´adi ya harzuƙa Nelson Mandela a game da haka, ya yi kira ga jama´a ta ƙaddamar da yaki ga haramtaciyar gwamnatin wariyar launin fata.

Dakin da aka tsare Nelson Mandela a kurkuku
Dakin da Nelson Mandela ya zauna a kurkuku

A dalilin haka aka ƙara ɗaure shi a kurkuku har tsawon shekaru biyar. A yayin da kotu ke gudanar da shari´a a kan al´amarin Mandela ƙarara yace kotun haramtacciya ce, domin ita ma ta nuna wariya.Wannan kalami ya sa aka kara ɗaure shi na shekaru biyar,ya rikiɗa zuwa ɗaurin rai da rai a gidan yari na Robben Island, inda ya share shekaru kussan 28 a ɗaure.

Ranar 11 ga watan Fabrairun shekara ta 1990, rana mai dubun tarihi ga ƙasar Afrika ta Kudu da ma Afrika baki ɗaya, domin a wannan rana gwamnatin Afrika ta Kudu ta bada umurnin belin Nelson Mandela kamar yadda shugaba Fredrick Declerck ya bayyana a cikin wannan jawabi: "Gwamnati ta yanke shawarar sallamar Nelson Mandela ba tare da gitta wani sharaɗi ba, kuma za ta tabbatar da hakan take yanke".Kammala jawabin na shugaban ƙasa Declerck ke da wuya, sai aka sallami Mandela, inda dubban jama´a suka tarɓe shi cikin taɓi da harerewa. A lokacin da ya yi jawabin farko bayan belin nasa, Nelson Mandela ya bayyana matuƙar farin ciki, to saidai a ɗaya hannun ya bayyana baƙin ciki, ta la´akari da cewar har yanzu, ba ta cenza zani ba, a game da ƙuncin rayuwar baƙaƙen fata na Afrika ta Kudu.Bayan fitowarsa daga kurkuku,Mandela ya yi alƙawarin ci gaba da gwaggwarmaya har sai ya ga abunda ya turewa buzu naɗi.

Lamban girma[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A game da haka, ya samu lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya, wato Nobel Price, ko kuma "Prix Nobel de la Paix" tare da Fredrick De Clerck. Jam´iyarsa ta ANC ta tsaida shi, ɗan takara a zaɓen shugaban ƙasar Afrika ta Kudu ranar 27 ga watan Afirilun shekara ta 1994.

ANC ta sami gagarimin rinjaye da kashi 60 %, a game da haka,Mandela ya zama baƙar fata na farko da ya jagoranci Afrika ta Kudu, tare da mataimaka guda biyu, Thabon Mbeki shugaba mai ci na yanzu ,da kuma Fredrik De Clerck tsofan shugaban ƙasa.

Wasu daga cikin mahimman ƙudurorin da Mandela ya ƙadamar a zamanin mulkinsa sun haɗa da girka komitoci mussamman wanda ya tattara illahirin wulaƙanci da azabar da baƙaƙen fata suka yi fama da ita, a zamanin mulkin wariya, da zumar yafewa juna tare da ɗaukar matakan kau da wannan tsari daga dokokin Afrika ta Kudu.Mandela ya taka muhimmiyar rawa ta fannin farfaɗo da martaba da ƙimar Afrika ta Kudu a idanun duniya, sannan ya kasance tamkar uba ga sauran ƙasashen Afrika.Nelson Mandela, ya sauka daga karagar mulki a shekara ta 1999.Har bayan saukarsa daga karagar mulki, Nelson Mandela ya ci gaba da fafatawar ƙwato ´yancin bani Adama,a game da haka ne, Hukumar kare haƙƙoƙin dan Adam ta Amnesty International ta naɗa shi jakadan zaman lafiya na duniya, daga jami´ar Amnesty Bil Shipsey ya bayyana dalilan ɗorawa Mandela wannan nauyin.

Tun belin sa daga kurkuku a shekara ta 1990, ya zama tauraruwa sha kallo, kuma abun koyi ne a duk ko´ina cikin duniya. A lokacin da ya yi shugabanci ya bada cikakkar shaida, cewar ana iya gudanar da mulki cikin adalci, sannan babu matsalar da za ta gagara a magance, muddun akwai kyakkyawar niyya. A lokacin da ya maida martani ga wannan nauyin da Amnesty ta ɗora masa, Mandela ya jaddada aniyarsa, ta ci gaba da gwagwarmaya muddun ya na raye.

Hutu[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A yanzu na yi ritaya daga harkokin mulki, amma muddun rashin adalci ya ci gaba a duniya nima zan ci gaba da fafatawar ƙwatar ´yancin jama´a, domin a duk lokacin da talauci ya mamaye jama'a, babu batun ´yanci. Nelson Madela ya taka rawar gani ta fannoni daban-daban hasali ma ta fannin yaƙi da cutar Sida.A shekara ta 2005, ya fito ƙarara ya bayyana cewar, ɗansa na cikinsa Makgatho Mandela, ya rasu a dalilin kamuwa da cutar Sida. Ya yi hakan domin taimakawa jama´a ta daina samun ɗaurin kai a game da wannan cuta da masu ɗauke da ita ke fama da ƙyama. Wannan bayani na Nelson Mandella ya taimaka mutuƙa, wajen rage ƙyamar masu cutar Sida. Bikin cikwan shekaru 90 da haifuwar Nelson Mandela

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]