Symbiosis

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A cikin yanayi na tsabtace yanayi, kifin kifin yana ciyarwa akan ƙananan invertebrates wanda in ba haka ba yana da damar cutar da anemone na teku, kuma mahimmin abu daga kayataccen kifin yana samar da abubuwan gina jiki ga anemone na teku. Clownfish yana kiyayewa daga masu cinyewa ta ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin anemone, wanda clownfish yake da kariya. A clownfish fitarda wani babban kafa sauti cewa deters malam kifi, wanda zai in ba haka ba ci da Anemone, yin dangantakar bayyana mutualistic .

Symbiosis (daga Girkanci συμβίωσις , sumbíōsis , "zama tare", daga σύν , sún , "tare", da βίωσις , Bíōsis, "rayuwa") ne da wani irin mai kusa da dogon lokaci nazarin halittu hulda tsakanin biyu daban-daban nazarin halittu kwayoyin, zama da shi mutualistic, commensalistic, ko parasitic. Kwayoyin halittar, kowannensu ana kiransa da symbiont, na iya zama iri daya ne ko kuma na jinsin daban. A cikin 1879, Heinrich Anton de Bary ya bayyana shi a matsayin "rayuwa tare ba kamar ƙwayoyin halitta ba". Kalmar ta kasance cikin doguwar muhawara na tsawon ƙarni game da ko ya kamata ya nuna ma'anar juna musamman, kamar yadda yake a cikin lichens . Masana ilimin halitta yanzu sun yi watsi da wannan ƙuntatawa.

Symbiosis na iya zama wajibi, wanda ke nufin cewa ɗayan ko fiye da ɗaya daga cikin alamun na dogara ne da juna don rayuwa, ko kuma batun fuska (na zaɓi), lokacin da gaba ɗaya za su iya rayuwa da kansu.

Symbiosis kuma ana rarraba shi ta haɗuwa ta jiki. Lokacin da sifa ta samar da jiki guda ɗaya ana kiranta conjunctive symbiosis, yayin da duk sauran shirye-shirye ana kiransu disjunctive symbiosis. [1] Lokacin da wata kwayar halitta ta rayu a saman wani, kamar su kwarkwata a jikin mutane, ana kiranta ectosymbiosis ; lokacin da wani abokin tarayya yake rayuwa a cikin kyallen takarda na wani, kamar Symbiodinium a cikin murjani, ana ce masa endosymbiosis .

Ma'ana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Zane na nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan alakar alakar guda shida, daga fa'idar juna zuwa cutar juna.

Ma'anar symbiosis ya kasance batun tattaunawa na shekaru 130. A cikin 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank yayi amfani da kalmar Symbiosis don bayyana dangantakar abokantaka a cikin lichens . A cikin 1878, masanin ilmin kimiyar bahasi na Heinrich Anton de Bary ya bayyana shi da cewa "rayuwa tare ba kamar ƙwayoyin halitta ba". Ma'anar ta bambanta tsakanin masana kimiyya, yayin da wasu ke ba da shawara cewa ya kamata kawai ya danganta ne ga cigaba da fahimtar juna, yayin da wasu ke ganin ya kamata a yi amfani da su ga duk wata hulɗar ɗabi'ar da ke cigaba (a wasu kalmomin, zuwa haɗin kai, haɓaka aiki, da kuma rashin lafiya, amma ban da taƙaitaccen hulɗa kamar ƙaddara). A cikin karni na 21, na karshen ya zama ma'anar da masana kimiyyar halitta suka yarda da ita.

A cikin 1949, Edward Haskell ya gabatar da tsarin hadewa tare da rarrabuwa kan "ayyukan hadin gwiwa", [2] daga baya masanan suka amince da shi a matsayin "mu'amala". [3] [4]

Wajibi kan facultative[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dangantaka na iya zama tilas, ma'ana cewa ɗayan ko duka biyun suna haɗuwa da juna don rayuwa. Misali, a cikin lashen ruwa, wanda ya kunshi kayan gwari da hotuna masu daukar hoto, masu hada fungal ba zasu iya rayuwa da kansu ba. Abubuwan algae ko cyanobacterial symbionts a cikin lichens, kamar Trentepohlia, na iya rayuwa gaba ɗaya da kansu, kuma ɓangaren dangantakar tasu, saboda haka aka bayyana ta da fuska (zaɓi).

Hadin jiki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tushen itacen Alder tushen nodule gidaje masu ƙarancin nitrogen masu gyara nitrogen .

Endosymbiosis ita ce duk wata alaƙar da ke alaƙa wanda ɗayan sigar ke rayuwa a cikin ƙwayoyin ɗayan, ko dai a cikin ƙwayoyin halitta ko kuma na kwayar halitta. Misalan sun ha] bambancin microbiomes : rhizobia, nitrogen-kayyade kwayoyin da cewa rayuwa a tushen nodules a kan legume tushen; actinomycetes, kwayoyin da ke gyara sinadarin nitrogen kamar su Frankia, wadanda ke rayuwa a cikin alduran tushen nodules; single-celled algae ciki Reef-gina murjãni . da kuma endosymbionts na kwayan cuta wanda ke samar da abubuwan gina jiki masu muhimmanci ga kusan 10% -15% na kwari. 

Ectosymbiosis ne wani dankantakar halitta a cikin abin da symbiont zaune a jiki surface na rundunar, gami da ciki surface na narkewa kamar fili ko ducts na exocrine gland . Misalin wannan hada ectoparasites kamar kwarkwata . commensal ectosymbionts kamar barnacles, wanda ke haɗa kansu da muƙamuƙin baleen whales ; da juna game da juna kamar kifi mai tsabta .

Gasar tsangwama tsakanin maza-da-namiji a cikin jan barewa

Gasa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gasar za a iya bayyana ta a matsayin hulda tsakanin kwayoyin ko jinsuna, a cikin abin da fitness na daya da aka saukar zuwa wurin wani. Karancin wadatar kayan aiki aƙalla guda ɗaya (kamar abinci, ruwa, da yanki ) waɗanda duka suke amfani da su sau da yawa yana sauƙaƙa wannan nau'in hulɗar, kodayake gasar na iya kasancewa a kan sauran 'abubuwan more rayuwa', kamar mata don haifuwa (dangane da namiji kwayoyin halittu iri daya). [5]

Mutuwar juna[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kaguwar kagu, Calcinus laevimanus, tare da anemone na teku.

Mutualism ko interspecies na juna sadaukarwa ne na dogon lokacin da dangantaka tsakanin mutane daban-daban jinsunan inda duka mutane su amfana. Hulɗa da juna na iya zama ko dai ya zama dole ga duka jinsin, ya wajaba ga ɗayan amma ya shafi ɗayan, ko kuma ya shafi duka biyun.

Bryoliths ya rubuta takaddar fahimtar juna tsakanin kaguwa ta gado da kuma amana ga bryozoans .

A manyan yawan herbivores da mutualistic Gut Flora domin su taimaka musu nike shuka al'amarin, wanda shi ne mafi wuya ga nike fiye da dabba ganima. Wannan Gut Flora aka yi sama da cellulose-digesting protozoans ko kwayoyin da suke zaune a herbivores 'hanjinsu. [6] Girman murjani sakamakon sakamako ne na haɗin kai tsakanin ƙwayoyin murjani da nau'ikan algae waɗanda ke rayuwa a ciki. Yawancin tsire-tsire na ƙasa da mahalli na ƙasa sun dogara ne da haɗin kai tsakanin tsire-tsire, wanda ke gyara carbon daga iska, da fungi na mycorrhyzal, wanda ke taimakawa wajen cire ruwa da ma'adinai daga ƙasa.

Wani misali na mutualism ne dangantakar tsakanin ocellaris clownfish cewa zaune a cikin tentacles na Ritteri teku anemones . A yankin kifi kare Anemone daga anemone- cin kifi, da kuma a kunna harbin tentacles na Anemone kare clownfish daga ta da yara . Mussai na musamman akan kifin kayataccen kifi na kare shi daga shingen tanti.

Misali na gaba shine goby, kifi wanda wani lokacin yana rayuwa tare da jatan lande . Ciyawar shrimp din tana tono da kuma tsabtace burrow a cikin yashi inda shrimp da kifin goby suke rayuwa. Jatan shrimp kusan ya makance, ya bar shi mai rauni ga masu cin nama lokacin da yake wajen burinta. Idan akwai matsala, gobi ya taba shrimp tare da jelarsa don gargadin. Lokacin da hakan ya faru, da shrimp da goby da sauri suna komawa cikin kabarin. Dabbobi daban-daban na gobies ( Elacatinus spp. ) Hakanan suna tsabtace ectoparasites a cikin wasu kifaye, mai yuwuwa wani nau'in haɗin kai.

Wani alamomin alamomi wanda ba dole ba ana gani a cikin amintar da bryozoans da ƙwarjin ƙira . Brungiyar bryozoan ( Acanthodesia commensale ) tana haɓaka haɓakar zagayawa kuma tana ba da kaguwa ( Pseudopagurus granulimanus ) haɓakar haɓakar haɓakar haɓakar iska mai ƙarfi ta ɗakin zamanta wanda da farko ya kasance a cikin kwasfa na gastropod.

Yawancin tururuwa masu zafi da wurare masu zafi sun samo asali mai rikitarwa tare da wasu nau'in bishiyoyi. [7]

Endosymbiosis[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin endosymbiosis, kwayar mai gida bata da wasu kayan abinci wadanda endosymbiont ke samarwa. A sakamakon haka, mahalarta suna son ayyukan cigaban endosymbiont a cikin kansa ta hanyar samar da wasu kwayoyin na musamman. Wadannan kwayoyin suna shafar kwayoyin halittar mai gida ne don daidaita karuwar yawan masu karfin endosymbionts da kuma tabbatar da cewa wadannan canje-canjen halittar an wuce dasu ne ta hanyar watsa su ta tsaye (gado).

Misali mai ban sha'awa na wajabtar da juna shine alaƙar da ke tsakanin tsutsotsi siboglinid da ƙwayoyin cuta masu alaƙa da ke rayuwa a rafuffukan hydrothermal da raƙuman sanyi . Tsutsa ba shi da hanyar narkewa kuma ta dogara gaba ɗaya ga alamomin cikin ta na abinci mai gina jiki. Kwayoyin cuta suna yin amfani da sinadarin hydrogen sulfide ko methane, wanda mai masaukin yake basu. Wadannan tsutsotsi da aka gano a cikin marigayi 1980s a hydrothermal vents kusa da Galapagos Islands da kuma yi tun da aka samu a zurfin teku hydrothermal vents da sanyi seeps a duk duniya ta tekuna.

Yayinda endosymbiont ya saba da rayuwar mai gida, karshen endosymbiont yana canzawa sosai. Akwai raguwa sosai a cikin girman kwayar halittar sa, saboda yawancin kwayoyi sun ɓace yayin aiwatar da kumburi, da kuma gyaran DNA da sake haɗuwa, yayin da mahimman kwayoyin da ke shiga cikin rubutun DNA-to-RNA, fassarar furotin da kwafin DNA / RNA ke riƙe. Raguwar girman kwayar halitta ta kasance ne saboda asarar kwayar halitta masu narkar da kwayoyi kuma ba saboda raguwar yankuna da ke tsakanin juna ba ko kuma tsarin bude karatu (ORF). Za'a iya lissafa nau'ikan halittu wadanda suke canzawa a dabi'ance kuma suke dauke da rashi girma na kwayoyin halitta saboda karuwar adadin bambance-bambance a tsakanin su, wanda hakan ke haifar da sauye sauye a yanayin halittar su. Lokacin da kwayoyin cututtukan endosymbiotic masu alaƙa da kwari suka ba da ita ga zuriyar ta hanyar watsa kwayar halittar a tsaye, ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta na cikin intracellular suna fuskantar matsaloli da yawa yayin aiwatarwar, wanda ke haifar da raguwar ƙimar yawan mutane masu inganci, idan aka kwatanta da ƙwayoyin cuta masu rai. Rashin iyawar kwayar cuta ta endosymbiotic don dawo da halittar nau'in halittar su ta hanyar sake hadewa ana kiranta abinda ke faruwa na Muller . Alamar ratler na Muller, tare da ƙarancin yawan jama'a, yana haifar da haɓakar maye gurbi a cikin ƙwayoyin halittar da basu da mahimmanci na ƙwayoyin cuta. Wannan na iya faruwa ne saboda ƙarancin tsarin zaɓaɓɓu da ke mamaye mahallin mai karɓar "wadata".

Tsarin kwaminisanci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mites na kwaminis na tafiya ( waya ) a kan tashi ( Pseudolynchia canariensis )

Commensalism ya bayyana dangantaka tsakanin ƙwayoyin halitta biyu inda ɗayan ke amfana da ɗayan ba a cutar da shi sosai ko kuma taimaka masa ba. Ya samo asali ne daga kalmar Turanci commensal, wanda ake amfani dashi don hulɗar zamantakewar ɗan adam. Ya samo asali ne daga kalmomin Latin na da ma'ana raba abinci, wanda aka samo daga com (da) da mensa (tebur).

Dangantaka ta gari na iya haɗawa da wata kwayar halitta ta amfani da wani don jigilar kaya (phoresy) ko don gidaje (bincike), ko kuma tana iya haɗawa da wata kwayar ta amfani da wani abu daban, bayan mutuwarsa (metabiosis). Misalan metabiosis ne sufi crabs amfani gastropod bawo kare jikinsu, da kuma gizo-gizo gina su webs a kan shuke-shuke .

Parasitism[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shugaban (abin birgewa) na ƙwanƙwasawa Taenia solium an daidaita shi da cutar ta jiki tare da ƙugiyoyi da masu shayarwa don haɗawa da mahalarta .

A cikin dangantakar parasitic, parasite yana amfani yayin da mai cutar ya cutu. Parasitism yana da siffofi da yawa, daga endoparasites wanda ke zaune a cikin jikin mai masaukin zuwa ectoparasites da masu juzu'in parasitic da ke rayuwa akan farfajiyar sa kuma masu kara kuzari kamar sauro da ke ziyartar lokaci-lokaci. Parasitism shine kyakkyawan yanayin rayuwa; kusan kashi 40% na dukkan nau'ikan dabbobin su ne parasites, kuma matsakaitan jinsin dabbobi masu shayarwa sun karɓi nematodes 4, cestodes 2, da 2 trematodes. [8]

Mimicry[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mimicry wani nau'ine na alamomin yanayi wanda jinsin halittu ke daukar halaye na musamman na wani jinsin don canza alakar su ta yadda dabi'ar ke kwaikwaya, don amfanin ta. Daga cikin nau'ikan kwaikwayo iri-iri akwai Batesian da Müllerian, na farko da ya shafi amfani da gefe guda, na biyu yana samar da fa'idar juna. Batesian mimicry hulɗa ce ta ɓangare uku wacce ake amfani da ita inda ɗayan, mai kwazo, ya samo asali don kwaikwayon wani, samfurin, don yaudarar na uku, dupe. Dangane da ka'idar sigina, kwaikwayon da samfuri sun samo asali don aika sigina; dupe ya samo asali don karɓar shi daga samfurin. Wannan don fa'idar kwaikwayon amma ga lalacewar duka samfurin, wanda sigina na kariya ke da rauni ƙwarai, da kuma dupe, wanda aka hana abincin ganima. Misali, zanzaro wani samfuri ne mai karfin karewa, wanda yake nuna alama da launinsa mai launin baki da launin rawaya cewa ba komai ba ne ga ganima kamar tsuntsayen da suke farauta ta hanyar gani; yawancin tsuntsaye masu tsalle-tsalle ne na Batesian na wasps, kuma duk tsuntsun da ya guji waɗannan tsuntsaye to shi ne dupe. Sabanin haka, kwaikwayon Müllerian yana da fa'ida tare kasancewar duka mahalarta duka samfuran ne da kwaikwayo. Misali, jinsuna daban-daban na kwale-kwale suna kwaikwayon juna, tare da launuka iri-iri na gargadi a hade da baqi, fari, ja, da rawaya, kuma dukkansu suna cin gajiyar dangantakar.

Ensunƙwasawa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Gyada baƙar fata tana ɓoye wani sinadari daga asalinsa wanda ke cutar da tsire-tsire maƙwabta, misalin adawa .

Amensalism shine ma'amala ta rashin daidaituwa inda ɗayan ya cutar ko ya kashe ɗayan, ɗayan kuma ba ya shafar ɗayan. [9] Akwai amensalism iri biyu, gasa da adawa (ko maganin rigakafi). Gasa ita ce inda kwayar cuta mafi girma ko karfi ta hana ƙarami ko rauni daga albarkatu. Antagonism na faruwa ne lokacin da wata kwayar halitta ta lalace ko ta kashe ta wani ɓoye sinadarai. Misali na gasa itace tsiro mai girma a ƙarƙashin inuwar bishiyar itaciya. Itacen da ya balaga zai iya satar tsiron hasken rana da ake buƙata kuma, idan bishiyar ta girma ƙwarai, tana iya ɗaukar ruwan sama da ƙarancin abinci na ƙasa. Duk yayin aiwatarwar, itacen da ya balaga ba ya shafar sapling. Lallai, idan sap ya mutu, bishiyar itaciya tana samun abubuwan gina jiki daga lalacewar itacen. Misalin adawa shine Juglans nigra (gyada mai baƙar fata), ɓoye juglone, wani abu wanda yake lalata shuke-shuke masu yawa a cikin tushen sa. [10]

Amensalism ne sau da yawa amfani da su bayyana karfi da asymmetrical m interactions, kamar tsakanin Spanish ibex da weevils na HALITTAR Timarcha wanda ciyar a kan wannan irin shrub. Yayinda kasancewar jijiyar ba ta da wani tasiri a kan wadatar abinci, kasancewar bishiyar tana da matukar illa a kan lambobin munanan, yayin da suke cinye adadi mai yawa na tsire-tsire kuma ba zato ba tsammani suke cinye ciyawar a kanta.

Tsabtace alamomi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Tsabtace yanayin alaƙa wata ƙungiya ce tsakanin mutane masu jinsi biyu, inda ɗayan (mai tsabtacewar) ke cire kuma ya ci parasites da wasu kayan daga saman ɗayan (abokin harka). Yana da alfanu ga juna, amma masana ilimin halitta sun daɗe suna muhawara akan ko son kai ne, ko kuma cin riba kawai. Tsabtace yanayin sanannen sanannen kifi ne na ruwa, inda wasu ƙananan nau'ikan kifin mai tsafta, musamman masu narkar da kuma wasu nau'ikan na wasu jinsi, ƙwararru ne don ciyar da kusan ta musamman ta tsaftace manyan kifaye da sauran dabbobin ruwa.

Co-juyin halitta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Leafhoppers kariya ta tururuwa nama

Symbiosis yana ƙara zama sananne a matsayin mahimmin zaɓi na bayan juyin halitta; da yawa jinsunan da dogon tarihi na interdependent co-juyin halitta .

Symbiogenesis[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Eukaryotes (tsire-tsire, dabbobi, fungi, da kuma masu fa'ida ) ci gaba ta hanyar kamuwa da cuta daga alamomin juna tsakanin kwayoyin cuta da archaea. Shaida akan wannan ya hada da cewa mitochondria da chloroplasts sun raba kansu da kwayar halitta, da kuma lura da cewa wasu kwayoyin halitta suna kama da kwayoyin halittar su. [11]

Masanin kimiyyar halittu Lynn Margulis, sanannen sanadin aikinta kan endosymbiosis, yayi jayayya cewa kamuwa da cuta shine babban abin da ke haifar da juyin halitta . Ta dauki ra'ayin Darwin game da juyin halitta, wanda gasa ta haifar dashi, bai zama cikakke ba kuma tayi da'awar cewa juyin halitta ya dogara ne akan aiki tare, mu'amala, da dogaro da juna tsakanin kwayoyin halitta. A cewar Margulis da danta Dorion Sagan, " Rayuwa ba ta mamaye duniya ta fada ba, amma ta hanyar sadarwa ."

Dangantaka da juyin halitta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Mycorrhizas[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kimanin 80% na shuke-shuke da jijiyoyin jini a duk duniya suna haɓaka alaƙar alaƙa da fungi, musamman a cikin arcuscular mycorrhizas .

Pollination shine dangantakar juna tsakanin shuke-shuke masu furanni da shuke-shuke dabbobin su.

Pollination[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A fig ne pollinated da fig zanzaro, Blastophaga psenes .

Shuke-shuke masu furanni da dabbobin da suke basu damar sun inganta tare. Yawancin tsirrai waɗanda kwari suka lalata su (a cikin entomophily ), jemagu, ko tsuntsaye (a cikin ƙawa ) suna da furanni na musamman na musamman waɗanda aka gyara don inganta ƙarancin ƙuri'a ta wani takamaiman mai zaɓen wanda aka daidaita daidai. Shuke-shuke na farko da ke cikin tarihin burbushin suna da furanni masu sauƙi. Na'urar kebantaccen sauri ya ba Yunƙurin zuwa yawa bambancin kungiyoyin na shuke-shuke, da kuma, a lokaci guda, m kebantaccen faru a wasu kwari kungiyoyin. Wasu rukuni na shuke-shuke sun bunkasa tsire-tsire da manyan fure mai laushi, yayin da kwari suka kirkiro wasu siffofi na musamman don samun dama da tattara wadannan wadatattun hanyoyin abinci. A wasu taxa na tsirrai da kwari, dangantakar ta zama mai dogaro, inda jinsin kwari daya ne kawai zai iya lalata shi.

Pseudomyrmex ant a itaciya ƙaya ( Vachellia cornigera ) tare da jikin Beltian waɗanda ke ba tururuwa furotin

Acacia tururuwa da acacias[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ita tururuwa acacia ( Pseudomyrmex ferruginea ) itace tururuwa ta wajaba wacce take kare aƙalla nau'ikan biyar na "Acacia" ( Vachellia ) [lower-alpha 1] daga farautar kwari da kuma daga wasu tsirrai masu neman hasken rana, kuma itaciyar tana samar da abinci da wurin zama don tururuwa da tsutsa.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ga su Lamar haka:

  • Aposymbiotic
  • Yaudara (ilmin halitta)
  • Human Microbiome Project
  • Kamfanin microbial
  • Tsarin zamantakewar al'umma

Bayanan kula[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. The acacia ant protects at least 5 species of "Acacia", now all renamed to Vachellia: V. chiapensis, V. collinsii, V. cornigera, V. hindsii and V. sphaerocephala.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. "symbiosis." Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012
  2. Haskell, E. F. (1949). A clarification of social science. Main Currents in Modern Thought 7: 45–51.
  3. Burkholder, P. R. (1952) Cooperation and Conflict among Primitive Organisms. American Scientist, 40, 601-631. link.
  4. Bronstein, J. L. (2015). The study of mutualism. In: Bronstein, J. L. (ed.). Mutualism. Oxford University Press, Oxford. link.
  5. Begon, M., J.L. Harper and C.R. Townsend. 1996. Ecology: individuals, populations, and communities, Third Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd., Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  6. "symbiosis." The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012.
  7. Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press.
  8. National Research Council (US); Avise, J.C.; Hubbell, S.P.; Ayala, F.J. editors. In the Light of Evolution: Volume II: Biodiversity and Extinction. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2008. 4, "Homage to Linnaeus: How Many Parasites? How Many Hosts?"
  9. Toepfer, G. "Amensalism". In: BioConcepts. link.
  10. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica. (n.d.). Amensalism (biology). Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/19211/amensalism
  11. "Symbiosis". Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 1993. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012.

Miller, Allie. "Intricate Relationship Allows the Other to Flourish: the Sea Anemone and the Clownfish". AskNature. The Biomimicry Institute. Retrieved 15 February 2015.

συμβίωσις, σύν, βίωσις. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project

"symbiosis." Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007. Credo Reference. Web. 17 September 2012

Moran 2006

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