USB

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Universal Serial Bus (USB) misali ne na masana'antu wanda ke kafa ƙayyadaddun bayanai don igiyoyi, masu haɗawa da ka'idoji don haɗi, sadarwa da samar da wutar lantarki (musamman) tsakanin kwamfutoci, na'urori da sauran kwamfutoci. Akwai nau'ikan kayan aikin USB iri-iri, gami da nau'ikan masu haɗawa daban-daban guda 14, wanda USB-C shine na baya-bayan nan.

Da farko aka saki a shekara ta 1996, kebul ma'aunin suna kiyaye ta USB Immplementers Forum (USB-IF). Ƙarni huɗu na USB sune: USB 1. <i id="mwHg">x</i>, USB 2.0, USB 3. <i id="mwIQ">x</i>, da USB4 .

Bayanin[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An ƙera kebul ɗin don daidaita haɗin keɓaɓɓu zuwa kwamfutoci na sirri, duka don sadarwa da kuma samar da wutar lantarki. Ya maye gurbin musaya kamar su serial ports da parallel ports, kuma ya zama ruwan dare akan na'urori da yawa. Misalai na abubuwan da ke haɗa su ta USB sun haɗa da madannai na kwamfuta da beraye, kyamarori na bidiyo, firintoci, ƙwararrun kafofin watsa labaru, wayoyin hannu (tauraruwa) dijital, fayafai, da adaftar hanyar sadarwa.

Masu haɗin USB suna ƙara maye gurbin wasu nau'ikan azaman cajin igiyoyi na na'urori masu ɗaukuwa.

Nau'in haɗi mai sauri[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

 

Akwai masu haɗawa ta ma'aunin USB
Daidaitawa Kebul na USB 1.0



</br> 1996
Kebul na USB 1.1



</br> 1998
Kebul na USB 2.0



</br> 2001
Kebul na USB 2.0



</br> Bita
Kebul na USB 3.0



</br> 2008
USB 3.1



</br> 2013
Kebul na USB 3.2



</br> 2017
USB4



</br> 2019
Matsakaicin adadin canja wuri 12 Mbps 480 Mbps 5 gbps 10 Gbps 20 Gbps 40 Gbps
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Mai haɗa nau'in C N/A USB Type-C Receptacle Pinout.svg</img>



</br> USB-C (Babban girma)
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Muradai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

The Universal Serial Bus was developed to simplify and improve the interface between personal computers and peripheral devices, such as cell phones, computer accessories, and monitors, when compared with previously existing standard or ad hoc proprietary interfaces.

Daga mahallin mai amfani da kwamfuta, kebul na kebul yana inganta sauƙin amfani ta hanyoyi da yawa:

  • Kebul na USB yana daidaitawa da kansa, yana kawar da buƙatar mai amfani don daidaita saitunan na'urar don saurin gudu ko tsarin bayanai, ko saita katsewa, adiresoshin shigarwa/fitarwa, ko tashoshin shiga ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya kai tsaye.
  • An daidaita masu haɗin USB a wurin mai masaukin baki, don haka kowane yanki zai iya amfani da mafi yawan ma'auni.
  • USB yana ɗaukar cikakken amfani da ƙarin ƙarfin sarrafawa wanda za'a iya sanya shi ta hanyar tattalin arziki a cikin na'urori na gefe don su iya sarrafa kansu. Don haka, na'urorin USB galibi ba su da saitunan mu'amala mai daidaitawa.
  • Kebul na kebul yana da zafi-swappable (ana iya musanya na'urori ba tare da sake kunna kwamfutar mai masauki ba).
  • Ana iya kunna ƙananan na'urori kai tsaye daga kebul na USB, kawar da buƙatar ƙarin igiyoyin samar da wutar lantarki.
  • Saboda amfani da tambarin USB ana ba da izini kawai bayan gwajin yarda, mai amfani zai iya samun kwarin gwiwa cewa na'urar USB za ta yi aiki kamar yadda aka zata ba tare da babban hulɗa tare da saituna da daidaitawa ba.
  • Kebul na kebul yana bayyana ka'idoji don dawo da kurakurai na gama gari, inganta dogaro akan mu'amalar da ta gabata.
  • Shigar da na'urar da ta dogara da ma'aunin USB yana buƙatar ƙaramin aikin mai aiki. Lokacin da mai amfani ya toshe na'ura a cikin tashar jiragen ruwa a kan kwamfutar da ke aiki, ko dai gaba ɗaya yana daidaita ta atomatik ta amfani da direbobin na'ura, ko kuma tsarin ya sa mai amfani ya gano direba, wanda sai ya girka kuma ya daidaita ta atomatik.

Ma'aunin USB kuma yana ba da fa'idodi da yawa ga masana'antun kayan masarufi da masu haɓaka softuwaya, musamman cikin sauƙin aiwatarwa:

  • Ma'auni na USB yana kawar da buƙatu don haɓaka mu'amalar mallakar mallaka zuwa sabbin abubuwan kewaye.
  • Faɗin saurin canja wuri da ake samu daga kebul na kebul ya dace da na'urorin da suka kama daga madannai madannai da beraye har zuwa mu'amalar bidiyo mai yawo.
  • Ana iya tsara kebul na USB don samar da mafi kyawun latency don ayyuka masu mahimmanci na lokaci ko za'a iya saita shi don yin canja wurin bayanan manyan bayanai tare da ɗan tasiri akan albarkatun tsarin.
  • Kebul ɗin kebul ɗin yana gabaɗaya ba tare da layukan sigina da aka keɓe don aiki ɗaya kawai na na'ura ɗaya ba.

Iyakance[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kamar yadda yake tare da duk ma'auni, USB yana da iyakoki da yawa ga ƙirar sa:

  • Kebul na USB suna da iyaka tsawon tsayi, kamar yadda aka yi niyya ga ma'aunin ma'auni a saman tebur guda ɗaya, ba tsakanin ɗakuna ko gine-gine ba. Koyaya, ana iya haɗa tashar USB zuwa ƙofar da ke shiga na'urori masu nisa.
  • Adadin canja wurin bayanai na USB yana da hankali fiye da na sauran hanyoyin haɗin kai kamar 100 Gigabit Ethernet .
  • USB yana da tsayayyen tsarin hanyar sadarwa na itace da ka'idar master/bayi don magance na'urorin gefe; Waɗancan na'urorin ba za su iya yin hulɗa da juna ba sai ta hanyar mai watsa shiri, kuma runduna biyu ba za su iya sadarwa ta tashoshin USB kai tsaye ba. Wasu tsawo zuwa wannan iyakance yana yiwuwa ta hanyar USB On-The-Go in, Dual-Role-Devices da gadar yarjejeniya .
  • Mai watsa shiri ba zai iya watsa sigina zuwa duk abubuwan da ke kewaye a lokaci ɗaya-kowannensu dole ne a yi magana da shi ɗaya ɗaya.
  • Yayin da masu canzawa ke wanzu tsakanin wasu musaya na gado da kebul, ƙila ba za su samar da cikakkiyar aiwatar da kayan aikin gado ba. Misali, mai canza tashar tashar USB-zuwa-daidaitacce-tashar yana iya aiki da kyau tare da firinta, amma ba tare da na'urar daukar hotan takardu ba wacce ke buƙatar amfani da fil ɗin bayanan bidirectional.

Ga mai haɓaka samfur, amfani da USB yana buƙatar aiwatar da ƙayyadaddun ƙa'ida kuma yana nuna "mai hankali" mai sarrafawa a cikin na'urar. Masu haɓaka na'urorin USB waɗanda aka yi niyya don siyarwar jama'a gabaɗaya dole ne su sami ID na USB, wanda ke buƙatar biyan kuɗi zuwa Dandalin Masu Aiwatar da USB (USB-IF). Masu haɓaka samfuran da ke amfani da ƙayyadaddun USB dole ne su sanya hannu kan yarjejeniya tare da USB-IF. Amfani da tambarin USB akan samfurin yana buƙatar kuɗin shekara-shekara da zama memba a ƙungiyar.

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Large circle is left end of horizontal line. The line forks into three branches ending in circle, triangle and square symbols.
Asalin tambarin USB trident
Alamar trident na USB4 40Gbps
Tambarin USB a kan daidaitaccen filogin USB-A

Rukunin kamfanoni bakwai sun fara haɓaka kebul na USB a cikin 1995: Compaq, DEC, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, NEC, da Nortel . Manufar ita ce ta sauƙaƙe sauƙaƙe haɗa na'urorin waje zuwa PC ta hanyar maye gurbin ɗimbin masu haɗawa a bayan PCs, magance matsalolin amfani da mu'amalar da ke akwai, da sauƙaƙe tsarin software na duk na'urorin da ke da alaƙa da USB, da ba da izini mafi girma. ƙimar canja wurin bayanai don na'urorin waje da Fasalolin Toshe da Kunna . Ajay Bhatt da tawagarsa sunyi aiki akan ma'auni a Intel; na farko hadedde da'irori masu goyon bayan USB aka samar da Intel a 1995.

Joseph C. Decuir, Ba'amurke ɗan'uwan Cibiyar Injin Injiniya da Wutar Lantarki (IEEE) kuma ɗaya daga cikin masu zanen Atari na farko 8-bit game da tsarin kwamfuta (Atari VCS, Atari 400/800), da Commodore Amiga, ya yaba aikinsa akan Atari SIO, Atari 8-bit tsarin sadarwa na kwamfuta a matsayin tushen ma'aunin USB,[ana buƙatar hujja] wanda kuma ya taimaka wajen tsarawa kuma a ciki yana da haƙƙin mallaka.

As of 2008, about 6 billion USB ports and interfaces were in the global marketplace, and about 2 billion were being sold each year.

USB 1.x[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An sake shi a cikin Janairu 1996, USB 1.0 ƙayyadaddun ƙimar sigina na 1.5 Mbit/s ( Maɗaukakin Bandwidth ko Ƙananan Gudun ) da 12 Mbit/s ( Cikakken Gudu ). Bai ba da izinin tsawaita igiyoyi ko wucewa ta hanyar saka idanu ba, saboda iyakancewar lokaci da ƙarfin wuta. Na'urorin USB kaɗan ne suka sanya shi kasuwa har zuwa USB 1.1 an sake shi a watan Agusta na shekara ta 1998. USB 1.1 shine farkon bita da aka karɓa kuma ya haifar da abin da Microsoft ya ayyana " PC mara izini".

Babu USB 1.0 ko 1.1 da suka ƙididdige ƙira don kowane mai haɗawa da ƙasa da daidaitaccen nau'in A ko nau'in B. Ko da yake yawancin ƙira don mai haɗa nau'in B mai ƙarami sun bayyana akan sassa da yawa, daidai da na USB. Ma'aunin 1.x ya sami cikas ta hanyar kula da abubuwan da ke da ƙananan haɗe-haɗe kamar suna da haɗin haɗi (wato: babu filogi ko ma'auni a ƙarshen gefe). Babu wani ɗan ƙaramin mai haɗa nau'in A har sai USB 2.0 (bita 1.01) ya gabatar da ɗaya.

Kebul na USB 2.0[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alamar Hi-Speed USB
Katin fadada PCI na USB 2.0

USB 2.0 an sake shi a cikin Afrilu 2000, yana ƙara ƙimar sigina mafi girma na 480 Mbit/s (mafi girman bayanan ka'idar 53 MByte/s ) mai suna High Speed ko High Bandwidth, ban da USB 1.x Cikakken saurin sigina na 12 Mbit/s (mafi girman kayan aikin bayanan ka'idar 1.2 MByte/s ).

An yi gyare-gyare ga ƙayyadaddun kebul na USB ta hanyar sanarwar canjin injiniya (ECNs). Mafi mahimmancin waɗannan ECNs an haɗa su cikin kebul na USB 2.0 fakitin ƙayyadaddun bayanai da ake samu daga USB.org:

  • Mini-A da Mini-B Connector
  • Kebul na Kebul na Micro-USB da Ƙayyadaddun Masu Haɗi 1.01
  • InterChip USB Supplement
  • On-The-Go Supplement 1.3 USB On-The-Go yana ba da damar na'urorin USB guda biyu don sadarwa tare da juna ba tare da buƙatar kebul na USB daban ba.
  • Ƙayyadaddun Cajin Baturi 1.1 Ƙara goyon baya don keɓaɓɓen caja, halayen caja na na'urori masu matattun batura
  • Ƙayyadaddun Cajin Baturi 1.2 : tare da ƙãra halin yanzu na 1.5 A kan cajin tashar jiragen ruwa don na'urorin da ba a tsara su ba, ba da damar sadarwar High Speed alhali da halin yanzu har zuwa 1.5 A
  • Link Power Management Addendum ECN, wanda ke ƙara yanayin wutar lantarki
  • USB 2.0 VBUS Max Limit, ya ƙãra madaidaicin izini V_BUS ƙarfin lantarki daga 5.25V zuwa 5.50V don daidaitawa tare da USB Type-C Spec, wanda aka saki lokaci guda.

Kebul na An fito da ƙayyadaddun 3.0 akan 12 Nuwamba na shekara ta 2008, tare da sarrafa sarrafa shi daga USB 3.0 Ƙungiya mai haɓaka zuwa Dandalin Masu Aiwatar da USB (USB-IF), kuma an sanar a ranar 17 ga watan Nuwamba shekara ta 2008 a SuperSpeed USB Developers Conference.

USB 3.0 yana ƙara yanayin canja wurin SuperSpeed, tare da haɗe-haɗe na baya masu dacewa da matosai, receptacles, da igiyoyi. Ana gano matosai na SuperSpeed da receptacles tare da tambari daban-daban da abubuwan saka shuɗi a cikin madaidaitan ma'auni.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]