Usman Dan Fodiyo

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Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Usman Dan Fodiyo
Sultan of Sokoto (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Gobir, 15 Disamba 1754
ƙasa Daular Sokoto
Mutuwa Sokoto, 1817
Yan'uwa
Yara
Karatu
Harsuna Turanci
Larabci
Hausa
Fillanci
Sana'a
Sana'a marubuci, Mai Falsafa da mawaƙi
Imani
Addini Musulunci

Usman dan Fodio (Larabci: عثمان بن فودي‎, haihuwa:15 ga watan Disamba 1754 - 20 April 1817)[1] Ana masa lakabi da Mujaddadi ko Shehu kaɗai, shine kuma Sarkin Musulmi na farko, An rada masa suna Usuman ɓin Foduye da larabci,ko Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, Shehu Uthman Dan Fuduye, Shehu Usman dan Fodio ko Shaikh Uthman Ibn Fodio, yayi rayuwa daga 15 ga watan Disamban shekara ta 1754 zuwa 20 ga watan Afrilun shekara 1817, Sokoto, Nijeriya. Malamin addinin musulunci ne, Marabuci, Mai daukaka addinin musulunci, koma wanda ya kafa Daular Sokoto, Dan Fodiyo yakasance daya daga cikin wayayyu mutanen Fulani na farko da suka natsu akan ilimi da ilimantar dashi a fadin Afirka musamman yankin yammacin Afirka. Dan fodiyo na bin Sunnah, mabiyin koyarwa akan tsarin Babban Malamin nan wato Imam Imam Malik, wadda ake kira da Malikiyya. Yayi duk rayuwarsa ne a kasar Nijeriya. Ana masa lakabi da Amir al-Muminin Usman dan Fodiyo, kuma Sultan of Sokoto na farko. a matsayinsa na Malamin addinin musulunci kuma Mai karantarwa akan Mazhabar Malikiyya, ya rayu a garin Gobir har zuwa 1802, daga nan ne ya yaki gurbatattun al'adu masu cin karo da addinin musulunci kuma yayi nasara a yankin, ya kafa daular musuluncin daya mamaye dukkanin arewacin Najeriya na waccan lokaci. Dan Fodiyo yayi rubuce rubuce akan addinin musulunci, mulki, al'adu, da cigaban al'umman Hausawa da Fulani.[2][3]Usman Ɗan Fodio: yayi yaki a tsakanin shekarar 1804 – 1812, ya fito ne daga ƙabilar Toronkawa na fulani.[4]

Farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifa Usman Dan Fodio ne a garin Maratta a (ƙasar gobir) a ranar lahadi 29 ga watan Safar 1168 H.J daidai da ranar 15 ga watan Disamban shekarar 1754, kuma su tsatson Fulanin Jakolo ne.[5] Ya kasance Faqihi ne kuma Ɗan ɗariƙa ne a farkon rayuwarsa, kuma yana bin mazahaban malikiyya ne a fannin ilimi na addini da Faqihu.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Usman Ɗan Fodio ya haddace ƙur’ani yana da ƙananan shekaru a rayuwarsa a ƙarƙashin kulawar mahaifinsa.[6]Yayi karatu a ƙarƙashin malamai irinsu: shaykh Jibril B. Umar, Shaykh Uthman Biddur ibn Al-ammin, shaykh Ahmad ibn Muhammad da kuma shaykh Al-hajj Muhammad Raj.[6]Ɗan Fodio ya fara karantarwa ne yana da kimanin shekara ashirin a rayuwarsa.[6] Ɗan Fodio yana bin ɗarikancin shaykh Abd-al-Qadir Al-jaylani, wanda shine wanda ya samar da ɗarikar Ƙadiriya.

Jihadi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shehu Usman Dan Fodio yayi jihadi ne ta hanyar kira zuwa ga musulunci, da kuma yakan sarakunan Habe, bayan Sarkin Gobir mai suna Yumfa yayi masa barazanar kawar da shi saboda da'awar da yake yi zuga ga musulunci, hakan ne ya tirsasa Shehu Usman Dan Fodio yin hijira zuwa wani guri, Shehu yayi yaƙi da yumfa sarkin gobir a shekarar (June 1804) wanda Abdullahi ne kwamandan yaƙin, an karya mulkin yunfa ne a ranar 3 ga watan october 1808, inda aka ƙwace garin Alƙalawa, wanda Alkalawa ce babban birnin Gobir. Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodio ya yaƙe Gobir a dalilin tabbatar da addiknin musulunci a shekarar 1804.(p249) Bayan shekara 8, yawamcin ƙasashen hausa fulani sun cisu da yaƙi. Masu sarauta ƴan Haɓe fulani sun karɓa mulki daga gurinsu. An yaƙa gobirawa ne a tafki kwatto, shi yasa ake kiran yaƙin da yaƙin kwato ko kwatto.[7][8][9]

Kano[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fulanin kano sun wakilta Ɗan Zabua na ƙabilar fulani na daneji da yaje sakkwato ya karɓo tuta, an bashi Tuta amman ba a wakilta sarki ba, sarkin Haɓe na kano mai suna Alwali an yaƙe shi a Ɗan Yahaiya, wani gari ne mil 25 arewa da garin kano, sai Alwali ya gudu Zaria, da0yaga bai samu matsugunni ba sai ya gudu Burum, a inda aka kai mai farmaki aka kashe shi, Mallam Jemo ne ya hallaka shi, bayan mutanenshi ƙabilar fulani suka je gurin shehu suka buƙace shi da ya naɗa sarki a kano, sai Shehu ya maɗa musu Suleiman Ɗan Modibawa  a shekarar 1809, bayan rasuwarsa ne aka naɗa Mallam Jemo, wanda sananne ne kuma mayaƙi , wanda yake da ɗa mai suna Ibrahim Dabo.[10]

A ƙarni na goma 10th wasu mafarauta sun zauna  a Dutsen Dala, Gwauron Dutse, magwan da fanisau.[11] Waɗannan mutanen suna yi tsafi ne da kuma bautawa aljana ko Gunki mai suna tsunburbura, Barbushe shine babban malamin wannan bauta. Duk farkon shekaran kalandan Hijira, Barbushe yana shiga cikin wannan gidan tsafin yazo ma mutane da sabon saƙo, inda jama’a suke taruwa kewaye da gidan suna jiran saƙo, idan aka gaya musu saƙon, sai suyi yanke-yanke na akuyoyi da karnika ga Tsunburbura. Wata rana sai Barbushe ya fito yace ma jama’a, za ayi wani lokaci da wani zai yaƙe mu, yaci garin mu da yaƙi ya gina masallatai ya kawo musulunci.[12]

Katsina[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Katsina kuma sai shehu ya naɗa Ummarun Dallaje shugaban Fulani a matsayin mariƙin tutar musulunci kuma sarki. Magaji Halidu shine sarkin Haɓe na ƙarshe, wanda Mallam Ummaru Dallaji ya amsa garin Katsina a gurinshi a shekarar 1807. Bayan rasuwar. Ummaru a shekarar 1835, wani ɗan tsatsan ƙabilar Haɓe mai suna Ɗan Mari ya haɗa kai da Rumawa, domin ƙwace garin Katsina, inda ya kafa tantinsa a Matazu, amman an yaƙe shi.[13]

Daura[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarkin Daura Gwari Abdu sarki ne na Haɓe a shekarar 1800 a masarautar Daura, a shekarar 1805 – 1807, sarkin Daura Gwari Abdu ya gudu ya bar Daura saboda samame da shehu Usman Ɗan Fodio ya kawo a Daura. Hakan yasa aka samu sabon sarki mai suna Mallam Ishi’aku, Abdu gwari ya gudu ne tare da tawagarsa, inda yaɓoye a cikin Ƙasar hausa, da niyyan zai dawo ya ƙwace ƙasar Daura daga hannun Fulani.[14] Daga baya sai ya zauna a yekuwa.[15]

Mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyali da dangi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shehu Usman Dan Fodio tsatson Musa Jakolo ne.[16]

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shehu Usman Ɗan fodio ya wallafa littatafai da yawa, musamman domin karantar da mutane haƙiƙanin addinin musulunci. Shehu Usman ya rubuta littatafai da yawa kuma ya umurta mutanensa da su rubuta littatafai, akan addini da kuma tarihin su. Daular Usman Ɗan Fodio tayi mulki ne na tsawon shekara Ɗari, daga shekarar 1804-1903, bayan turawan mulkin mallaka sun zo.[17] A garin alƙalawa ne da masarautar gobir take, inda Uaman yake zuwa domin ganin bawa[18] Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodio ya rubuta littatafai da yawa, kuma yana umurtan mutanensa da su rubuta littatafai.[18] A ƙarni na 20th musulman ƙasar hausa sun samu tsaiko da nakasu a kan ilmantar da mata, bayan Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodio a ƙarni na 19th ya nuna muhimmancin bama mata ilimi, a inada ya fara jihadi akan neman karatu.[19] Shehu Usman Dan Fodio yana cewa “ shaidancin Illar barin maata a cikin jahilci, ba tare da sun san ilimi akan kawunansu ba harma ya zamana cewa basu san addini kwatakwata ba, yafi girman munin shaiɗanci fiye da cakuɗasu tare da maza”[19] Shuehu Usman Ɗan Fodio yana da littatafai kimanin 73.[20]

s/n Suna
1 Al-madkhal[6]
2 Wathiqat ahl al-sudan
3 Al-farq[21]
4 Bayan wujub al-hijra

Diddigin bayanai na waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Bibiliyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmud.(2006). The Sokoto Caliphate: history and legacies, 1804-2004, 1st Ed. Kaduna, Nigeria:Arewa House. ISBN 978-135-166-7
  • Hamman, Mahmoud, 1950- (2007). The Middle Benue region and the Sokoto Jihad, 1812-1869 : the impact of the establishment of the Emirate of Muri. Kaduna: Arewa House, Ahmadu Bello University. ISBN 978-125-085-2. OCLC 238787986.
  • Asma'u, Nana, 1793-1865. (1999). The collected works of Nana Asma'u, daughter of Usman dan Fodiyo, (1793-1864). Boyd, Jean., Mack, Beverly B. (Beverly Blow), 1952- (Nigerian ed ed.). Ibadan, Nigeria: Sam Bookman Publishers. ISBN 978-2165-84-0. OCLC 316802318.
  • Staudinger, Paul. (1990). In the heart of the Hausa states. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN 0-89680-160-8. OCLC 21559544.
  • Writings of Usman dan Fodio, in The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Fourth Edition/ Volume II: Since 1500, ISBN 978-12858702-43 (page:233-236)
  • Asma'u, Nana. Collected Works of Nana Asma'u. Jean Boyd and Beverly B. Mack, eds. East Lansing, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1997.
  • Omipidan Teslim Usman Dan Fodio (1754-1817) OldNaija
  • Mervyn Hiskett. The Sword of Truth: The Life and Times of the Shehu Usuman Dan Fodio. Northwestern Univ Pr; 1973, Reprint edition (March 1994). ISBN 0-8101-1115-2
  • Ibraheem Sulaiman. The Islamic State and the Challenge of History: Ideals, Policies, and Operation of the Sokoto Caliphate. Mansell (1987). ISBN 0-7201-1857-3
  • Ibraheem Sulaiman. A Revolution in History: The Jihad of Usman dan Fodio.
  • Isam Ghanem. The Causes and Motives of the Jihad in Northern Nigeria. in Man, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Dec., 1975), pp. 623–624
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Tradition of Tajdeed in West Africa: An Overview International Seminar on Intellectual Tradition in the Sokoto Caliphate & Borno. Center for Islamic Studies, University of Sokoto (June 1987)
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Contents, Methods and Impact of Shehu Usman Dan Fodio's Teachings (1774-1804)
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Jihad of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio and its Impact Beyond the Sokoto Caliphate. A Paper read at a Symposium in Honour of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio at International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan, from 19 to 21 November 1995.
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. Shaykh Uthman Ibn Fodio and the Revival of Islam in Hausaland, (1996).
  • Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Nigeria: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.
  • B. G. Martin. Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth-Century Africa. 1978.
  • Jean Boyd. The Caliph's Sister, Nana Asma'u, 1793–1865: Teacher, Poet and Islamic Leader.
  • Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014. pg 469-472
  • Nikki R. Keddie. The Revolt of Islam, 1700 to 1993: Comparative Considerations & Relations to Imperialism. in Comparative Studies in Society & History, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 463–487
  • R. A. Adeleye. Power and Diplomacy in Northern Nigeria 1804–1906. 1972.
  • Hugh A.S. Johnston . Fulani Empire of Sokoto. Oxford: 1967. ISBN 0-19-215428-1.
  • S. J. Hogben and A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, The Emirates of Northern Nigeria, Oxford: 1966.
  • J. S. Trimgham, Islam in West Africa, Oxford, 1959.
  • 'Umar al-Nagar. The Asanid of Shehu Dan Fodio: How Far are they a Contribution to his Biography?, Sudanic Africa, Volume 13, 2002 (pp. 101–110).
  • Paul E. Lovejoy. Transformations in Slavery - A History of Slavery in Africa. No 36 in the African Studies series, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-78430-1
  • Paul E. Lovejoy. Fugitive Slaves: Resistance to Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate, In Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean, & Afro-American History. University of Massachusetts. (1986).
  • Paul E. Lovejoy, Mariza C. Soares (Eds). Muslim Encounters With Slavery in Brazil. Markus Wiener Pub ( 2007) ISBN 1-55876-378-3
  • F. H. El-Masri, "The life of Uthman b. Foduye before the Jihad", Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria (1963), pp. 435–48.
  • M. A. Al-Hajj, "The Writings of Shehu Uthman Dan Fodio", Kano Studies, Nigeria (1), 2(1974/77).
  • David Robinson. "Revolutions in the Western Sudan," in Levtzion, Nehemia and Randall L. Pouwels (eds). The History of Islam in Africa. Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 2000.
  • Bunza[22]
  • Lapidus, Ira M.(2014) A History of Islamic Societies. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Reserch and Documentation Directors Government House, Kano.Kano Millennium:100 years in History. ISBN: 978-881-0958-6
  • Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7010-3. OCLC 624196914.
  • ·Warfare in the Sokoto Caliphate : historical and sociological perspectivesISBN0-521-21069-0OCLC2371710
  • ·The Sokoto Caliphate : history and legacies, 1804-2004. Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmood. (1st ed ed.). Kaduna, Nigeria: Arewa House. 2006. ISBN 978-135-166-7. OCLC 156890366.

Diddigin bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hunwick, John O. 1995. "Arabic Literature in Africa: the Writings of Central Sudanic Africa
  2. I. Suleiman, The African Caliphate: The Life, Works and Teachings of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio (1757-1817) (2009).
  3. https://religiondocbox.com/Islam/68196378-University-of-maiduguri-centre-for-distance-learning.html
  4. Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.46
  5. Reserch and Documentation Directors Government House, Kano.Kano Millennium:100 years in History. p38
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Reserch and Documentation Directors Government House, Kano.Kano Millennium:100 years in History. p39
  7. Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa.p.349
  8. Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.249
  9. Reserch and Documentation Directors Government House, Kano.Kano Millennium:100 years in History. p.p, 44-45.
  10. Being a tradition letters found in the house of waziri of sokoto, Bohari, in 1703, Edited by H.F Backwell.p.4
  11. Reserch and Documentation Directors Government House, Kano.Kano Millennium:100 years in History.p.73. ISBN: 978-881-0958-6
  12. Reserch and Documentation Directors Government House, Kano.Kano Millennium:100 years in History.p.74. ISBN: 978-881-0958-6
  13. Being a tradition letters found in the house of waziri of sokoto, Bohari, in 1703, Edited by H.F Backwell.p.4
  14. Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.70
  15. Miles, William F. S. (1994). Hausaland divided : colonialism and independence in Nigeria and Niger.p.72
  16. Reserch and Documentation Directors Government House, Kano.Kano Millennium:100 years in History.p. 38. ISBN: 978-881-0958-6
  17. Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa.p.349
  18. 18.0 18.1 Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa.p.372
  19. 19.0 19.1 Furniss, Graham. (1996). Poetry, prose and popular culture in Hausa.p.373
  20. Bobboyi, H.,Yakubu Mahmood. 1st Ed, p.385-387
  21. Bobboyi, H.,Yakubu Mahmood. 1st Ed, p.351
  22. https://web.archive.org/web/20100714082345/http://www.arewahouseabung.org/Bunza.pdf