User:Abbasagir

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Rassan Kimiyyar Harshe (Branches of Linguistics)

Za a iya karkasa kimiyyar harshe zuwa rassa kamar haka:

a) Bayanin Harshe/Siffata Harshe (descriptive Linguistics)

Wannan reshe ne na ilimin harshe wanda yake binciken harshuna, xaxxaaya domin bayanin yanayin qirarsu. Har ila yau, a wannan reshe ana duba yadda ake amfani da wani harshe a wani lokaci.

b) Ilimin Hasashen Harshe (General/ Theoretical Linguistics) Wannan reshe shi kuma a nasa vangaren an qoqarin gano wasu siffofi waxanda harsunan duniya suka yi tarayya a kansu. Misali, korewa siffa ce wadda ta wanzu a kafatanin harsunan duniya, kasancewar kowane harshe yana iya kore kalamai. Don haka, ilimin hasashen harshe yana mai da hankali ne a kan harsuna savanin ilimin bayanin harshe wanda ke tsattsefe wani kevavvan harshe.

c) Ilimin Tarihin Harshe (Historical Linguistics) A wannan reshe ana bibiyar yadda harsuna suka kasance a wasu lokuta. A nan ana bincika dalilai da kuma abin da hakan ya haifar domin danganta shi da ra’in kimiyyar harshen bai-xaya. Misali, a sakamakon irin wannan bincike ne aka sami damar karkasa harsunan duniya zuwa dangi-dangi.

d) Ilimin Kwatancin Harshe (Comperative Linguistics) Wannan reshe na duba ne izuwa ga wasu siffofi da harsuna guda biyu ko fiye suka yi tarayya. Don haka, ana yin kwatanci ne ta duba ga tarihi (diachronic) ko kuma kirarsu ta yanzu.

A qarshe za mu fahinci cewa, kowane reshen kimiyyar harshe na da abin da ya sa a gaba. Don haka, za mu fahinci cewa, akwai alaqa ta ququt tsakanin waxannan rassa, kasancewar kwatanci dole ne ya dogara bisa bayani wanda shi kuma a nasa vangaren ya kasance na bai-xaya (hasashen harshe). Hakazalika, bayanin harshe ka iya kasancewa a wasu lokuta.