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Sinima a Najeriya

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Sinima a Najeriya
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Cinemas na Silverbird Galleria, a Legas

Sinima a Najeriya Najeriya, wanda galibi ake kiransa Nollywood, ya kunshi fina -finan da aka shirya a Najeriya; tarihinta ya fara tun farkon ƙarshen ƙarni na 19 kuma zuwa zamanin mulkin mallaka a farkon ƙarni na 20. Tarihi da ci gaban masana'antar shirya fina-finan Najeriya a wasu lokutan galibi ana rarrabe su cikin manyan shekaru huɗu: zamanin Mulkin Mallaka, Zamanin Zamani, Zamanin Fim ɗin Bidiyo da Sabon Fim ɗin Najeriya.

Fim a matsayin matsakaici wato gajerun finafinai sun fara shigowa Najeriya a ƙarshen ƙarni na 19, a cikin yanayin kallon kallon na'urorin motsi . Ba da daɗewa ba aka maye gurbin waɗannan a farkon karni na 20 tare da ingantattun kayan nunin hoton motsi, tare da fara nuna fina - finan da aka haska a ɗakin taro na Glover Memorial Hall a Legas daga 12 zuwa 22 ga watan Agusta, shekara ta alif 1903. Fim ɗin farko da aka fara yi a Najeriya shine Palaver na shekara ta alif 1926, wanda Geoffrey Barkas ya shirya ; fim din kuma shi ne fim na farko da aka nuna 'yan wasan Najeriya a cikin rawar magana. Ya zuwa shekarar ta alif 1954, manyan motocin silima na hannu sun yi wasa a ƙalla mutane miliyan 3.5 a Najeriya, kuma ana duba fina-finan da Fim ɗin Najeriya ke samarwa kyauta a gidajen sinimomi 44 da ake da su. Fim na farko wanda duk haƙƙin mallakarsa ga sashin Fina - finan Najeriya shine Fincho (1957) na Sam Zebba; wanda kuma shine fim na farko na Najeriya da aka harba cikin launi .Bayan samun 'yancin kan Najeriya a shekara ta alif 1960, harkar sinima ta kuma faɗaɗa cikin hanzari, inda aka kafa sabbin gidajen sinima. Sakamakon haka, fina-finan Najeriya a cikin gidajen sinima sun ƙaru a ƙarshen shekara ta alif 1960, zuwa shekara ta alif 1970, musamman shirye-shiryen daga Yammacin Najeriya, saboda tsoffin masu aikin wasan kwaikwayo irin su Hubert Ogunde da Moses Olaiya suna canzawa zuwa babban allon. A cikin shekara ta alif 1972, Yakubu Gowon ya ba da Dokar Indigenization, wacce ke buƙatar a ba da ikon mallakar kusan gidajen fina - finai 300 daga masu su na waje zuwa ga 'yan Najeriya, wanda hakan ya haifar da ƙarin' yan Najeriya da ke taka rawa a cikin sinima da fim. Haɓakar mai daga shekara ta alif 1973, zuwa shekara ta alif 1978, shima ya ba da gudummawa sosai don haɓaka al'adun silima a Najeriya, saboda karuwar ikon siye a Najeriya ya sa 'yan ƙasa da yawa su sami kuɗin shiga wanda za su iya kashewa don tafiye -tafiyen silima da gidajen talabijin na gida. [1] Bayan fina - finan wasan kwaikwayo masu matsakaici da yawa, Papa Ajasco (1984) na Wale Adenuga ya zama na farko, wanda ya kai kimanin ₦61,000 (kimanin. 2015 ₦21,552,673) a cikin kwanaki uku. Bayan shekara guda, Mosebolatan (1985) na Moses Olaiya shi ma ya ci gaba da tara ₦107,000 (kimanin. 2015 ₦44,180,499) a cikin kwanaki biyar.

Bayan faɗuwar zamanin Zinariya, masana'antar fina-finan Najeriya ta sami babban ci gaba na biyu a cikin shekarun ta alif 1990s, wanda ake ganin alama ta fito da fim ɗin kai tsaye zuwa bidiyo Rayuwa a daure (1992); masana'antar ta kai kololuwa a tsakiyar shekarun 2000 don zama masana'antar fina -finai ta biyu mafi girma a duniya dangane da yawan abubuwan da ake shirya fina - finai na shekara -shekara, ta sanya ta gaba Amurka da bayan Indiya kawai. Ya fara mamaye allo a duk faɗin Nahiyar Afirka, kuma ta hanyar Faɗaɗa Karibiyan da ƙauyuka, tare da kuma fina -finan da ke tasiri sosai ga al'adu da masu yin fim ɗin sun zama sunayen gida a duk faɗin nahiyar. Har ila yau bunƙasar ta haifar da mayar da martani ga fina -finan Najeriya a ƙasashe da dama, wanda ke kan iyaka akan hasashe irin su "Nigerialization of Africa".

Tun daga tsakiyar shekarun 2000, lokacin raguwar zamanin fina-finan bidiyo, gidan sinima na Najeriya ya yi wasu gyare-gyare don haɓaka inganci a fitarwa da ƙwarewa a cikin masana'antar, tare da The Figurine (2009) da aka fi ɗauka a matsayin alamar babban juzu'in ɗan Najeriya na zamani. sinima. Tun daga lokacin aka sake samun ci gaba a cibiyoyin sinima, da dawowar al'adun sinima a Najeriya . Tun daga shekarar 2013, an kimanta sinima ta Najeriya a matsayin masana'antar fim mafi daraja ta uku a duniya dangane da kimarta da kuɗaɗen shigar da take samu.

Tarihin sinima a Najeriya ya samo asali tun farkon tarihin fim ; musamman a ƙarshen ƙarni na 19, tare da amfani da kallon peephole na na'urorin hoton motsi . Ba da daɗewa ba an maye gurbin waɗannan a farkon ƙarni na 20 tare da ingantattun kayan nunin hoton motsi; jerin fina-finan farko da aka nuna a gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na Najeriya fina - finan Yamma ne, inda aka nuna fim na farko a Glover Memorial Hall da ke Legas daga 12 zuwa 22 ga Agusta 1903. A cikin wannan shekarar, Herbert Macaulay ya gayyaci Najeriya, Balboa da Kamfanin Ispaniya don shirya yawon baje kolin fina -finan shiru wato marasa sauti a Najeriya. [2].

Kodayake daga baya Mista Balboa ya rufe baje kolin sa a Legas, yayin da ya ci gaba da nuna fina -finai a wasu ƙasashen Afirka ta Yamma, nasarar baje kolin nasa ya kai ga wani dan kasuwa Bature, Stanley Jones, ya fara nuna fina -finai a cikin dakin taro na Glover Memorial, wanda ya fara daga Nuwamba 1903. Wannan ya kawo kwararar masu baje kolin fina - finan Turai zuwa Najeriya. Fim na farko da aka fara a farkon wannan lokacin ya zo ne a ranar 3 ga Agustan 1904, lokacin da aka duba shirin ziyarar Alake na Abeokuta zuwa Ingila.

=== Lokacin mulkin mallaka

(ƙarshen ƙarni na 19 - farkon shekarun 1960) ===

Masu shirya fina - finai na mulkin mallaka sun fara shirya fina -finai don masu sauraro na gida a cikin Najeriya tun daga shekarun 1920, galibi suna amfani da sinima ta hannu a matsayin hanyar baje kolin; fim ɗin farko da aka fara yi a Najeriya shine Palaver na 1926 wanda Geoffrey Barkas ya shirya . Fim ɗin kuma fim ne na farko da aka taɓa nuna 'yan wasan Najeriya a cikin rawar magana. 'Yan wasan fim na Najeriya da aka nuna a Palaver sun hada da Dawiya da Yilkuba. An harbe fim ɗin a tsakanin mutanen Sura da Angas na Jihohin Bauchi da Filato a Arewacin Najeriya a yau, kuma ya ba da labarin hamayya tsakanin Jami'in Gundumar Burtaniya da mai haƙar ma'adinai wanda ke haifar da yaƙi. [3] [4] Hakanan a cikin wannan zamanin akwai fina -finai da yawa da aka shirya a Najeriya, ɗayan shahararrun shine Sanders na Kogin 1935 na Zoltán Korda, wanda ke nuna ɗan wasan Najeriya Orlando Martins . Martins ya kuma fito a wasu fitattun fina -finai da suka haɗa da The Man from Morocco (1945), Men of Two Worlds (1946) da sauransu, kuma wannan ya kafa Martins a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin fitattun jaruman Najeriya na zamaninsa. Tun daga 1921, akwai wasu dakuna guda huɗu waɗanda ke nuna fina -finai sau biyu a mako a cikin Babban yankin Legas da kowane zaure ɗaya a Ebute Metta da Oshodi . Zuwa wannan lokacin, sinima ta shahara a Legas tare da cunkoson matasa da tsofaffi yawanci suna jira a ƙofar ɗakunan wasan kwaikwayo. Har ila yau, addini ya taimaka wajen faɗaɗa al'adun sinima yayin da Kiristocin mishan suka yi amfani da gidajen sinima don farfagandar addini.

Yayin da gidajen sinima suka zama silar rayuwar zamantakewa a cikin garin Legas mai tasowa a wancan lokacin, ƙarshen shekarun 1930 zuwa 1940 ya zama farkon kafa manyan gidajen sinima na kasuwanci tare da rassa a sassa masu mahimmanci na ƙasar. Ofaya daga cikin masu aikin silima na farko a Legas shi ne "Kamfanin Hotuna na Yammacin Afirka" mallakar Mista S. Khalil, memba na al'ummar Siriya a Legas. Ya kafa Rex Cinema a Ebute Metta, Regal Cinema da Royal Cinema. Sauran shahararrun sarkar sinima sun haɗa da: Capitol Cinema, Cinema Casino, Cinema Kings, Cinema ta tsakiya, Rialto Cinema, Corona Cinema, Odeon Cinema, Cinema Road House, Ikeja Arms Cinema da Glover Hall. A cikin 1937, gwamnatin mulkin mallaka ta kafa Kwamitin Tantancewa don gudanar da al'amuran da suka shafi kafa da ayyukan gidajen silima a cikin mazaunin. Abubuwan da ke cikin fina-finan da aka yi da kuma nuna su a gidajen sinima na Najeriya a wannan lokacin duk da haka babu su kamar yadda 'yan kasashen waje ke sarrafa sarrafawa da rarrabawa. Sakamakon nishaɗin hoton motsi sakamakon ƙungiyoyin wasan kwaikwayo na Yarabawa, waɗanda suka fito a shekarun 1930 zuwa 1940; Daya daga cikin fitattun shine kungiyoyin wasan kwaikwayo na Agbegijo da Alarinjo, wadanda suka kunshi 'yan wasan kwaikwayo kamar Duro Ladipo, Ishola Ogunmola, Lere Paimo, Oyin Adejobi, da sauran su.

A cikin 1949 zuwa 1950, yanayin ya canza kaɗan, tare da nuna ƙarin abubuwan Najeriya a gidajen sinima; tare da abin da ake nufi don shirya fina - finan "Africanize", An kafa Sashin Fina -Finan Najeriya don watsa shirye -shiryen fim na mulkin mallaka. Ɓangaren Fim na Mulkin Mallaka, a cikin shekaru goman da suka gabata, ya baje kolin fina -finan lafiya da na ilimi ga masu sauraro na cikin gida ta hanyar faifan silima na wayar hannu. Hakanan ya samar da labarai da gajerun shirye -shiryen bidiyo, waɗanda ke nuna bukukuwa da nasarorin mulkin mallaka ga masu sauraron cikin gida da na ƙasashen waje. [5].

Zamanin Zinariya (ƙarshen shekarun 1950 - ƙarshen shekarun 1980)

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Bayan samun 'yancin kan Najeriya a shekarar 1960, harkar sinima ta faɗaɗa cikin hanzari, inda aka kafa sabbin gidajen sinima. Koyaya, an sami kwararar kwararar fina-finan Amurka, Indiya, Sinanci da Jafananci; fosta hotunan fina -finai daga waɗannan ƙasashe sun mamaye ɗakunan wasan kwaikwayo kuma 'yan fim daga waɗannan masana'antu sun shahara sosai a Najeriya. Zuwa ƙarshen shekarun 1960 zuwa cikin 1970s abubuwan da ake samarwa na Najeriya a gidajen fina - finai sun ƙaru a hankali, musamman abubuwan da ake samarwa daga Yammacin Najeriya, saboda tsoffin masu aikin wasan kwaikwayo kamar Hubert Ogunde, Ola Balogun, Moses Olaiya, Jab Adu, Isola Ogunsola, Ladi Ladebo, Sanya Dosumu da Sadiq Balewa da sauransu, yana canzawa zuwa babban allon. Fina - finan Najeriya na farko na cikakken kasuwanci, wanda aka harba akan celluloid, suma waɗannan masu shirya fim ɗin sun yi su a shekarun 1960. [6].

A cikin 1972, saboda damuwa game da kwararar al'adun ƙasashen waje zuwa cikin Najeriya, Shugaban Ƙasa na lokacin Yakubu Gowon ya ba da Dokar Ƙasa. wanda ke neman a ba da ikon mallakar kusan gidajen fina - finai 300 a kasar daga masu su na kasashen waje zuwa ƴan Najeriya. Hakanan, ƙarin ƴan Najeriya sun fara taka rawar gani a cikin kafa sinima sakamakon wannan manufar. Wannan canja wurin ya kuma haifar da fitowar marubutan wasan kwaikwayo na Najeriya, marubutan allo da masu shirya fim; shahararrun adabi da ayyukan wasan kwaikwayo an daidaita su zuwa hotunan motsi. Haɓaka mai a 1973 zuwa 1978 ya ba da gudummawa sosai ga haɓaka al'adun silima a Najeriya. Kasancewar saka hannun jari na ƙasashen waje ya haifar da gina gidajen sinima da yawa. A shekarar 1976, an gina gidan wasan kwaikwayo na kasa mai karfin 5000, Iganmu a Legas. An haɗa gidan wasan kwaikwayon tare da gidajen sinima guda biyu, kowannensu yana da damar mutane sama da 700. A wannan lokacin kasuwancin silima ya zama sanannen ma'aikaci ga mutane da yawa kuma ya kasance muhimmin aikin zamantakewa, yayin da 'yan Najeriya ke ziyartar gidajen sinima don shakatawa da nishaɗi. Ƙarfin siye da siye a Najeriya ya kuma sa 'yan ƙasa da yawa su sami kuɗin shiga wanda za a iya kashewa don ciyar da fina-finai da gidajen talabijin na gida.

An fara watsa shirye -shiryen talabijin a Najeriya a shekarun 1960 kuma ya sami goyon bayan gwamnati sosai a farkon shekarun ta. A tsakiyar shekarun 1980 kowace jiha tana da tashar watsa shirye-shiryenta. Doka ta takaita abun cikin kasashen waje a talabijin, don haka furodusoshi a Legas suka fara watsa shirye -shiryen shahararrun gidajen wasan kwaikwayo na gida. Da yawa daga cikin waɗannan an watsa su akan bidiyo kuma, an ci gaba da cinikin fim ɗin ƙaramin sikeli. Ya zuwa karshen shekarun 1980, al'adun sinima ya fara fuskantar koma baya matuka, kuma mafi yawan masu shirya fina - finan Najeriya sun canza zuwa shirye - shiryen talabijin. An danganta raguwar zamanin Zinariya na fina - finan Najeriya a kan abubuwa da dama, da suka hada da rage darajar Naira, rashin tallafin kuɗi da talla, rashin ingantattun ɗakunan fina-finai na fim da kayan aikin samarwa, shirye - shiryen daidaita tsarin gwamnati da yawa saboda sojoji mulkin kama - karya, da rashin sanin makamar aiki. Munanan raguwar al'adun sinima ya haifar da wasu daga cikin gidajen sinima da ƙungiyoyin addini suka mallake su suka koma majami'u; wasu kawai an rufe su kawai. A farkon shekarun 1990, kaɗan ne kawai daga gidajen gidajen silima da ke da ƙarfi har yanzu suna aiki, kuma duk sun rushe kafin 1999.

=== Bidiyon Bidiyo na Gida

(ƙarshen shekarun 1980 - tsakiyar Shekkarun 2010) ===

Fitowar kasuwar fina -finan bidiyo a Najeriya ta samo asali ne daga shekarun 1980 lokacin da shirye shiryen Talabijin suka bunƙasa. Mugun Haɗuwa da Jimi Odumosu, wani fim mai ban tsoro na 1980 wanda aka saki kai tsaye a talabijin, shi ne shiri na farko da ya zama mai nuni ga yadda yin fim mai fa'ida kai tsaye a bidiyo zai iya kasancewa. An inganta fim ɗin sosai kafin a nuna shi a talabijin, kuma a sakamakon haka, tituna sun cika da ruwa da safe tare da kwafin bidiyo na watsa shirye - shiryen da aka yi rikodin. An ba da rahoton cewa fim din ya zama abin sha kai tsaye a kasuwar Alaba, gundumar kasuwanci wacce daga baya ta zama cibiyar watsa bidiyo a cikin wannan lokacin sannan kuma ta zama cibiyar satar fasaha a Najeriya. Tun da Tashin Hankali, ya zama ruwan dare, musamman a biranen Kudancin Najeriya don ganin kwafin bidiyon shirye -shiryen talabijin da aka yi rikodin suna ciniki akan tituna.

Wannan hanyar da masu samarwa da masu rabawa a Kasuwar Alaba ta karba da gina ta don sake farfado da harkar fim, tun da al'adar sinima ta Najeriya na fuskantar koma baya matuƙa. Fim na farko da aka samar a bidiyo a Najeriya shi ne Soso Meji na 1988, wanda Ade Ajiboye ya shirya. An kuma haska fim din a 'yan sinimomin da ake da su a lokacin. Daga baya, Alade Aromire ya shirya Ekun (1989) a faifan bidiyo, wanda aka nuna shi a gidan wasan kwaikwayo na ƙasa, Iganmu. Koyaya, bunƙasar da aka samu a wannan zamanin galibi ana ganin cewa rayuwar Kenneth Nnebue ta Rayuwa a Daure (1992) ce ta fara tunzura ta. Nnebue yana da kaset na faifan bidiyo da aka shigo da su daga waje wanda daga baya yayi amfani da su don ɗaukar fim ɗin sa na farko akan kyamarar Bidiyo. Kodayake Rayuwa a daure ana yawan ɗaukarsa a cikin kafofin watsa labarai a matsayin "fim ɗin bidiyo na kasuwanci na farko", masana tarihi da yawa sun yi jayayya cewa masana'antar fim ɗin bidiyo ta riga ta fara bunƙasa kafin Rayuwa a Daure .

Ya zuwa shekarar 2004, a ƙalla ana shirya fina-finai hudu zuwa biyar a kullum a Najeriya. Finafinan Najeriya yanzu sun mamaye allon talabijin a duk faɗin Nahiyar Afirka da ƙari, mazauna ƙasashen waje. Har ila yau, 'yan fim ɗin sun zama sunaye a duk faɗin nahiyar, kuma fina -finan sun yi tasiri sosai ga al'adu a yawancin ƙasashen Afirka; tun daga sutura zuwa magana da amfani da lafuzan Najeriya. An danganta hakan ne saboda finafinan Najeriya sun ba da labaran “masu alaƙa”, waɗanda suka sa fina -finan ƙasashen waje su “tara turɓaya” a kan ɗakunan shagunan bidiyo, duk da cewa suna da arha sosai.

A cewar ƙungiyar masu shirya fina - finai ta Najeriya, kowane fim a Najeriya yana da damar kallon mutane miliyan 15 a Najeriya da kusan miliyan 5 a wajen Najeriya. Cikin ƙanƙanin lokaci, masana’antar ta zama ta uku mafi girma a fina - finai a duniya. Duk da haka, wannan bai fassara zuwa masana'antar fina -finai ta kasuwanci ba idan aka kwatanta da sauran manyan cibiyoyin fina - finai a duk faɗin duniya; An kusan kimanta darajar masana'antar a kusan dalar Amurka miliyan 250, tunda yawancin fina -finan da aka yi an yi su da arha. Masana'antar fim ko da kuwa ta zama babban ma'aikaci a Najeriya. Ya zuwa shekarar 2007, tare da jimlar adadin faifan bidiyo 6,841 da aka yi rijista da kimanin mutane 500,000 da ba su yi rijista ba, an kiyasta kudaden shiga da aka samu ta hanyar tallace -tallace da hayar fina -finai a jihar Legas kadai an kiyasta ya kai ₦804 miliyan (dalar Amurka miliyan 5) a kowane mako, wanda ya tara kusan ₦33.5 biliyan (dalar Amurka miliyan 209) ga jihar Legas a shekara. Kusan diski 700,000 aka sayar a kasuwar Alaba a kowace rana, tare da jimillar kudaden shiga da masana'antar fim ke samarwa a Najeriya ana kiyasta kimanin ₦ 522 biliyan (dalar Amurka biliyan 3) a kowace shekara, tare da abubuwan watsa shirye -shiryen da aka kimanta ₦250 biliyan (US $ 1.6 billion).

A ƙololuwar lokacin bidiyo a kusa da 2008, masana'antar ta zama ta biyu mafi girman fina - finai, sakin kusan finafinan bidiyo 200 kowane wata. Koyaya a wannan lokacin, masana'antar fina-finan Najeriya a zahiri ta lalace zuwa masana'antar "ba ta da hangen nesa", tare da mamaye mutane da yawa waɗanda ba su san komai game da shirya fim ba, kuma satar fasaha ta kai kololuwa. Yin aiki da barazanar satar fasaha, a tsakanin sauran matsalolin, ya zama mai wahalar tsinkewa; sakamakon wannan, yawancin masu saka hannun jari na " Alaba cartel ", waɗanda ke sarrafa kusan kashi 90 cikin ɗari na masana'antar bidiyo, sun fara jigilar kuɗin su zuwa wasu ayyukan kasuwanci maimakon. An danganta raguwar zamanin bidiyo na Gida saboda dalilai da yawa, kamar kin yarda da Gwamnati ta bayar da tallafi da kudade, rashin ingantattun kayan aikin rarraba fina - finai na 'yan asalin gida da kuma hauhawar farashin samarwa a Najeriya.

Sabuwar sinimar Najeriya (tsakiyar shekarun 2000-zuwa yanzu)

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Wannan wani fanni ne mai tasowa a cikin sinima na Najeriya, inda aka sami babban sauyi a hanyar shirya fina - finai, daga tsarin bidiyo, zuwa hanyar sinima, wanda ya ƙunshi fina-finan da aka yi a zamanin Golden. Shekaru kalilan cikin karni na 21, Najeriya ta fara samun ci gaban gidajen sinima, wanda aka tsara shi da farko don matsakaiciya da babba. Rukunin Silverbird shine kamfani na farko da ya ƙaddamar da jerin gidajen Cinema na zamani a fadin manyan biranen Najeriya, galibi suna cikin yankuna masu wadata da gundumomi. Ta ƙaddamar da sarƙoƙin silima a 2004, farawa daga Silverbird Galleria a Victoria Island, Legas . Silverbird Galleria babban kantin siyayya ne, tare da babban gidan sinima da kantuna daban - daban inda ake gudanar da ayyukan kasuwanci. Wannan yana ba da ƙarin dalilai don ziyartar wurin fiye da kallon fina - finai kawai, amma mafi yawan ayyukan zamantakewa da irin nishaɗin da aka gyara fiye da kallon fim. Wannan yanayin ya ba da ƙarin bayani mai yiwuwa game da rasuwar al'adun silima na Najeriya a cikin shekarun 1980, wanda wataƙila ya kasance sakamakon fitowar mafi yawan gidajen sinima na zamanin Golden. [7].

Gidajen silima na Silverbird bayan kafa su sun fara tantance fina -finan Najeriya tare da ingantattun shirye - shiryen su, sakamakon haka yana ba da kwarin gwiwa ga shirya fina - finai marasa kyau. Sabon fim na farko da aka nuna a gidan sinima shine fim ɗin yaren Yarabawa Irapada (2006) na Kunle Afolayan, wanda aka haska shi a Silverbird Galleria a Legas. Gwajin Silverbird ya yi nasara sosai, kuma a sakamakon haka, ƙungiyar ta ƙaddamar da ƙarin rassan silima a Legas da sauran biranen ƙasar. Ba da daɗewa ba bayan kafa gidajen silima na Silverbird, an kuma ƙaddamar da Cinemas ɗin Genesis Deluxe da Cinemas na Ozone don ƙirƙirar gasa a harkar fim. Da yawa daga baya, a cikin shekarun 2010, Gidajen nuna wasannin kwaikwayo na Filmhouse shima ya shigo cikin hoton, wanda ya haifar da samun ƙarin gidajen sinima a cikin ƙasar, musamman a wajen unguwannin masu wadata.

Gwamnatin Najeriya ta ƙaddamar da tallafi da dama, domin tallafawa abubuwan da ke cikin fina -finan Najeriya. A shekarar 2006, gwamnatin Najeriya ta kaddamar da "Project Nollywood", tare da bankin Ecobank . Aikin ya bayar da ₦100 miliyan (dalar Amurka 781,000) ga masu shirya fina -finai na Najeriya don shirya fina -finai masu inganci da kuma tallafa wa cibiyar rarraba miliyoyin Naira a duk faɗin ƙasar a cikin wannan lokacin. A shekara ta 2010, gwamnatin Shugaba Goodluck Jonathan ta ƙaddamar da Asusun Shiga da Ƙirƙiri Industry 30 biliyan (dalar Amurka miliyan 200), wanda Bankin Masana'antu (BOI) ya tallafa masa, tare da bankin fitarwa da shigo da kaya na Najeriya (NEXIM) . Wannan tallafin, kodayake an yi masa lakabi da "Nollywood Project", an yi shi ne ga dukkan fannonin Fasaha da Nishaɗi na Najeriya. Hasashen tallafin ga masana'antar fim duk da haka shine don taimakawa ƙarin masu shirya fina -finan Najeriya a horo, kuɗi, da kuma taimakawa wajen samar da abubuwan more rayuwa masu mahimmanci ga masana'antar. A cikin 2013, an ba da ƙaramin sabon tallafin billion 3 biliyan (dalar Amurka miliyan 20) don Nollywood kawai, kuma musamman don shirya fina -finai masu inganci, da kuma ɗaukar nauyin masu shirya fina -finai don samun horo a makarantun fim. Hakanan a cikin 2015, Bankin Masana'antu ya ƙaddamar da wani shirin "NollyFund" da nufin ba da tallafin kuɗi ta hanyar lamuni ga masu shirya fim.

Shahararren fim mai ban sha'awa na 2009 The Figurine galibi ana ɗaukarsa a matsayin mai canza wasan, wanda ya ɗaga hankalin kafofin watsa labarai zuwa ga “ Sabuwar sinima ta Najeriya ”. Fim ɗin ya kasance nasara mai mahimmanci da kasuwanci a Najeriya, kuma an kuma haska shi a cikin bukukuwan fina -finai na Fim ɗin 2010 na Ijé na Chineze Anyaene, ya wuce The Figurine ya zama mafi girman fim ɗin Najeriya ; rikodin da ya riƙe na tsawon shekaru huɗu, har sai da aka sami nasara a 2014 ta Rabin Yellow Sun (2013). Zuwa shekarar 2016, The Wedding Party, fim ne na Kemi Adetiba .

A ƙarshen shekarar 2013, an bayar da rahoton cewa masana'antar fina -finai ta sami karɓuwa sosai na kudaden shiga na tiriliyan 1.72 (dalar Amurka biliyan 11). Tun daga shekarar 2014, masana'antar ta kai darajar ₦853.9 biliyan ( dalar Amurka biliyan 5.1) wanda ya sa ta zama masana'antar fim mafi daraja ta uku a duniya, bayan Amurka da Indiya . Ta ba da gudummawar kusan kashi 1.4% ga tattalin arzikin Najeriya; an danganta hakan da karuwar yawan fina-finai masu inganci da aka samar da ƙarin hanyoyin rarrabawa.

Ba kamar zamanin bidiyo na gida ba, fina - finai a cikin sabon igiyar galibi suna da inganci sosai, tare da manyan kasafin kuɗi; matsakaita tsakanin ₦40 miliyan (US $250,000) da ₦120 miliyan ($750,000). Waɗannan lokutan samarwa fina - finan suna ɗaukar watanni har ma sun kai tsawon shekaru, nesa ba kusa ba daga fina - finai a cikin tsarin bidiyo wanda galibi ana harbe su cikin kwanaki ko makonni. Sauran ingantattun ci gaba a cikin Sabuwar Nollywood sun haɗa da: ƙarin wasan kwaikwayo na dabara daga masu wasan kwaikwayo; daban -daban daga overd melodrama wanda ya zama zamanin bidiyo, mafi fa'ida, mafi ma'ana kuma mafi kyawun labarai. Jigogin da aka bincika a cikin waɗannan fina -finan galibi ana nuna su da jigogi na duniya, saboda yawancin masu shirya fina - finai matasa ne. Tsarin haƙƙin mallaka da rarraba daidai har yanzu yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan ƙalubalen da ke cikin Sabon Sinima na Najeriya.

Ruwan 'yan wasan Ghana

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Kimanin shekara ta 2006 zuwa 2007, ɗan fim ɗin Najeriya Frank Rajah Arase ya rattaba hannu kan wata kwangila tare da wani kamfanin samar da fina -finai na ƙasar Ghana, Venus Films, wanda ya haɗa da taimakawa gabatar da 'yan wasan Ghana a cikin Nollywood. Wannan haɗin gwiwar a ƙarshe ya haifar da shaharar wasu fitattun 'yan wasan Ghana, kamar Van Vicker, Jackie Appiah, Majid Michel, Yvonne Nelson, John Dumelo, Nadia Buari da Yvonne Okoro, wanda ake iya cewa kamar na takwarorinsu na Najeriya. Bugu da ƙari, tsawon shekaru; saboda tsadar shirya fina -finai a Najeriya, an tilastawa masu shirya fina -finan Najeriya yin fina -finai a wajen Legas don rage tsada, tare da nuna ficewar yin fim a Hollywood daga Los-Angeles zuwa birane kamar Toronto da Albuquerque, wani tsari da ake kira “ Runaway. samarwa ”. A sakamakon haka wasu furodusoshi da yawa sun fara harbi a garuruwa kamar Accra, Ghana, suna sanya tanadi cikin saka hannun jari a ingantattun kayan aiki, da yawa daga cikinsu suna ƙoƙarin shigar da finafinan su akan babban allon.

A cikin 2013, Nigerian Entertainment Today ta bayyana cewa 'yan wasan Ghana suna da kashi 60 cikin ɗari na jimlar kasuwa a shekara. Binciken da Jaridar ta gudanar ya nuna cewa daga cikin fina -finai 184 da aka nuna a kan Nollytuned.com, gidan yanar gizon yawo na Najeriya, tsakanin watan Afrilu zuwa Agusta 2013, ƴan wasan Ghana sun taka rawa a kalla 93 daga cikinsu. An kuma ba da rahoton cewa akwai manyan buƙatun ayyukan Ghana a shagunan bidiyo. A bugun farko na Kyautar Zaɓin Masu Siyarwa na Afirka (AMVCA) a 2013, an ba Jackie Appiah na Ghana Kyautar 'Yar Jarida a Matsayin Jagora . A wannan shekarar, an sake ba Appiah 'Kyakkyawar Jaruma' a Nollywood da African Film Critics Awards (NAFCA). [8] An kuma ba 'yan wasan Ghana kamar Majid Michel lambar yabo a bukukuwan kyaututtukan Nollywood da dama.

Sam Onanuga, marubucin rubutun Najeriya ya dora alhakin hakan kan rashin son kafaffun ayyukan Najeriya don shiga cikin ƙarin fina -finai akan Bidiyo. Tare da fitowar Sabuwar Sinima ta Najeriya, ƙarin ayyukan Najeriya suna son matsayi a babban allon don haɓaka ci gaban su, ƙin fitowa a cikin fina -finan bidiyo; A sakamakon haka 'yan wasan na Ghana sun yi amfani da wannan, yayin da suka yi fice a fina -finan bidiyon Najeriya wadanda tuni suka fara juyawa a wannan lokaci, amma har yanzu suna da farin jini. [8]

Wannan ci gaban ya jawo hankalin kafofin watsa labarai; galibin damuwar su ita ce 'yan Ghana suna karɓar ayyukan da ake nufi da' yan Najeriya. Yayin da wasu masu ruwa da tsaki na masana'antu kamar Bob Manuel ba sa son ci gaban, wasu kamar Mercy Aigbe, Belinda Effah, da Yvonne Jegede suna ganin hakan a matsayin ci gaban maraba; lura cewa masana'antar tana da girma ga kowa da kowa, kuma sauran manyan cibiyoyin fina -finai a duk duniya suna da kasancewar wasu ƙasashe. Theresa Edem tayi sharhi: “Haɗaɗɗiyar Afirka tana siyar da kowace rana, kowane lokaci. Ya kasance babban haɗin gwiwa har yanzu. Sun kara launi ga Nollywood kuma sun kawo gasa mai kyau. [9] Emem Isong, wani furodusan Najeriya yayi sharhi: "Yana haɓaka haɗin kai da haɗin kai kuma hakan ba mummunan abu bane".

Wasu kafafen yaɗa labarai na Ghana a daya bangaren sun bayyana yanayin a matsayin " Brain drain " daga Ghana. Duk da haka, daraktan Ghana Frank Fiifi Gharbin, ya nuna gamsuwa da ci gaban, yana mai cewa: “bai kamata a yi hayaniya ba game da 'yan wasan Ghana a Nollywood. A gare mu ci gaba ne mai kyau. Ya nuna cewa 'yan wasanmu sun fara samun matsayi kuma ana samun karɓuwa a duk duniya ”.

Haɓaka haɗin gwiwa tsakanin Najeriya da Ghana daga tsakiyar shekarun 2000 ya haifar da sake farfado da masana'antar fim ta Ghana. Koyaya, yawancin abubuwan da ake samarwa na Ghana haƙƙin mallaka ne ga Nollywood kuma 'yan kasuwar Najeriya sun rarraba saboda babbar kasuwar Najeriya. Masu shirya fina -finan Najeriya galibi suna nuna ' yan wasan Ghana a fina-finan Najeriya kuma hakan ya haifar da shaharar' yan wasan Ghana kusan kamar takwarorinsu na Najeriya. Har ila yau, 'yan wasan kwaikwayon na Najeriya sun taka rawa a wasu shirye -shiryen Ghana, don fim ya dauki hankalin masu sauraro. Shahararren jarumin nan dan kasar Ghana, Van Vicker, ya fito a fina -finan Najeriya da dama. Sakamakon waɗannan haɗin kai, masu kallon Yammacin Turai galibi suna rikitar da finafinan Ghana da finafinan Najeriya kuma suna ƙidaya tallace -tallacersu ɗaya; duk da haka, masana'antun ne guda biyu masu zaman kansu waɗanda a wasu lokutan ke raba haɗin gwiwar " Nollywood ".

Shahara da roko

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

A shekarar 2009, Unesco ta ayyana Nollywood a matsayin masana'antar fina-finai ta biyu mafi girma a duniya bayan fina-finan Indiya dangane da fitarwa.

Tun daga shekarun 2000, fina -finan Najeriya sun fara mamaye fuskokin talabijin a duk faɗin Nahiyar Afirka da kuma fadadawa. Har ila yau, 'yan fim ɗin sun zama sunaye a duk faɗin nahiyar, [10] kuma fina-finan suna da tasiri sosai ga al'adu a yawancin ƙasashen Afirka; daga hanyoyin sutura zuwa magana da amfani da lafazin Najeriya. An danganta hakan da gaskiyar cewa fina-finan Najeriya sun ba da labaran “masu alaƙa”, wanda hakan ya sa fina -finan ƙasashen waje ke tara ƙura a kan ɗakunan shagunan bidiyo, duk da cewa suna da arha sosai.

Wannan gagarumar farin jini ta kuma haifar da koma baya ga fina-finan Najeriya a kasashe da dama; Misali, an samu rahoton shagunan sayar da fina - finan Najeriya da 'yan sanda ke kai wa hari a Ghana ; a cewarsu, "suna fafutukar kada fina -finan Najeriya su mallake su". Wasu gwamnatoci da yawa sun kuma gabatar da matakan kariya, wasu daga cikinsu sun haɗa da gabatar da haraji mai tsoka ga gidajen samarwa waɗanda ke son yin fim a ƙasashensu. A watan Yulin 2010, Ghana ta fara neman dalar Amurka 1,000 daga 'yan wasan Najeriya da suka ziyarce ta da kuma dala 5,000 daga furodusoshi da daraktoci. Jamhuriyar Demokradiyyar Kongo ma ta yi kokarin haramta fina-finan Najeriya. Jean Rouch, wani zakaran fasaha na 'yan asalin Nijar, ya kwatanta Nollywood da cutar kanjamau. Ya bayyana cewa da alama akwai '' Nijeriyanci '' na Afirka, yana cikin damuwa cewa duk nahiyar ta zo don '' yatsu da yatsun ta hanyar Najeriya ''. [11].

Masana’antar fina-finan Najeriya na da mabiya da yawa a cikin al’ummomin kasashen Afirka da ke Turai musamman a Ingila .

Ƙungiyoyi da abubuwan da suka faru

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Actors Guild of Nigeria (AGN): ƙungiya ce, wacce ke tsara da kuma wakiltar harkokin masu shirya fina -finai a Najeriya da ƙasashen waje. Zababben shugaba ne ke jagorantar ta.
  • Directors oGuild of Nigeria (DGN)
  • Kungiyar Mawakan Edo ta Najeriya (EAAN)
  • Kamfanin Fina -finan Najeriya.
  • Marubutan allo Guild of Nigeria.

Abubuwan da suka faru

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  • Bikin Fina -Finan Duniya na Afirka (AFRIFF)
  • Kyaututtukan Zaɓin Masu sihiri na Afirka
  • Kyaututtukan Kwalejin Fina -Finan Afirka (AMAA): wani taron karramawa ne a Najeriya, wanda ke ba da lada mai kyau a harkar fim a Afirka. An ƙirƙira shi a cikin 2005 kuma an dauke shi a matsayin babbar lambar yabo a Nollywood da kuma a nahiyar Afirka. Har ila yau, ita ce mafi yawan yunwa bayan bayar da lambar yabo da bikin a duniyar fina -finan Afirka.
  • Mafi kyawun Nollywood Awards
  • Nollywood Movies Awards

 

Hanyoyin waje

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]
  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named autogenerated5
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named autogenerated7
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ekenyerengozi, Michael Chima
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Colonial Film
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named autogenerated6
  6. . New Nigerian Cinema: An Interview with Akin Adesokan (2006). Archived 2006-09-16 at the Wayback Machine
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Adelakun, Abimbola
  8. 8.0 8.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Enengedi, Victor
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Ebirim, Juliet
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named CCSU
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named economist


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