Sawdah bint Zam'ah

Daga Wikipedia, Insakulofidiya ta kyauta.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Sawdah bint Zam'ah
تخطيط اسم سودة بنت زمعة.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Makkah, 589
ƙasa Khulafa'hur-Rashidun
ƙungiyar ƙabila Larabawa
Mutuwa Madinah, 1 Satumba 674
Yan'uwa
Abokiyar zama Muhammad  (619 (Gregorian) -  632 (Gregorian))
Q22685752 Fassara  (unknown value -  unknown value)
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a Companion (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Sawdah bint Zam'ah (Larabci: سودة بنت زمعة) matar Annabi Muhammad ne. Akwai rashin jituwa dangane da lokacin da aka haife ta.[1] A cewar R. Bhala shekarunta, lokacin da ta auri Mohammad, tana da kusan shekaru 50, wasu majiyoyin suna da'awar shekarunta a lokacin aure ya kai kimanin shekaru 50 zuwa 55, wanda zai taƙaita ranar haihuwarta zuwa kusan 566-580 CE.[2][3] Ibn Sa’ad ya sanya ranar mutuwarta zuwa shekara ta 674,[4] kodayake akwai wasu majiyoyi da ke cewa ta mutu a shekarar karshe ta Khalifa Umar, wato 644.[5]

Tarihin Rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mahaifinta, Zam'ah ibn Qays, ya fito ne daga dangin Amir bn Lu'ayy na kabilar Quraishawa a Makka. Mahaifiyarta, Al-Shamus bint Qays, ta fito daga dangin Najjar na kabilar Khazraj a Madina.[6]

Ta auri As-Sakran ibn Amr. Suna da ɗa guda ɗaya, Abdur Rahman ibn as-Sakran, wanda ya mutu a Yaƙin Jalula a 637.[7]

Hijira zuwa Abisiniya[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sawdah da Sakran sun yi hijira zuwa Abisiniya[6] bisa umarnin Muhammadu. Sakran ya bar Abisiniya ta teku tare da Waqqas. Sun koma Makka, inda As-Sakran ya rasu.[8]

Auren Muhammadu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sawdah ta kasance ɗaya daga cikin mata na farko da suka yi hijira zuwa Habasha a tafarkin Allah. Mijinta ya mutu. Doguwa ce babba mai launin fata mai launin fata, tana da fara'a, halin kirki, kuma mutumin da ya dace ya kula da gidan Muhammadu da danginsa.[9]

Don haka Muhammad ya ba Khawlah izinin yin magana da Abubakar da Sawdah akan batun. Khawla ta tafi kai tsaye zuwa Sawdah ya ce, "Kina so Allah ya yi miki babbar ni'ima, Sawdah?" Sawdah ta tambaya, "Kuma menene wannan, Khawlah?" Ta ce, "Manzon Allah ya aiko ni gare ki da neman aure!" Sawdah ta yi ƙoƙarin kame kanta duk da tsananin mamakinta sannan ta amsa, "Ina son hakan! Ki tafi wurin mahaifina ki gaya masa haka. "Khawlah ta je wurin Zam'ah, wani tsoho mai ƙunci, ta gaishe shi sannan ta ce," Muhammad ɗan Abdullah ɗan Abdul Muttalib, ya aiko ni neman auren Sawdah." Dattijon ya daka tsawa, "Kyakkyawar wasa. Me ta ce?" Khawlah ta amsa da cewa, za ta so haka. Ya ce ta kira ta. Lokacin da ta zo, sai ya ce, “Sawdah, wannan matar tana da’awar cewa Muhammad dan Abdullah dan Abdul Muddalib ya aiko ni neman auren ki. Wasan wasa ne mai daraja. Kuna so in aure shi da shi? "Ta karba, tana jin wannan babban abin girmamawa ne.[9]

Muhammadu ya auri Sawdah a cikin Ramadan a shekara ta goma bayan Annabcinsa (watau a watan Afrilu -Mayu 620), 'yan watanni bayan rasuwar .[10] A cewar Ibn Sa’ad, Sawdah ta rasu a shekara ta 54 bayan Hijira, Idan ta rayu don zama likitan ilimin likitanci dole ne ta auri Muhammad tana da shekara 27. Idan ta kai shekara 90 to ba za ta iya wuce shekaru 37 ba lokacin da ta auri annabin wanda yake dan shekara 50 a lokacin.[11] Koyaya, akwai wasu majiyoyin da suka kashe ta a shekara ta 644.[12]

Sawdah ta je ta zauna a gidan Muhammad kuma nan take ta dauki nauyin kula da 'ya'yansa mata da na gidansa, yayin da Aisha bint Abubakar ta yi masa alkawari ta zauna a gidan mahaifinta. Akwai babban abin mamaki a Makka cewa Muhammadu zai zaɓi ya auri gwauruwar da ba ta da kyau bisa ƙa'idar al'umma. Muhammad, duk da haka, ya tuna irin jarabawar da ta sha lokacin da ta yi hijira zuwa Abisiniya, ta bar gidanta da kadarorinta, ta tsallaka hamada sannan ta shiga teku zuwa ƙasar da ba a sani ba saboda son kiyaye addinin ta.[9]

Bayan Hijira ne al'ummar Musulmi ta farko tayi saurin girma da fure da hayayyafa.[9]

Lokacin da ta tsufa, Muhammad ya damu matuka cewa Sawdah na iya bacin rai game da yin gasa da ƙaramin matan aure, kuma ya ba da shawarar ya sake ta. Ta ce za ta ba da daren ta ga Aisha, wacce take matukar son ta, saboda kawai tana son ta zama matarsa ​​a ranar tashin kiyama.[9]

Rayuwar gaba, takaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bayan rasuwar annabi Muhammad, Sawdah tare da wasu matan aure sun sami kyautar kuɗi daga hannun Khalifanci, wanda ta kashe don sadaka. Ita, Aisha, Hafsa, da Safiya koyaushe suna kasancewa kusa.[9] Ta yi tsawon rai kuma ta rasu a shekara ta 54 bayan hijira a Madina, inda aka binne ta a Jannat-al-Baqi.[13] Bayan rasuwarta, Muawiyah I, halifan farko na sarautar daular Umayyawa, ya sayi gidanta a Madina kan dirhami dubu 180. A cewar wata majiya, ta rasu a Madina zuwa ƙarshen mulkin Umar a shekara ta 22 bayan hijira.[10]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Understanding the Islamic Law, Raj Bhala, Section: Sawda bint Zama.
  2. Ibid. Understanding Islamic Law, Raj Bhala. pp. Quote. Mohammad next married this older widow, Sawda bint Zama. [...] Sawda was an older woman when she married Mohammad, yet her precise birthdate is unknown. Many sources claim she was older than Mohammad, who was about 50 years at that time.
  3. Le livret de famille du prophète Mouhammad, Damas-Syrie, MR Antique Groupe, page 9.
  4. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat Vol.8 page 56. Persian translation by Dr. Mohammad Mahdavi Damghani. (1982). Tehran Iran Farhang va Andiheh Publications.
  5. Adil Salih, Mohammad: Man & Prophet/Muhammad sceau des prophètes, Tawhid, pp. 585-586.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Biographies of the Prophet’s Companions and Their Successors vol. 39 p. 169. New York: SUNY Press.
  7. Vacca, V. "Sawda Bint Zamʿa." Encyclopaedia of Islam, First Edition (1913-1936). Brill Online, 2012. Reference. 2 October 2012.
  8. Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Biographies of the Prophet’s Companions and Their Successors vol. 39 pp. 169-170. New York: SUNY Press.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Ibn Kathir. "Wives of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)". Archived from the original on 2 August 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa’l Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. (1998). Biographies of the Prophet’s Companions and Their Successors vol. 39 p. 170. New York: SUNY Press.
  11. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat Vol.8 page 56. Persian translation by Dr. Mohammad Mahdavi Damghani. (1982). Tehran Iran Farhang va Andiheh Publications.
  12. Adil Salih, Mohammad: Man & Prophet/Muhammad sceau des prophetes, p. 586.
  13. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat Vol.8 page 56. Persian translation by Dr. Mohammad Mahdavi Damghani. (1982). Tehran Iran Farhang va Andiheh Publications.