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Tsohuwar Havana

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Tsohuwar Havana
La Habana Vieja (es)


Wuri
Map
 23°08′09″N 82°21′30″W / 23.13594°N 82.35833°W / 23.13594; -82.35833
Island country (en) FassaraCuba
Province of Cuba (en) FassaraHavana Province (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 95,383
• Yawan mutane 22,079.4 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Old Havana and its Fortification System (en) Fassara
Yawan fili 4.32 km²
Wuri a ina ko kusa da wace teku Florida Strait (en) Fassara
Altitude (en) Fassara 11 m
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Lambar aika saƙo 10100
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho 78
hoton tsohuwar havana

Tsohuwar Havana (Mutanen Espanya: La Habana Vieja) ita ce tsakiyar gari (a cikin gari) kuma ɗayan gundumomi 15 (ko gundumomi) waɗanda suka kafa Havana, Cuba. Tana da mafi girman yawan jama'a na biyu a cikin birni kuma ya ƙunshi ainihin ainihin birnin Havana. Matsayin asalin ganuwar birnin Havana shine iyakokin zamani na Tsohuwar Havana.

A cikin 1982, an rubuta Tsohuwar Havana a cikin jerin abubuwan tarihi na UNESCO, saboda na musamman na Baroque da gine-gine na zamani, da kagara, da mahimmancin tarihi a matsayin tsayawa kan hanyar zuwa Sabuwar Duniya.[1] An kaddamar da kamfen na kariya bayan shekara guda don maido da ingancin gine-ginen.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Plaza Vieja
Paseo del Prado, Havana da Hotel Telegrafo

Mutanen Espanya ne suka kafa Havana a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba, 1519 a cikin tashar jiragen ruwa na Bay na Havana. Ya zama wurin tsayawa ga taskar da aka ɗora wa galleons na Sipaniya akan hayewa tsakanin Sabuwar Duniya da Tsohuwar Duniya. A cikin karni na 17, ya kasance daya daga cikin manyan cibiyoyin gine-gine. An gina birnin a cikin salon baroque da na zamani. Gine-gine da yawa sun ruguje a ƙarshen rabin karni na 20, amma ana maido da adadinsu. Ƙananan tituna na Old Havana sun ƙunshi gine-gine da yawa, wanda ya kai kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku na kusan gine-gine 3,000 da aka samu a Old Havana. Shi ne tsohon birni da aka kafa daga tashar jiragen ruwa, cibiyar hukuma da Plaza de Armas.

A cikin 1555, Jacques de Sores na Faransa ya lalata Tsohuwar Havana. ‘Yan fashin sun kwace birnin Havana cikin sauki, inda suka yi galaba a kan ‘yan tsirarun masu tsaron gida, suka washe garin, suka kona da yawa daga cikinsa, amma ya bar wajen ba tare da samun dimbin dukiyar da ya ke fatan samu a can ba. Bayan faruwar lamarin, Mutanen Espanya sun kawo sojoji cikin birnin kuma suka gina kagara da katanga don kare shi. Ginin Castillo de la Real Fuerza, kagara na farko da aka gina, an fara shi a shekara ta 1558, kuma injiniya Bartolomé Sanchez ne ya kula da shi.

Tsohuwar Havana yayi kama da Cadiz da Tenerife. Alejo Carpentier ya kira shi "de las columnas" (na ginshiƙai), amma kuma ana iya kiran shi don ƙofofin ƙofofin, revoco, lalacewa da ceto, kusanci, inuwa, sanyi, tsakar gida ... A cikin ta. akwai duk manyan tsoffin abubuwan tarihi na tarihi, garu, gidajen zuhudu da majami'u, fadoji, lungu-lungu, wuraren ajiye motoci, yawan mutane. Jihar Cuban ta yi yunƙuri mai yawa don adanawa da kuma dawo da tsohuwar Havana ta hanyar ƙoƙarin Ofishin Masanin Tarihi na Birni, wanda Eusebio Leal ya jagoranta. Ƙoƙarin sake ginawa ya yi nasarar rikitar da Tsohuwar Havana zuwa wurin yawon buɗe ido, kuma ya sa aka gane Leal a matsayin magajin garin Tsohuwar Havana.[2][3]

Babban abubuwan gani[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

sinima na Payret
Duba daga matakan Capitolio
  • Malecón ita ce hanyar da ke tafiya tare da bangon teku a arewacin gabar tekun Havana, daga Old Havana zuwa kogin Almendares.
  • Paseo del Prado, Havana ita ce titin da ta zama gefen yammacin Old Havana, kasancewar iyakarta da Centro Habana.
  • Havana tana da yawan jama'a sama da 5,000,000.
  • Castillo del Morro, wani kyakkyawan kagara mai gadin ƙofar Havana bay. Ginin katangar Los Tres Reyes del Morro ya biyo bayan matakin da ke Havana na dan fashin teku na Ingila Sir Francis Drake. Sarkin Spain ya shirya gininsa a kan wani babban dutse wanda aka sani da sunan El Morro. Ya aika da jagoran filin Juan de Texeda, tare da injiniyan soja Battista Antonelli, wanda ya zo Havana a 1587 kuma ya fara aikin nan da nan.
  • La Cabaña sansanin soja, wanda yake a gefen gabas na Havana Bay. Ya burge bangonta na ƙarni na 18, wanda aka gina a lokaci ɗaya da El Morro. Kowace dare da karfe 9 na yamma, sojoji sanye da kayan aikin zamani suna harbi daga nan, "el cañonazo de las nueve", (harbin bindiga na tara). Ana tashi kowace rana, don faɗakar da rufe kofofin bangon da ke kewaye da birnin.
  • San Salvador de la Punta Fortress, A bakin tekun da ke gaban Castle na El Morro, a farkon madaidaicin El Malecon, ya tashi sansanin San Salvador de la Punta. An gina shi a cikin 1590, kuma a cikin 1629 Babi na Havana ya yanke shawarar cewa don kare mafi kyawun tashar jiragen ruwa, don shiga shi, da dare, tare da El Morro ta hanyar amfani da sarkar mai kauri wanda ya hana shigar da jiragen ruwa na abokan gaba.
  • Castillo de la Real Fuerza, sansanin soja ko (lit.) Castle na Royal Army wani babban abin tunawa ne wanda ya rufe Plaza de las Armas. Shi ne babban katangar farko na birnin, wanda aka qaddamar a shekara ta 1558 akan rugujewar wani kagara mai dadadden tarihi. A cikin wannan shekarar ne Sarkin ya aika zuwa Cuba injiniya Bartolomé Sanchez, wanda jami'ai 14 da manyan ma'aikatan dutse suka kula da shi don sake gina katafaren ginin, wanda jirgin ruwan Faransa Jacques de Sores ya kona kuma ya lalata shi.
  • Catedral de San Cristóbal, sanannen gini akan Plaza de la Catedral. An tayar da babban coci a ɗakin sujada bayan 1748 bisa ga umarnin bishop daga Salamanca, Jose Felipe de Trespalacios. Yana daya daga cikin mafi kyawun majami'u masu hankali na Baroque na Amurka.[4]
  • National Capitol, mai salo bayan Panthéon (Paris), yana kama da Capitol na Amurka.
  • Galician Center, Central Park, The Galician Center, na neobarroque style aka kafa a matsayin zamantakewa kulob na Galician hijirar tsakanin 1907 da kuma 1914. Gina a kan Theater Tacon (a zamanin yau Babban gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Havana), an bude a lokacin Carnival na 1838 tare da. raye-raye masu rufe fuska guda biyar.
  • Plaza de Armas - babban filin yawon shakatawa. Asalin sunansa na soja ne, tun daga ƙarshen karni na 16 an gudanar da bukukuwa da abubuwan soja a nan.
  • Gran Teatro de la Havana, Babban Gidan wasan kwaikwayo na Havana ya shahara, musamman ga fitaccen Ballet na Cuba da wanda ya kafa Alicia Alonso. Wani lokaci yana yin wasan opera na kasa. Gidan wasan kwaikwayo kuma ana san shi da zauren kide-kide, Garcia Lorca, mafi girma a Cuba.
  • Gidan tarihin juyin juya halin Musulunci, wanda ke cikin tsohon fadar shugaban kasa, tare da baje kolin jirgin ruwan Granma a gaban gidan tarihin.
  • San Francisco de la Habana Basilica, Habana Vieja, Saitin coci da majami'ar San Francisco de Asis, wanda aka gina a cikin shekara ta 1608 kuma an sake gina shi a cikin 1737.

Barazana[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Titin da ba a gyara ba a Old Havana

A cikin 2008, Hurricane Ike ya lalata gine-gine da yawa a cikin Tsohuwar Havana, tare da kifar da ayyukan kiyayewa na shekaru da aka yi wa manyan gine-ginen yankin. Ba wai kawai ya lalata gine-ginen tarihi ba, amma ya tilasta wa yawancin mazauna Tsohuwar Havana gudu don tsira.[5] Barazanar da guguwa ke haifarwa na kara wa wasu gine-ginen tarihi da dama na Tsohuwar Havana rashin kwanciyar hankali. Shekaru, lalacewa, da sakaci sun haɗu tare da abubuwan halitta a cikin rikitacciyar ƙaƙƙarfan ɓarna ga kiyaye dogon lokaci na wannan tsohon garin mai tarihi.[6]

Hotuna[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Garuruwan tagwaye - garuruwan 'yan'uwa[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Tsohuwar Havana ta kasance tagwaye da garuruwa masu zuwa:

  • Viveiro, Spain
  • Cartagena, Colombia
  • Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Mexico
  • Sintra, Portugal, since 2000[7]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

  1. {{cite web |url = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/204} |title = Old Havana and its Fortification System |website = UNESCO World Heritage Centre |publisher = United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization |access-date = 26 May 2021}
  2. https://week.com/2020/07/31/eusebio-leal-who-oversaw-renewal-of-old-havana-dies-at-77/[permanent dead link]
  3. https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/07/31/world/europe/31reuters-people-eusebio-leal-obituary.html[permanent dead link]
  4. Frank Herbst, Cuba – Handbuch für individuelles Reisen, Reise Know-How Verlag 2006
  5. Irving, Mark (September 10, 2008). "Hurricane Ike batters historic Old Havana". The Independent. UK.
  6. Sanchez, Ray (May 3, 2009). "Havana's Historic Architecture at Risk of Crumbling Into Dust". Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2021.
  7. Towns twinned with Sintra Archived ga Yuni, 8, 2008 at the Wayback Machine