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Raquel Welch

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Raquel Welch
Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Jo Raquel Tejada
Haihuwa Chicago, 5 Satumba 1940
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Ƙabila Bolivians (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Los Angeles, 15 ga Faburairu, 2023
Yanayin mutuwa  (cardiac arrest (en) Fassara)
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Armando Carlos Tejada Urquizo
Mahaifiya Josephine Sarah Hall
Abokiyar zama Patrick Curtis (en) Fassara  (1967 -  1972)
André Weinfeld (en) Fassara  (1980 -  1990)
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta San Diego State University (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
Sana'a
Sana'a dan wasan kwaikwayon talabijin, ɗan wasan kwaikwayo, mawaƙi, model (en) Fassara, marubuci da Jarumi
Kyaututtuka
Sunan mahaifi Raquel Welch
Kayan kida murya
IMDb nm0000079

  Jo Raquel Welch (an haifeta 5 ga Satumban shekara ta 1940 - Fabrairu 15, 2023) yar wasan kwaikwayo ce ta Amurka kuma abin koyi ga mutanen Amurka.

Welch ta fara samun kulawa ga rawar da ta taka a cikin Fantastic Voyage (1966), bayan haka ta sami kwangila tare da Fox na 20th Century . Sun ba da rancen kwangilarta zuwa ɗakin studio Hammer Film Productions na Burtaniya, wanda ta yi Shekaru Miliyan Daya BC (1966). Kodayake Welch tana da layuka uku kawai na tattaunawa a cikin fim ɗin, hotunanta a cikin bikini-skin bikini sun zama fitattun fastoci waɗanda suka mayar da ita alamar jima'i ta duniya. Daga baya tazama tauraruwa a cikin Bedazzled (1967), Bandolero! (1968), 100 Bindigogi (1969), Myra Breckinridge (1970), da Hannie Caulder (1971). Ta yi na musamman na talabijin iri-iri.

Raquel Welch

Ta hanyar hotonta na mata masu karfi, wanda ya taimaka wajen karya tsarin alamar jima'i na al'ada, Welch ta kirkiro wani fim na musamman wanda ya sanya ta alamar 1960s da 1970s. Yunƙurin ta zuwa matsayin tauraruwa a tsakiyar 1960s an yi la'akari da wani bangare tare da kawo ƙarshen haɓakar Hollywood mai ƙarfi na bam ɗin bam . Ta lashe lambar yabo ta Golden Globe Award don Mafi kyawun Jarumar Hotunan Motsi a cikin Musical ko Comedy a shekarar 1974 saboda rawar da ta yi a cikin Musketeers uku . An kuma ba ta lambar yabo ta Golden Globe Award don Mafi kyawun Jaruma a Fim ɗin Talabijin saboda rawar da ta yi a cikin fim ɗin Right to Die (1987). A cikin 1995, Mujallar Empire ta zaɓi Welch a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin "Stars Sexiest 100 in History Film". Playboy ya zama Welch No. 3 akan jerin sunayensu "100 Sexiest Stars of the Twentieth Century".

Rayuwar farko[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

An haifi Welch Jo Raquel Tejada a ranar 5 ga Satumban Shekarar 1940, a Chicago, Illinois. Ita ce ɗiyar fari na Armando Carlos Tejada Urquizo da Josephine Sarah Hall. [1] Mahaifinta, Armando Tejada, injiniyan jirgin sama ne daga La Paz, Bolivia, ɗan Agustin Tejada da Raquel Urquizo. A cikin 2010, yayin da ake yin hira da ita a kan Tavis Smiley, Welch ta ce, "Mahaifina ya fito ne daga wata ƙasa mai suna Bolivia. Ya kasance dan asalin Mutanen Espanya." [2] 'yar uwarta, 'yar siyasar Bolivia Lidia Gueiler Tejada, ta zama shugabar kasa mace ta farko a Bolivia kuma mace ta biyu wacce ba 'yar sarauta ba a Amurka. An ba wa Welch sunan kakar mahaifinta. Mahaifiyarta, Josephine Hall, ita ce 'yar magini Emery Stanford Hall da matarsa Clara Louise Adams; Ta kasance zuriyar Ingila. Welch tana da ƙane, James "Jim" Tejada, da ƙanwarsa, Gayle Tejada.

Raquel Welch

Iyalin sun ƙaura daga Illinois zuwa San Diego, California, lokacin da Welch tana 'yar shekaru biyu. Welch tana halartar Cocin Presbyterian Tekun Pacific kowace Lahadi tare da mahaifiyarta. [3] A matsayin yarinya, Welch tana da sha'awar zama mai yin wasan kwaikwayo da nishaɗi. Ta fara karatun wasan ballet tun tana shekara bakwai, amma bayan ta yi karatu na tsawon shekaru goma, ta bar sana’ar tana da shekaru goma sha bakwai lokacin da malaminta ya gaya mata cewa ba ta da nau’in jikin da ya dace na ƙwararrun kamfanonin ƙwallon ƙafa. Lokacin da take da shekaru 14, ta ci taken kyau kamar Miss Photogenic da Miss Contour. Yayin da ta halarci makarantar sakandare ta La Jolla ta lashe taken Miss La Jolla da taken Miss San Diego – Mafi Kyawun Baje koli – a San Diego County Fair . Wannan dogon layi na gasa kyakkyawa a ƙarshe ya haifar da taken jihar Maid of California. Iyayenta sun rabu lokacin da ta gama karatunta. [4]

Welch ta kammala karatunta da girmamawa daga makarantar sakandare a 1958. Neman aikin wasan kwaikwayo, ta shiga Kwalejin San Diego State College akan ƙwararren 'yar wasan kwaikwayo na wasan kwaikwayo, kuma a shekara mai zuwa ta auri masoyinta na makarantar sakandare, James Welch. Ta ɗauki sunansa na ƙarshe kuma ta kiyaye shi a tsawon rayuwarta. Ta lashe sassa da yawa a cikin ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo na gida. A cikin 1959, ta taka rawa a cikin The Ramona Pageant, wasan waje na shekara-shekara a Hemet, California, wanda ya dogara da labari Ramona na Helen Hunt Jackson .

A cikin 1960, Welch ta sami aiki a matsayin mai gabatar da yanayi a KFMB, gidan talabijin na San Diego na gida. Domin rayuwar danginta da ayyukan talabijin suna da matukar bukata sai ta yanke shawarar daina karatun wasan kwaikwayo. Bayan rabuwarta da James Welch, ta ƙaura tare da 'ya'yanta biyu zuwa Dallas, Texas, inda ta yi "rayuwa mai mahimmanci" a matsayin abin koyi ga Neiman Marcus kuma a matsayin ma'aikaciyar hadaddiyar giyar .

Sana'a[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

1963-1966: Ayyukan farko da ci gaba[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Welch da farko ta yi niyyar ƙaura zuwa New York City daga Dallas, amma ta koma Los Angeles a cikin 1963 kuma ta fara neman aiki tare da ɗakunan fina-finai. A wannan lokacin, ta sadu da ɗan wasan kwaikwayo na ɗan lokaci guda ɗaya da wakilin Hollywood Patrick Curtis wanda ya zama mai sarrafa kansa da kasuwanci. Sun kirkiro wani shiri don juya Welch zuwa alamar jima'i . Don guje wa buga rubutu a matsayin Latina, ya shawo kan ta ta yi amfani da sunan sunan tsohon mijinta. [5]

An jefa ta a cikin ƙananan ayyuka a cikin fina-finai biyu, Gidan Ba Gida ba ne (1964) da kuma Roustabout na kiɗa (1964), fim ɗin Elvis Presley . Har ila yau, ta sami ƙananan matsayi a jerin talabijin na Bewitched, McHale's Navy da The Virginian kuma ta fito a kan jerin nau'o'in mako-mako The Hollywood Palace a matsayin yarinya da kuma mai gabatarwa. Ta kasance ɗaya daga cikin 'yan wasan kwaikwayo da yawa waɗanda suka kalli rawar Mary Ann Summers a wasan kwaikwayo mai dogon zango mai taken Gilligan's Island .

Raquel Welch

Matsayin farko na Welch shine a cikin fim ɗin bakin teku A Swingin' Summer (1965). A wannan shekarar, ta lashe Deb Star yayin da hotonta a cikin shimfidar mujallar Life mai suna "Ƙarshen Babban Farin Yarinya!" ta haifar da hayaniya a kewayen garin. An yi la'akari da ita sosai don rawar Domino a cikin Thunderball kuma an lura da ita daga matar mai samarwa Saul David, wanda ya ba da shawarar ta zuwa Fox Century na 20, inda tare da taimakon Curtis ta sami kwangila. Ta amince da kwangilar shekaru bakwai ba tare da keɓancewa ba, hotuna biyar a cikin shekaru biyar masu zuwa, da masu iyo biyu. Masu gudanarwa na Studio sunyi magana game da canza sunanta zuwa "Debbie". Suna tsammanin "Raquel" zai yi wuya a furta. Ta ki amincewa da bukatarsu. Tana son ainihin sunanta, don haka ta makale da "Raquel Welch". [6] Bayan gwajin allo don Mutuminmu na Saul Dauda Flint, an jefa ta a cikin babban matsayi a cikin fim ɗin sci-fi na David Fantastic Voyage (1966), wanda a ciki ta nuna wani memba na ƙungiyar likitocin da aka ƙarasa da allura a cikin jiki. na wani masanin kimiyya da ya ji rauni tare da manufar ceton rayuwarsa. Fim din ya shahara kuma ya sanya ta zama tauraruwa. [5]

Welch in the deer-skin bikini from the film One Million Years B.C.
Wannan talla na 1966 har yanzu na Welch a cikin bikini na deerskin ya zama fosta mafi kyawun siyarwa kuma ya mai da ita yarinya mai saurin gani nan take.

Fox ta ba da rancen Welch zuwa Hammer Studios a Biritaniya inda tazama tauraruwa a cikin Shekaru Miliyan Daya BC (1966), sake yin fim ɗin Hal Roach Miliyoyin BC (1940). Tufafinta kawai shine bikini na fata barewa guda biyu . An kwatanta ta a "sanye da bikini na farko na ɗan adam" kuma an kwatanta bikini na fur a matsayin "tabbataccen yanayin shekarun 1960". Jaridar New York Times ta yaba mata a cikin nazarinta na fim ɗin (wanda aka fitar a Burtaniya a cikin 1966 da kuma a Amurka a cikin 1967), "abin ban mamaki na numfashi ga 'yan mata". [7] Wani marubucin ya ce, "ko da yake tana da layi uku ne kawai a cikin fim ɗin, amma sha'awarta a cikin bikini adon ya sa ta zama tauraruwa kuma budurwar miliyoyin matasa masu kallon fina-finai". Wani tallan da aka yi mata a bikini ya zama fosta mai kayatarwa kuma ya mayar da ita yarinyar nan take . Fim ɗin ya ɗaga girman Welch a matsayin babban alamar jima'i na zamanin. A cikin 2011, mujallar Time ta jera bikini na Welch's BC a cikin "Top Ten Bikinis in Pop Culture".

A cikin 1966, Welch ta zama taurararuwa tare da Marcello Mastroianni a cikin fim ɗin Italiyanci Shoot Loud, Louder. . . Ban gane ba don Joseph E. Levine . [8] A wannan shekarar, ta bayyana a cikin fim Sex Quartet kamar yadda Elena a cikin kashi "Fata Elena". Ita ce kawai Ba’amurkiya a cikin ɗimbin tarihi na fim ɗin The Oldest Profession (1967); Michael Pfleghar ne ya jagoranci sashinta. A Italiya, ta kuma fito a cikin wani fim na heist don MGM, The Biggest Bundle of Them All (1968). An haɗa shi tare da Edward G. Robinson, wanda ya ce game da Welch, "Dole ne in ce tana da jiki sosai. Ta kasance sakamakon kyakkyawan kamfen na talla. Ina fatan ta rayu da shi domin jiki kawai zai kai ku zuwa gaba." [9] .

1967–1979: Tauraruwar Duniya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Motarta ta farko mai tauraro, Fim ɗin leƙen asiri salon salon salon Blaise na Burtaniya Fathom (1967), an yi fim ɗin a Spain don Fox na 20th Century. Darektan rukunin na biyu Peter Medak ya ce Welch "a wancan lokacin ba shi da kwarewa sosai, daidai da daya daga cikin wadannan manyan ganguna na Amurka. Amma ta yi ƙoƙari sosai kuma ta je duba gaggarumar kowace rana, a hankali ta inganta. 'Wane ne wannan bebe mai fadi?' mutane sun kasance suna cewa. Amma na ce: 'Ku jira. Zan ci amanar ta.' Ina son ta sosai domin ita mutum ce ta gaske. Kuma tana da kyakykyawan jiki wanda koyaushe yana taimakawa.” [10] Welch ta ce rawar da ta taka shine " Barbie yar tsana ce da ta fashe". [11] Da take bitar ayyukanta, mai sukar fim ɗin Los Angeles Times ta ce "kowane sabon hoto na Raquel Welch yana kawo ƙarin tabbaci cewa lokacin da Maria Montez ta mutu ba su karya tsarin ba. Kamar Maria, Raquel ba zai iya yin aiki daga nan zuwa can ba, amma mata biyu da alama an haife su don ɗaukar hoto. ... wannan mafi kyawun hotuna na leken asiri." [12]

A wannan mataki, Welch ta biyo Fox fina-finai hudu, a shekara guda. Ita da Curtis kuma sun kafa kamfanin samar da nasu, Curtwel. [8] Fox ya so Welch ya buga Jennifer a cikin karbuwar su na Valley of Dolls amma ta ki, tana son ta taka rawar Neely O'Hara. Gidan studio ba shi da sha'awar, yana jefa Patty Duke ; Sharon Tate ta buga Jennifer North. [13]

Welch tare da Dean Martin a Bandolero! (1968)

A Ingila, ta bayyana a matsayin Lust incarnate a cikin Peter Cook - Dudley Moore comedy, Bedazzled (1967), wani Swinging Sixties na sake ba da labari na Faust . Ya shahara, kamar yadda Yamma ya kasance, Bandolero! (1968), wanda aka harbe a Del Rio, Texas, a ƙauyen Alamo . Ta haɗu tare da James Stewart da Dean Martin . "Ina tsammanin za ta tattara komai," in ji Stewart game da Welch. [14] "Ba wanda zai yi ihu, 'Wow yana da Anne Bancroft kuma'," in ji Welch game da aikinta, "amma aƙalla ni ba Miss Sexpot ke gudana a kusa da rabin tsirara a kowane lokaci." [11]

A cikin 1968, Welch ya bayyana tare da Frank Sinatra a cikin fim ɗin binciken Lady a Cement, wani mabiyi na fim ɗin Tony Rome (1967). Ta buga Kit Forrest na zamantakewa, sha'awar Tony Rome. Daga baya Welch ta ce da hankali cewa ta ɗauki fim ɗin lokaci zuwa lokaci kuma ta gane cewa Kit Forrest ɗan giya ne: "Ina kallon wannan fim ɗin kuma ina tunanin, 'Menene jahannama ta samu?' A wani lokaci, ina da wannan almara: 'Oh, ita 'yar giya ce!' Ban san haka ba. Yaya zan yi kewar hakan?" An ba da rahoton cewa ta ji haushi da Sinatra har ta manta da cewa: "Ina tsammanin ina sha'awar Frank Sinatra, ka sani. Yana da hypnotic."

Welch ta yi tauraro a matsayin jagoran gwagwarmayar 'yanci a cikin 100 Rifles, yammacin 1969 wanda Tom Gries ya jagoranta kuma an yi fim a Almería, Spain. Har ila yau, tauraro ya buga Jim Brown, Burt Reynolds, da Fernando Lamas . Fim ɗin ya jawo jama'a da cece-kuce a lokacin saboda ya haɗa da wani yanayi na soyayya tsakanin Welch da Brown wanda ya keta haramtacciyar Hollywood game da cudanya tsakanin kabilanci. [15] Ana tunawa da fim din don "Shower Scene" mai ban mamaki wanda Welch ya ba da hankali ga sojojin da ke cikin jirgin ta hanyar yin wanka a hasumiya na ruwa tare da waƙoƙi. Daraktan, Gries, yayi ƙoƙari sosai don shawo kan Welch ya yi wurin tsirara, amma ta ƙi. Ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin lokuta da yawa Welch ya ƙi yin tsirara akan allo kuma yana turawa tsawon shekaru akan furodusoshi waɗanda ke son ta ta yi ko ta fito tsirara. A cikin 1969, Welch kuma ya yi tauraro a cikin Flareup mai ban sha'awa kuma yana da rawar tallafi a cikin duhu mai ban dariya The Magic Kirista .

Matsayin mafi yawan rigima na Welch ya zo a cikin Myra Breckinridge (1970). Ta dauki matsayin jarumar fim din a kokarin ta na daukar mata da muhimmanci a matsayin jarumar. Ayyukan da aka yi sun kasance da ƙiyayya tsakanin Welch da Mae West, wanda ya fita daga fim din har kwana uku. Fim ɗin ya dogara ne akan fitaccen mai siyar da Gore Vidal akan mutumin da ya zama mace ta hanyar tiyata. Furodusan fim din Robert Fryer ya ce: “Idan mutum zai zama mace, zai so ya zama mace mafi kyau a duniya. Zai zama Raquel Welch." [16]

Kallonta da shahararta sun sa Playboy ya yi mata lakabi da "Mace da aka fi so" a shekarun 1970. An gabatar da Welch a bikin Awards Academy sau da yawa a cikin shekarun 1970 saboda shahararta. Ta karɓi Oscar mafi kyawun Tallafi a madadin 'yar wasan kwaikwayo Goldie Hawn lokacin da Hawn ya kasa kasancewa a wurin don karɓe shi.

On April 26, 1970, CBS released her television special Raquel!. On the day of the premiere, the show received a 51 percent share on the National ARB Ratings and an overnight New York Nielsen rating of 58 percent share. Also that year Welch starred in The Beloved, which she co-produced and filmed in Cyprus.

A cikin 1971, Welch tana da jagoranci a Hannie Caulder, wani fim na Yamma wanda Tigon da Curtwel suka yi, wanda aka harbe a Spain. Welch ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin ƴan wasan kwaikwayo, kuma ɗaya daga cikin na farko, wanda ke da jagoranci a cikin fim ɗin Yamma. Hannie Caulder ya kasance babban tasiri a kan fina-finai na fansa daga baya, tare da darekta Quentin Tarantino yana ambaton shi a matsayin abin ƙarfafawa ga fim dinsa na 2003, Kill Bill: Volume 1 . [17]

A shekara ta gaba, a cikin 1972, Welch ya buga fim a cikin fim din Kansas City Bomber, inda ta taka uwa daya da tauraruwar derby da ke kokarin daidaita rayuwarta da kuma burinta na kwararru. Ta kuma yi taho a cikin Bluebeard . Ayyukan Welch a Kansas City Bomber ya jawo hankali, tare da mujallar Life tana magana da ita a matsayin "abin da ya fi zafi akan ƙafafun". Koyaya, an dakatar da samarwa har tsawon makonni shida lokacin da Welch ta karya wuyan hannu yayin da take yin wasu abubuwan nata. [18] A lokacin hutun, ta yi tafiya zuwa Budapest don yin fim ɗin Bluebeard na tsawon mako guda, kuma an ɗauki hotonta a wurin bikin zagayowar ranar haihuwa da Richard Burton ya yi na bikin cika shekaru arba'in na matar sa Elizabeth Taylor . Duk da cewa ba a yi la'akari da babban nasara ba, Kansas City Bomber an lura da shi don nuna alaƙar jinsi a farkon 1970s.

GHA cikin 1973, Welch ta yi fim a cikin fina-finai biyu: The Last of Sheila da The Three Musketeers . A shekara mai zuwa, ta bayyana a cikin The Four Musketeers . A cikin 1975, Welch ya fito a cikin The Wild Party kuma ya yi duet tare da Cher, yana rera waƙa " Ni Mace ce " akan wani shiri na The Cher Show .

Welch in a blue scarf and high-collared gray jacket, with polka-dot feathered cap
Welch a farkon The Rose, 1979

1980–2023: Ayyukan da suka biyo baya da kuma shekarun baya[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Talabijin[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1982, Welch ya yi tauraro a cikin fim ɗin talabijin na Yamma The Legend of Walks Far Woman . An ba da lissafinta a matsayin "fim ɗinta na farko mai ban mamaki na TV", Welch ta buga wata 'yar ƙasar Amurka a ƙarni na 19 a Montana. A lokacin rani na 1982, Welch yana cikin 'yan takarar da aka yi la'akari da matsayin Alexis Carrington a daular ABC na farko, tare da Elizabeth Taylor da Sophia Loren, kafin masu samarwa su zauna kan Joan Collins .

Welch in a dark scoop top, wide belt, and tuxedo-styled jacket, hair styled up
Welch a 39th Emmy Awards Gwamna Ball a cikin Satumba 1987
Welch a shekara ta 2000

A cikin 1997, Welch ya yi tauraro a Broadway a cikin Victor/Victoria, yana bin Julie Andrews da Liza Minnelli a cikin rawar take. Mai sukar gidan wasan kwaikwayo Jamie Portman ta rubuta cewa kyawunta ya sanya Welch "da kyar a yarda da ita a matsayin Victoria mai rauni kuma ba za a iya yarda da ita a matsayin swaggering tuxedoed Victor", amma cewa ta aƙalla "ta sami manyan alamomi don jarumta" don ƙoƙarin numfasawa cikin "sigar kiɗan da ba ta dace ba". na Victor/Victoria ".

Nasarorin da kyaututtuka[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A cikin 1975, Welch ta sami lambar yabo ta Golden Globe Award don Mafi kyawun hotunan jarumar a cikin Musical ko Comedy don Musketeers Uku . Hakanan an zaɓe ta don lambar yabo ta Golden Globe saboda rawar da ta yi a wasan kwaikwayo na talabijin Right to Die (1987). A cikin 1996, Welch ta sami tauraro akan Walk of Fame na Hollywood a 7021 Hollywood Boulevard . A cikin 2001, an ba ta lambar yabo ta Imagen Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award saboda ingantaccen haɓakar da ta yi na Amurkawa na al'adun Latin a duk lokacin aikinta. A cikin 2012, Ƙungiyar Fim ta Cibiyar Lincoln ta gabatar da wani bita na musamman na fina-finai na Welch a Walter Reade Theater.

Welch during an appearance in April 2010
Welch a shekarar 2010
Tare da Ronald da Nancy Reagan a wani abincin dare a fadar White House a 1985.

Mutuwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Welch ta mutu a ranar 15 ga Fabrairu, 2023, a gidanta da ke Los Angeles, sakamakon gajeriyar rashin lafiya. Ta c 82.

Kwanan watan wallafawa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

(28/2/2023)

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. Raquel Welch Beyond the Cleavage: Quote: "I was born in 1940 in the Windy City, Chicago. Not ideal for a new-born baby girl." (P. 4). Retrieved March 17, 2020.
  2. Raquel Welch Beyond the Cleavage: Quote: "I WAS BORN in 1940 in the Windy City, Chicago. Not ideal for a newborn baby girl with thin Mediterranean blood, courtesy of my Spanish father."
  3. Beyond the Cleavage By Raquel Welch — Religion. (Page: 8)
  4. Welch, Raquel. (2010). Raquel Welch: Beyond the Cleavage. New York: Weinstein Books. pp. 3–28.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Otfinoski2007
  6. Raquel Welch [Interview by Piers Morgan]. (October 20, 2015). In Piers Morgan's Life Stories. London, England: ITV.
  7. "'One Million Years B.C.' Presents a Nice Live Raquel Welch" (February 22, 1967). The New York Times.
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Raquel Welch: Living Up to Her Legend" Weller, George. Los Angeles Times September 11, 1966: N10.
  9. "Edward G. Robinson—Mr. Bad Guy Never Had It So Good: EDWARD ROBINSON" Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times February 28, 1967: d1.
  10. "Class will tell: Derek Malcolm interviews Peter Medak, a director who is at last making his impact on the British cinema" Malcolm, Derek. The Guardian London, May 15, 1972: 10.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "Sex Goddess Is Human, After All" Los Angeles Times June 9, 1968: c12.
  12. "'Fathom' Playing on Citywide Screens" Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times August 10, 1967: d16.
  13. "WONDER WOMAN!!" Hallowell, John. Los Angeles Times July 14, 1968: o26.
  14. "Movie Making—30 Years of Fun for Jimmy Stewart: Jimmy Stewart Stewart's 30 Years" Thomas, Kevin. Los Angeles Times October 15, 1967: d19.
  15. Gleich, J. (2011). "Jim Brown: from integration to resegregation in The Dirty Dozen and 100 Rifles" Cinema Journal, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Fall 2011), pages 1–25.
  16. Berumen, Frank Javier Garcia. (2014). Latino Image Makers in Hollywood: Performers, Filmmakers and Films since the 1960s. NC: McFarland & Company.
  17. Peary, Gerald. (October 17, 2013). Quentin Tarantino: Interviews, Revised and Updated. University Press of Mississippi, p. 119.
  18. "Hottest Thing on Wheels" (June 2, 1972). Life, 72 (21), p. 48.