Usman Dan Fodiyo

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Shehu Usumanu

Usman Dan Fodiyo
عثمان بن فودي
Usman Ibn Fodio Calligraphy 02.png
Title Sarkin Musulmi, Amir al-Mu'minin, Shehu
Personal
Haihuwa 15 December 1754
Mutuwa 20 April 1817
Addini Islam
Yara
Iyaye
  • Mallam Muhammadu Fodio (father)
  • Maimuna (mother)
Dynasty Masarautar Sokoto
Reshan addini Sunna
Mazhabi Malikiyya
Akida Athari[1]
Darika Ƙadiriya[2][3]
Samar da Kasar Musulunci
Muslim leader
Gada daga Muhammadu Bello
Magaji Kudancin (Sokoto):
Muhammed Bello, Yaro.
Gabashi (Gwandu):
Abdullahi dan Fodio, Dan uwa.

Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo (An haife shi ne a ranar 15, ga watan Disamba a Shekara ta alif 1754 a garin Gobir - Ya rasu a ranar: 20,ga watan Afrilu shekara ta alif 1817 a cikin garin na Sokoto)an rada sunan Usman bin Fodiyo , (da Larabci: عثمان بن فودي‎, Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodiyo, iyayen Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo sune, Malam Muhammad Bello, tare da mahaifiyar sa me suna Maimunatu),Usman Dan fodiyo yana da yara guda biyu mace da na namiji ne.

Wanda ya hada da Muhammadu Bello da kuma yarinya me suna Nana, Asma'u.[4] [5] Ana masa lakabi da Mujaddadi ko Shehu kaɗai, shine kuma jagoran jihadi na jaddada addinin musulunci a kasar Hausa, An rada masa suna Usman bin Fodiyo da larabci ko Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodiyo, Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo. Malamin addinin musulunci ne, Marabuci, Mai daukaka addinin musulunci, kuma wanda ya kafa Daular Musulunci a Sokoto.Ya kasance malamin Fulani, malamin addini, mai son kawo sauyi,shugaban sojoji, marubuci, kuma mai tallata Sunnar Islamah , kuma shine ya kafa kungiyar Khalifancin Sakkwato.[6]

Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo ya kasance daya daga cikin wayayyun mutane a cikin Fulani na farko da suka natsu akan ilimi da ilimantar dashi a fadin Afirika musamman yankin yammacin Afirika.Shehu Usman Dan fodiyo na bin Sunnah, mabiyin koyarwa akan tsarin Babban Malamin nan wato Imam Imam Malik, wadda ake kira da Malikiyya. Yayi duk rayuwarsa ne a kasar Nijeriya. Ana masa lakabi da Amir al-Mumin Usman Dan Fodiyo, kuma Sultan of Sokoto na farko.

A matsayinsa na Malamin addinin musulunci kuma Mai karantarwa akan Mazhabar Malikiyya, ya rayu a garin Gobir har zuwa alif dubu daya da dari takwas da biyu 1802, daga nan ne ya fara yaki da gurbatattun al'adu masu cin karo da addinin musulunci kuma yayi nasara a yakin, ya kafa daular musuluncin da ta mamaye arewacin Nijeriya na wancan lokacin. Dan Fodiyo yayi rubuce-rubuce akan addinin musulunci, mulki, al'adu, da cigaban al'umman Hausawa da kuma Fulani.[7][8]Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodiyo: yayi yaki a tsakanin shekarar alif 1804 har zuwa alif dubu daya da dari takwas da sha biyu 1812, ya fito ne daga ƙabilar Toronkawa na fulani.[9]

Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo ya kasance daga zuriyar ɗaya daga cikin dangin (Toronkawa) na ƙabilar Fulanin dake zaune a cikin Masarautun Hausa tun daga farkon shekara ta alif dubu daya da dari hudu 1400.[10] a yankin da ke arewacin Najeriya a yanzu, ya kasance yana bin karantarwar Malikiyya makaranta ta fikhu (Islamic fikihu) da kuma nuni wajen bin Athari Musulunci hakanan kuma yana bin darikar Kadiriyya a darikun sufaye.

Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo ya rubuta litattafai sama da dari wadanda suka shafi addini, mulki, al'adu, da kuma zamantakewar al'umma. Bayen haka Usman Dan Fodiyo ya ci gaba da sukar manyan musulman Afirika da ke akwai saboda abin da ya gani a matsayin son zuciyarsu, da maguzanci, da keta dokokin Shari'a, da amfani da haraji mai yawa.[ana buƙatar hujja]. Ya ƙarfafa karatu, ga mata har da maza, kuma 'ya'yansa mata da yawa sun zama malamai marubuta. An ci gaba da kawo rubuce-rubucensa Usman Dan Fodiyo ne da kuma maganganunsa a yau, kuma galibi ana kiransa da suna Shehu a kasar Hausa Fulani baki daya. Wasu mabiyan suna daukar Usman Dan Fodiyo a matsayin mujaddadi, mai wahayi daga Allah "mai gyara addinin Islama".[11]

Tashin ci gaban Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo yayi wani yunkuri ne da aka bayyana a matsayin masu jahadi na Fulani a ƙarni na goma sha bakwai,da sha takwas, har zuwa na sha tara. Ya biyo bayan jahadi cikin nasara da aka yi a Futa Bundu, Futa Tooro, da kuma Futa Djallon a tsakanin shekarar alif 1650 zuwa alif 1750, wanda ya haifar da ƙirƙirar waɗannan ƙasashe guda uku na Islama. A nasa bangaren, Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo ya yi wa wasu da dama daga cikin jahadin Afirika ta yamma wanda daga baya, ciki har da na Shehu Ahmadu, wanda ya kafa daular Massina, da Umar Sa'idu Tall, wanda ya kafa daular Toucouleur, wanda ya auri daya daga cikin jikokin dan Fodiyo, da kuma Modibo Adama, wanda ya kafa ta. a masarautar Adamawa.

Farkon rayuwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

An haifa Usman Dan Fodiyo ne a cikin garin Maratta a (garin gobir) a ranar lahadi 29 ga watan Safar a shekarar alif 1168 H.J wanda yayi dai-dai da ranar 15 ga watan Disamban shekarar alif 1754, kuma ya fitone daga cikin tsatson Fulanin Jakolo ne.[12] Ya kasance Fikihu ne kuma Ɗan ɗariƙa ne a farkon rayuwarsa,Bayen haka kuma yana bin mazahaban malikiyya ne a fannin ilmi na addini da Fikihu.

Ilimi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Usman Ɗan Fodio ya haddace Qur'ani yana da ƙananan shekaru a rayuwarsa a ƙarƙashin kulawar mahaifinsa.[13]Yayi karatu a ƙarƙashin malamai irinsu: shaykh Jibril B. Umar, Shaykh Uthman Biddur ibn Al-ammin, shaykh Ahmad ibn Muhammad da kuma shaykh Al-hajj Muhammad Raj.[13]Ɗan Fodio ya fara karantarwa ne yana da kimanin shekara ashirin a rayuwarsa.[13] Ɗan Fodio yana bin ɗarikancin shaykh Abd-al-Qadir Al-jaylani, wanda shine ya samar da ɗarikar Ƙadiriya.

Jihadin Fulani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo yayi jihadi ne ta hanyar kira zuwa ga musulunci, da kuma yakan sarakunan Habe, bayan Sarkin Gobir mai suna Yumfa yayi masa barazanar kawar da shi saboda da'awar da yake yi zuga ga musulunci,hakan ne ya tirsasa Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo yin hijira zuwa wani guri, Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo yayi yaƙi da yumfa sarkin gobir na wancan lokacin a shekarar alif 1804 a watan(Yuli miladiya ) wanda Abdullahi ne ya kasan ce kwamandan yaƙin, an karya mulkin yunfa ne a ranar 3 ga watan autobarar alif 1808, inda aka ci garin da yake aka kuma ƙwace garin Alƙalawa, wanda a lokacin garin Alkalawa shine babban birnin Gobir. Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodiyo ya yaƙi garin na Gobir a dalilin tabbatar da addiknin musulunci a shekarar alif 1804.(p249) Bayan shekara 8, yawancin ƙasashen Hausa Fulani sun cisu da yaƙi. Masu sarauta ƴan Haɓe fulani sun karɓa mulki daga gurinsu. An yaƙi gobirawa ne a tafki kwatto, shi yasa ake kiran yaƙin da yaƙin kwato ko kwatto.[14][15][16]

Kano[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Fulanin kano sun wakilta Ɗan Zabuwa na ƙabilar fulani na daneji. da yaje sakkwato ya karɓo tuta, an bashi Tuta amman ba a wakilta sarki ba, a wannan lokacin sarkin Haɓe na kano mai suna Alwali an yaƙe shi a Ɗan Yahaiya, wani gari ne mil 25 arewa dake garin kano, sai Alwali ya gudu Zaria, da yaga bai samu matsugunni ba sai ya gudu Burum, a inda aka kai mai farmaki aka kashe shi, Mallam Jemo ne ya hallaka shi, bayan mutananshi ƙabilar fulani suka je gurin Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo suka buƙace shi da ya naɗa sarki a kano, sai Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo

ya naɗa musu Suleiman Ɗan Modibawa a matsayin sarki a shekarar alif 1809, bayan rasuwarsa ne aka naɗa Mallam Jemo, wanda sananne ne kuma mayaƙi, wanda yake da ɗa mai suna Ibrahim Dabo.[17]

A ƙarni na goma 10th wasu mafarauta sun zauna  a Dutsen Dala, Gwauron Dutse, magwan da fanisau.[18] Waɗannan mutanen suna yin tsafi ne da kuma bautawa aljana ko Gunki mai suna tsunburbura, Barbushe shine babban malamin wannan bauta. Duk farkon shekaran kalandan Hijira, Barbushe yana shiga cikin wannan gidan tsafin yazo ma mutane da sabon saƙo, inda jama’a suke taruwa kewaye da gidan suna jiran saƙo, idan aka gaya musu saƙon, sai suyi yanke-yanke na akuyoyi da karnika ga Tsunburbura. Wata rana sai Barbushe ya fito yace ma jama’a, za ayi wani lokaci da wani zai yaƙe mu, yaci garin mu da yaƙi ya gina masallatai ya kawo musulunci.[19]

Katsina[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A Katsina kuma sai shehu ya naɗa Ummarun Dallaje shugaban Fulani a matsayin mariƙin tutar musulunci kuma sarki. Magaji Halidu shine sarkin Haɓe na ƙarshe, wanda Mallam Ummaru Dallaji ya amsa garin Katsina a gurinshi a shekarar alif 1807. Bayan rasuwar. Ummaru a shekarar alif 1835, wani ɗan tsatsan ƙabilar Haɓe mai suna Ɗan Mari ya haɗa kai da Rumawa, domin ƙwace garin Katsina, inda ya kafa tantinsa a Matazu, amman an yaƙe shi.[20]

Daura[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarkin Daura Gwari Abdu sarki ne na Haɓe a shekarar alif 1800 a masarautar Daura, a shekarar alif 1805 har zuwa Shekarar alif 1807, sarkin Daura Gwari Abdu ya gudu ya bar Daura saboda samame da shehu Usman Ɗan Fodiyo ya kawo a Daura. Hakan yasa aka samu sabon sarki mai suna Mallam Ishi'aku, Abdu gwari ya gudu ne tare da tawagarsa, inda yaɓoye a cikin Ƙasar Hausa, da niyyar zai dawo ya ƙwace ƙasar Daura daga hannun Fulani.[21] Daga baya sai ya zauna a yekuwa.[22]

Mulki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Iyali da dangi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shehu Usman Dan Fodio tsatson Musa Jakolo ne.[23]

An bayyana Usman dan Fodio kamar yadda ya wuce ƙafa 6, yana da sihiri kuma yayi kama da mahaifiyarsa Sayda Hauwa. Hisan uwansa Abdullahi dan Fodio (1761-1829) shima ya wuce ƙafa 6 a tsayi kuma an bayyana shi da kamannin mahaifinsu Muhammad Fodio, tare da launin fata mai duhu da kuma kyakkyawar ma'amala a rayuwarsa. A cikin Rawd al-Janaan (Makiyayan Aljanna), Waziri Gidado dan Laima (1777-1851) ya lissafa matan Dan Fodio kamar haka:

Dan uwan mahaifinsa na farko Maymuna wanda suka haifa masa yara 11, ciki har da Aliyu (1770s-1790s) da tagwayen Hasan (1793- Nuwamba 1817) da Nana Asma'u (1793-1864). Maymuna ta mutu wani lokaci bayan haihuwar ƙarama yaranta.

Aisha dan Muhammad Sa'd. An kuma san ta da suna "Gaabdo" (Farin Ciki a Fulfulde) da kuma "Iyya Garka" (Hausa ga Uwar gidan / Compound). Iyya Garka ta shahara ne saboda ilimin addinin Musulunci da kasancewarta mahaifin dangi. Ta wuce mijinta shekaru da yawa. Daga cikin wasu, ita ce mahaifiyar:

  • Muhammad Sa'ad (1777-kafin 1804). Babban dan Shehu dan Fodio da ya rage, an san shi da neman ilimi da mutuwarsa da wuri.
  • Khadija (c.1778-1856). Mai kula da yar'uwarta Asma'u da Aisha al-Kammu, matar dan uwanta Muhammad Bello . Ta auri malami Mustafa (c.1770-1855), babban sakataren Shaykh Usman dan Fodio. Da shi, ita ce mahaifiyar Sheikh Abdul Qadir dan Tafa (1803-1864), Sufi, malamin addinin Musulunci kuma masanin tarihi.
  • Muhammad Sambo (c.1780-1826). Babban malamin Darikar Sufanci na Qadiriyya, Sambo shi ne na farko da ya yi mubaya'a ga kanensa Bello lokacin da na biyun ya zama Khalifa a 1817.
  • Muhammad Buhari (1785-1840). Buhari ya kasance masani kuma Laftana ga Sarakunan Sakkwato. Ya kasance Sarkin hamayyar Tambuwal, kuma ya shahara da kamfen a Nupe tare da Sarakunan Gwandu. Muhammad Buhari shine kakan Sarkin Musulmi Ibrahim Dasuki.

Hauwa, wacce aka fi sani da "Inna Garka" (Uwar Gida a Hausance) da Bikaraga. An bayyana ta a matsayin mai saukin kai ga zuhudu. Daga cikin ‘ya’yanta akwai:

  • Muhammad Bello (1781-1837), Sarkin Musulmi na biyu. Mawallafin littafin tarihin Jihadin Fulani (Infaq al-Maysur) kuma shahararren malami.
  • Abu Bakr Atiku (1783-1842), Sarkin Musulmi na uku. An san Atiku saboda ya gaji yawancin sirrin mahaifinsa. Ya yi mulki tsakanin 1837 da 1842 kuma ya mutu biyo bayan gazawar Tsibiri.
  • Fatima (1787-1838), wacce aka fi sani da "Mo 'Inna" (ɗan Inna, don rarrabe ta da wata Fatima). Ta auri Sarkin Yaki Aliyu Jedo, janar janar na sojojin Sokoto

Hajjo, wanda mahaifinsa ne ya yi wa Abdulqadir (1807-1836) wanda aka fi sani da daya daga cikin fitattun mawaqan Sakkwato. AbdulQadir ya mutu ne sakamakon raunin da ya samu a lokacin yakin neman zaben Sultan Bello, a Zamfara. An binne shi a Baraya Zaki.

Shatura, wanda ya kasance shi ne mahaifin Ahmadu Rufa'i (1812-1873). Rufa'i shi ne Sarkin Silame sannan daga baya ya zama Sarkin Musulmi (1867-1873).

Ta wurin ƙwaraƙwaran sa Mariyatu, Sheykh Dan Fodio ya haifi:

  • Amina
  • Ibrahim Dasuki
  • Hajara
  • Uwar Deji Mariyam (c.1808- fl. 1880s). Mariyam dan Shehu malami ce kamar 'yar uwarta Khadija, Fatima da Asma'u. Bayan rasuwar wannan, ta jagoranci kungiyar 'Yan Taru wacce ta bunkasa ilimin mata. An fara aurenta da Muhammad Adde dan Waziri Gidado, wanda ta haifa masa 'ya'ya mata biyu. Bayan rasuwar marigayiyar, ta auri Sarkin Kano Ibrahim Dabo (r. 1819-1846). Ba ta da yara a cikin ƙungiyarta ta biyu. Mariyam tayi tasiri sosai bayan dawowarta Sokoto a cikin shekarun 1840s. Ta kasance mai ba da shawara mai tasiri ga yayanta wadanda suka zama Sarakuna, kuma galibi tana aiki a matsayin mai tuntuɓar mu'amala da Kano. A shekarun 1880 lokacin mulkin Sarkin Musulmi Umar dan Ali dan Bello (r. 1881-1892), ta rubuta wasika zuwa ga dan uwanta Sarkin Kano Muhammad Bello (r. 1883-1893) na Kano, tana mai yin tir da abin da dan uwanta Hayatu ya yi. dan Sai'd dan Sultan Bello (1840-1898), wanda ke tallata yawan kaura zuwa Adamawa, a matsayin "amil" na Sudan din Muhammad Muhammad Ahmad.
  • Malam Isa (1817-c.17070), wanda ya kasance ɗan ƙarami kuma ɗan Shaykh Dan Fodio. Tare da Asma'u, ya fassara cikin harsunan Hausa da Larabci, yawancin ayyukan mahaifinsa waɗanda aka rubuta da Fulfulde. Shi ma Malam Isa ya kasance dan’uwansa Sultan Bello ya sanya masa suna Yamma. Ya mutu wani lokaci a lokacin mulkin Sultan Rufa'i (1867-1873).

Ayyuka[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Shehu Usman Ɗan fodio ya wallafa littatafai da yawa, musamman domin karantar da mutane haƙiƙanin addinin musulunci. Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo ya rubuta littatafai da yawa kuma ya umurta mutanensa da su rubuta littatafai, akan addini da kuma tarihin su. Daular Usman Ɗan Fodiyo tayi mulki ne na tsawon shekara Ɗari(100), daga shekarar alif 1804 zuwa shekarar alif 1903, bayan Zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka.[24] A garin alƙalawa ne da masarautar gobir take, inda Uaman yake zuwa domin ganin bawa[25] Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodio ya rubuta littatafai da yawa, kuma yana umurtan mutanensa da su rubuta littatafai.[25] A ƙarni na 20th musulman ƙasar hausa sun samu tsaiko da nakasu a kan ilmantar da mata, bayan Shehu Usman Ɗan Fodiyo a ƙarni na 19th ya nuna muhimmancin bama mata ilimi, a inada ya fara jahadi akan neman karatu.[26] Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo yana cewa “ shaidancin Illar barin mata a cikin jahilci, ba tare da sun san ilimi akan kawunansu ba harma ya zamana cewa basu san addini kwatakwata ba, yafi girman munin shaiɗanci fiye da cakuɗasu tare da maza”[26] Shuehu Usman Ɗan Fodiyo yana da littatafai kimanin 73.[27]

s/n Suna
1 Al-madkhal[13]
2 Wathiqat ahl al-sudan
3 Al-farq[28]
4 Bayan wujub al-hijra
Magabata
Babu kowa
Sarkin Musulmi na Farko
1804–1815
Magaji
Muhammed Bello

Karin Karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Writings of Usman dan Fodio, in The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Fourth Edition/ Volume II: Since 1500, 08033994793.ABA (page:233-236)
  • Asma'u, Nana. Collected Works of Nana Asma'u. Jean Boyd and Beverly B. Mack, eds. East Lansing, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1997.
  • Omipidan Teslim Usman Dan Fodio (1754–1817) OldNaija
  • Mervyn Hiskett. The Sword of Truth: The Life and Times of the Shehu Usuman Dan Fodio. Northwestern Univ Pr; 1973, Reprint edition (March 1994). 08033994793.ABA
  • Ibraheem Sulaiman. The Islamic State and the Challenge of History: Ideals, Policies, and Operation of the Sokoto Caliphate. Mansell (1987). 08033994793.ABA
  • Ibraheem Sulaiman. A Revolution in History: The Jihad of Usman dan Fodio.
  • Isam Ghanem. The Causes and Motives of the Jihad in Northern Nigeria. in Man, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Dec., 1975), pp. 623–624
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Tradition of Tajdeed in West Africa: An Overview[29] International Seminar on Intellectual Tradition in the Sokoto Caliphate & Borno. Center for Islamic Studies, University of Sokoto (June 1987)
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Contents, Methods and Impact of Shehu Usman Dan Fodio's Teachings (1774–1804)[30]
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Jihad of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio and its Impact Beyond the Sokoto Caliphate.[31] A Paper read at a Symposium in Honour of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio at International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan, from 19 to 21 November 1995.
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. Shaykh Uthman Ibn Fodio and the Revival of Islam in Hausaland,[32] (1996).
  • Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Nigeria: A Country Study.[33] Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.
  • B. G. Martin. Muslim Brotherhoods in Nineteenth-Century Africa. 1978.
  • Jean Boyd. The Caliph's Sister, Nana Asma'u, 1793–1865: Teacher, Poet and Islamic Leader.
  • Lapidus, Ira M. A History of Islamic Societies. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2014. pg 469–472
  • Nikki R. Keddie. The Revolt of Islam, 1700 to 1993: Comparative Considerations & Relations to Imperialism. in Comparative Studies in Society & History, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Jul., 1994), pp. 463–487
  • R. A. Adeleye. Power and Diplomacy in Northern Nigeria 1804–1906. 1972.
  • Hugh A.S. Johnston . Fulani Empire of Sokoto. Oxford: 1967. 08033994793.ABA.
  • S. J. Hogben and A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, The Emirates of Northern Nigeria, Oxford: 1966.
  • J. S. Trimgham, Islam in West Africa, Oxford, 1959.
  • 'Umar al-Nagar. The Asanid of Shehu Dan Fodio: How Far are they a Contribution to his Biography?, Sudanic Africa, Volume 13, 2002 (pp. 101–110).
  • Paul E. Lovejoy. Transformations in Slavery – A History of Slavery in Africa. No 36 in the African Studies series, Cambridge University Press, 08033994793.ABA
  • Paul E. Lovejoy. Fugitive Slaves: Resistance to Slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate, In Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean, & Afro-American History. University of Massachusetts. (1986).
  • Paul E. Lovejoy, Mariza C. Soares (Eds). Muslim Encounters With Slavery in Brazil. Markus Wiener Pub ( 2007) 08033994793.ABA
  • F. H. El-Masri, "The life of Uthman b. Foduye before the Jihad", Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria (1963), pp. 435–48.
  • M. A. Al-Hajj, "The Writings of Shehu Uthman Dan Fodio", Kano Studies, Nigeria (1), 2(1974/77).
  • David Robinson. "Revolutions in the Western Sudan," in Levtzion, Nehemia and Randall L. Pouwels (eds). The History of Islam in Africa. Oxford: James Currey Ltd, 2000.
  • Bunza[34]

Bibiliyo[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bobboyi, H., Yakubu, Mahmud.(2006). The Sokoto Caliphate: history and legacies, 1804-2004, 1st Ed. Kaduna, Nigeria:Arewa House. ISBN 978-135-166-7
  • Hamman, Mahmoud, 1950- (2007). The Middle Benue region and the Sokoto Jihad, 1812-1869 : the impact of the establishment of the Emirate of Muri. Kaduna: Arewa House, Ahmadu Bello University. ISBN 978-125-085-2. OCLC 238787986.
  • Asma'u, Nana, 1793-1865. (1999). The collected works of Nana Asma'u, daughter of Usman dan Fodiyo, (1793-1864). Boyd, Jean., Mack, Beverly B. (Beverly Blow), 1952- (Nigerian ed ed.). Ibadan, Nigeria: Sam Bookman Publishers. ISBN 978-2165-84-0. OCLC 316802318.
  • Staudinger, Paul. (1990). In the heart of the Hausa states. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. ISBN 0-89680-160-8. OCLC 21559544.
  • Writings of Usman dan Fodio, in The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Fourth Edition/ Volume II: Since 1500, ISBN 978-12858702-43 (page:233-236)
  • Asma'u, Nana. Collected Works of Nana Asma'u. Jean Boyd and Beverly B. Mack, eds. East Lansing, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1997.
  • Omipidan Teslim Usman Dan Fodio (1754-1817) OldNaija
  • Mervyn Hiskett. The Sword of Truth: The Life and Times of the Shehu Usuman Dan Fodio. Northwestern Univ Pr; 1973, Reprint edition (March 1994). ISBN 0-8101-1115-2
  • Ibraheem Sulaiman. The Islamic State and the Challenge of History: Ideals, Policies, and Operation of the Sokoto Caliphate. Mansell (1987). ISBN 0-7201-1857-3
  • Ibraheem Sulaiman. A Revolution in History: The Jihad of Usman dan Fodio.
  • Isam Ghanem. The Causes and Motives of the Jihad in Northern Nigeria. in Man, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 4 (Dec., 1975), pp. 623–624
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Tradition of Tajdeed in West Africa: An Overview International Seminar on Intellectual Tradition in the Sokoto Caliphate & Borno. Center for Islamic Studies, University of Sokoto (June 1987)
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Contents, Methods and Impact of Shehu Usman Dan Fodio's Teachings (1774-1804)
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. The Jihad of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio and its Impact Beyond the Sokoto Caliphate. A Paper read at a Symposium in Honour of Shaykh Usman Dan Fodio at International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan, from 19 to 21 November 1995.
  • Usman Muhammad Bugaje. Shaykh Uthman Ibn Fodio and the Revival of Islam in Hausaland, (1996).
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Diddigin bayanai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Hadin waje[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-12-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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Sarakunan Sokoto
Usman Dan Fodiyo | Muhammadu Bello | Abubakar Atiku | Ali Babba bin Bello | Ahmadu Atiku | Aliyu Karami | Ahmadu Rufai | Abubakar II Atiku na Raba | Mu'azu | Umaru bin Ali | Abderrahman dan Abi Bakar | Muhammadu Attahiru I | Muhammadu Attahiru II | Muhammadu dan Muhammadu | Hassan dan Mu'azu Ahmadu | Siddiq Abubakar III | Ibrahim Dasuki | Muhammadu Maccido | Sa'adu Abubakar