Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Dokar Teku

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Infotaula d'esdevenimentYarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Dokar Teku
SeeRÜbk da UNCLOS
Sunnmøre Atlantic.jpg
Iri yarjejeniya
Kwanan watan kalanda 10 Disamba 1982
Muhimmin darasi admiralty law (en) Fassara da international law (en) Fassara
Ranar wallafa 10 Disamba 1982
Wuri Montego Bay (en) Fassara
Applies to jurisdiction (en) Fassara Guernsey
Depositary (en) Fassara United Nations Secretary-General (en) Fassara

Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Dokar Teku ( UNCLOS ), wanda kuma ake kira Dokar Yarjejeniyar Teku ko Dokar Kula da Teku, yarjejeniya ce ta ƙasa da ƙasa wacce ta kafa tsarin doka don duk ayyukan ruwa da na teku. A watan Yunin 2016 , aƙalla ƙasashe 167 da kuma gamayyar ƙasashen Tarayyar Turai suka ƙulla wannan yarjejeniya.

Yarjejeniyar ta samo asali ne daga taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na uku kan dokar teku ( UNCLOS III), wanda ya gudana tsakanin 1973 da 1982. UNCLOS ya maye gurbin yarjejeniyoyin 1958 akan manyan Tekuna . UNCLOS ta fara aiki a shekara ta 1994, shekara guda bayan Guyana ta zama kasa ta 60 da ta amince da yarjejeniyar. Ba shi da tabbas game da har zuwa mene ne Yarjejeniyar ta tsara dokar al'ada ta duniya .

Yayin da Sakatare-Janar na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ke karbar na'urorin tabbatarwa da shigarwa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta ba da goyon baya ga tarukan ƙasashen da ke cikin Yarjejeniyar, Sakateriya na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ba ta da wani iko na kai tsaye wajen aiwatar da yarjejeniyar. Ƙungiyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta musamman, Ƙungiyar Ƙasa da ƙasa ta Halittun ruwa na Duniya, duk sun taka rawa, tare da, sauran hukumomi irin su Hukumar Kula da Ruwa ta Duniya (ISA), wanda aka kafa ta a yayin taron na Yarjejeniyar da kansa.

Salsala[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

UNCLOS ya maye gurbin tsohon abinda aka kira da suna 'yancin teku', wanda yake akwai tun daga karni na 17. Wanda a bisa ga shi wannan tsohon wannan ra'ayin, haƙƙoƙin ƙasa sun iyakance ne ga ƙayyadadden gaɓar ruwa wanda ya fito daga bakin teku na ƙasar da ya wanzu, yawanci bisa tazara ta kilomita 5.6 (iyakar mil uku ), bisa ga ka'idar ' harbin bindiga' wanda masanin shari'a dan kasar Holland Cornelius van Bynkershoek ya kirkira.[1] Duk ruwan da ya wuce iyakokin ƙasa an ɗauke shi ruwan ƙasa da ƙasa : kyauta ga dukkan al'ummomi, amma ba na ɗayansu ba (ka'idar mare liberum da Hugo Grotius ya gabatar).[2]

A farkon ƙarni na 20, wasu al'ummomi sun nuna sha'awarsu ta tsawaita da'awar ƙasa: haɗa da albarkatun ma'adinai, don kare tsibin kifaye, da kuma samar da hanyoyin tilasta hana gurbatar yanayi . (Ƙungiyar Ƙungiyoyin Ƙasashen Duniya ta kira taron 1930 a Hague, amma ba a cimma yarjejeniya ba. Ta hanyar amfani da ka'idar dokokin kasa da kasa ta al'ada ta 'yancin al'umma na kare albarkatun kasa, Shugaba Harry S. Truman a shekara ta 1945 ya mika ikon Amurka ga duk albarkatun kasa na nahiyar ta . Sauran al'ummai sun yi gaggawar yin koyi. Tsakanin 1946 zuwa 1950, Chile, Peru, da Ecuador sun tsawaita haƙƙinsu zuwa 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) don rufe wuraren kamun kifi na Humboldt na yanzu . Sauran al'ummomi sun tsawaita iyakar teku zuwa 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) .

A shekara ta 1967, kasashe 25 ne kawai suka yi amfani da tsohuwar iyakar mil uku, yayin da kasashe 66 suka kafa 12 nautical miles (22 km) iyakar yanki da takwas sun kafa 200 nautical miles (370 km) iyaka. As of 28 Mayu 2008 , Kasashe biyu ne kawai ke amfani da 3 miles (4.8 km) iyaka: Jordan da Palau. Hakanan ana amfani da wannan iyaka a wasu tsibiran Ostiraliya, wani yanki na Belize, wasu magudanan Jafananci, wasu yankuna na Papua New Guinea, da wasu ƴan yankunan ƙasashen waje na Biritaniya, kamar Gibraltar .

UNCLOS baya magana da batutuwan rikice-rikice na yanki ko warware batutuwan da suka shafi ikon mallakar ƙasa, saboda wannan filin yana ƙarƙashin ƙa'idodin dokokin duniya na al'ada game da mallaka da asarar ƙasa.

UNCLOS I[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Da'awar yankin ruwa na jihohin bakin teku a 1960
Da'awar faɗin Adadin jihohi
Iyakar mil 3 26
Iyakar mil 4 3
Iyakar mil 5 1
Iyakar mil 6 16
Iyakar mil 9 1
Iyakar mil 10 2
Iyakar mil 12 34
Fiye da mil 12 9
Ba a bayyana ba 11

A cikin 1956, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta gudanar da taronta na farko kan Dokar Teku (UNCLOS I) a Geneva, Switzerland. UNCLOS I [3] ya haifar da yarjejeniyoyin da aka kulla a cikin 1958:

  • Yarjejeniya kan Tekun Teku da Yanki mai Mahimmanci, shigowar aiki: 10 Satumba 1964
  • Yarjejeniyar Kan Tsarin Nahiyar, Shigarwa: 10 Yuni 1964
  • Yarjejeniyar kan manyan Tekuna, shiga aiki: 30 Satumba 1962
  • Yarjejeniyar Kan Kamun Kifi da Kula da Albarkatun Rayuwa na Manyan Tekuna, Shigarwa: 20 Maris 1966

Ko da yake an dauki UNCLOS I a matsayin nasara, ya buɗe muhimmin batu na faɗin ruwan yanki.

UNCLOS II[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A shekara ta 1960, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta gudanar da taro na biyu kan dokar teku ("UNCLOS II"); duk da haka, taron Geneva na makonni shida bai haifar da wata sabuwar yarjejeniya ba. Gabaɗaya magana, ƙasashe masu tasowa da ƙasashe na duniya na uku sun shiga a matsayin abokan ciniki, ƙawaye, ko masu dogaro da Amurka ko Tarayyar Soviet, ba tare da wata babbar murya ta nasu ba.

UNCLOS III[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Yankunan teku a cikin haƙƙoƙin ƙasa da ƙasa (Mafi kyawun gani)

Batun ikirari iri-iri na yankunan ruwa ya fito ne a Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a shekara ta 1967 ta hannun Arvid Pardo na Malta, kuma a cikin 1973 an yi taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na uku kan dokar teku a New York. A wani yunƙuri na rage yuwuwar ƙungiyoyin ƙasashe su mamaye tattaunawar, taron ya yi amfani da tsarin bai ɗaya maimakon kuri'u mafi rinjaye. Tare da kasashe fiye da 160 da suka halarci taron, taron ya ci gaba har zuwa shekara ta 1982. Sakamakon taron ya fara aiki a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba 1994, shekara guda bayan jaha ta 60, Guyana, ta amince da yarjejeniyar.

Taron ya gabatar da tanadi da yawa. Mahimman batutuwan da aka tattauna sun haɗa da saita iyaka, kewayawa, matsayin tsibiri da tsarin zirga-zirga, yankunan tattalin arziki na musamman (EEZs), ikon shiryayye na nahiyar, haƙar ma'adinai mai zurfi, tsarin amfani da ruwa, kare muhallin ruwa, bincike na kimiyya, da sasanta rikice-rikice.

Yarjejeniyar ta saita iyaka na wurare daban-daban, wanda aka auna daga ma'auni a hankali . (A al'ada, layin teku yana bin layin ƙananan ruwa, amma lokacin da bakin tekun ke da zurfi sosai, yana da tsibiran da ba su da ƙarfi ko kuma ba su da kwanciyar hankali, ana iya amfani da madaidaicin tushe. ) Yankunan sune kamar haka:

Ruwa na ciki
Yana rufe duk ruwa da hanyoyin ruwa a gefen ƙasa na tushen. Jihar bakin teku tana da 'yanci don saita dokoki, tsara amfani, da amfani da kowace hanya. Tasoshin kasashen waje ba su da hakkin wucewa a cikin ruwa na ciki. Jirgin ruwa a cikin manyan tekuna yana da iko a ƙarƙashin dokokin cikin gida na Jihar tuta.
Yankunan ruwa
Zuwa 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) daga tushe, jihar bakin teku tana da 'yanci don saita dokoki, daidaita amfani, da amfani da kowane hanya. An bai wa jiragen ruwa haƙƙin ratsawa marar laifi ta kowane yanki na ruwa, tare da maƙasudin dabarun ba da damar wucewar jiragen soja a matsayin hanyar wucewa, a cikin cewa an ba da damar jiragen ruwa su kula da wuraren da ba su da laifi a cikin ruwayen. “Tsarin mara laifi” an ayyana shi ta hanyar yarjejeniya a matsayin wucewa ta ruwa cikin hanzari da ci gaba, wanda ba “rashin lahani ga zaman lafiya, kyakkyawan tsari ko tsaro” na jihar bakin teku ba. Kamun kifi, gurbatar yanayi, aikin makamai, da leƙen asiri ba “marasa laifi ba ne”, kuma ana buƙatar jiragen ruwa da sauran motocin da ke ƙarƙashin ruwa su yi tafiya a ƙasa kuma su nuna tutarsu. Har ila yau al'ummomi na iya dakatar da wuce gona da iri na wani dan lokaci a wasu yankuna na yankin tekun nasu, idan yin hakan yana da muhimmanci don kare tsaronsu.
Ruwan archipelagic
Yarjejeniyar ta tsara ma'anar "Ƙasashen Archipelagic" a cikin Sashe na IV, wanda kuma ya bayyana yadda jihar za ta iya zana iyakokinta. An zana tushen tushe tsakanin mafi girman wuraren tsibiran da ke ƙetare, kasancewar waɗannan wuraren suna kusa da juna. Duk ruwan da ke cikin wannan tushe an keɓe shi "Ruwan Archipelagic". Jiha tana da iko akan wadannan ruwan galibi gwargwadon yadda take da ruwa na cikin gida, amma dangane da haƙƙin da ake da su ciki har da haƙƙin kamun kifi na gargajiya na jihohin da ke makwabtaka da su. Tasoshin jiragen ruwa na kasashen waje suna da hakkin wucewa marar laifi ta cikin ruwayen tsibirai, amma jahohin tsibirai na iya iyakance hanyar da ba ta da laifi zuwa kebabbun hanyoyin teku.
Shiyya mai ci gaba
Bayan 12 nautical miles (22 km) iyaka, akwai ƙarin 12 nautical miles (22 km) daga iyakar iyakar teku, yankin da ke da alaƙa. Anan wata jiha za ta iya ci gaba da aiwatar da dokoki a wasu takamaiman wurare guda huɗu (kwastan, haraji, shige da fice, da gurɓatawa) idan ƙetare ya fara ko yana shirin faruwa a cikin ƙasa ko yankin ruwan jihar. Wannan ya sa yankin da ke haɗuwa ya zama yanki mai zafi .
Yankunan tattalin arziki na keɓance (EEZs)
Waɗannan suna ƙara 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) daga asali . A cikin wannan yanki, ƙasar da ke bakin teku tana da haƙƙin yin amfani da shi kaɗai akan duk albarkatun ƙasa. A cikin amfani na yau da kullun, kalmar na iya haɗawa da tekun yanki har ma da shiryayye na nahiyar. An bullo da EEZ ne don dakatar da zafafan fadace-fadacen kamun kifi da ake yi, duk da cewa man fetur na kara zama muhimmi. Nasarar wani dandamalin mai a teku a Tekun Mexico a cikin 1947 ba da daɗewa ba an sake maimaita shi a wasu wurare a duniya, kuma a shekara ta 1970 yana da yuwuwar yin aiki a cikin ruwa mai 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) zurfi. Ƙasashen waje suna da 'yancin kewayawa da wuce gona da iri, bisa ka'idojin jihohin bakin teku. Ƙasashen waje kuma na iya shimfiɗa bututun da ke ƙarƙashin ruwa da igiyoyi.
Continental shiryayye
An ayyana shiyyoyin nahiyoyi a matsayin tsawaita yanayin ƙasar zuwa ga gefen gefen nahiyar, ko 200 nautical miles (370 km) daga ginshiƙin jihar bakin teku, duk wanda ya fi girma. Shelf ɗin nahiya na ƙasa na iya wuce 200 nautical miles (370 km) har sai yanayin tsawaitawa ya ƙare. Koyaya, bazai taɓa wuce 350 nautical miles (650 km; 400 mi) ba daga asali; kuma bazai wuce 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi) ba sama da 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) isobath (layin da ke haɗa zurfin 2 500 m). Jihohin da ke bakin teku suna da hakkin girbi ma'adinai da abubuwan da ba su da rai a cikin ƙasan ƙasan nahiyoyinta, in ban da wasu. Jihohin bakin teku kuma suna da keɓantaccen iko kan albarkatun rayuwa “wanda aka haɗa” zuwa ga nahiyoyin duniya, amma ba ga halittun da ke zaune a ginshiƙin ruwa fiye da yankin tattalin arziƙi na keɓancewar ba.

Wurin da ke wajen waɗannan wuraren ana kiransa da " Tabbar teku " ko kuma kawai "Yankin".

Baya ga tanade-tanade da ke bayyana iyakokin teku, babban taron ya kafa manyan wajibai na kiyaye muhallin ruwa da kuma kare yancin gudanar da bincike na kimiyya a kan manyan tekuna, sannan kuma ya samar da wata sabuwar doka ta shari'a don sarrafa albarkatun ma'adinai a cikin zurfin tekun da ya wuce ikon kasa, ta hanyar. Hukumar Kula da Teku ta Duniya da ka'idodin gama gari na 'yan adam . [4]

Jihohin da ba su da tudu ana ba su haƙƙin shiga da fita cikin teku, ba tare da biyan harajin zirga-zirgar jiragen ƙasa ta jihohin ba. [5]

Sashe na XI da Yarjejeniyar 1994[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sashe na XI na Yarjejeniyar ya tanadi tsarin mulki da ya shafi ma'adanai a bakin teku a wajen kowace jiha ta ruwa ko EEZ (Yankin Tattalin Arziki na Musamman). Ta kafa Hukumar Kula da Teku ta Duniya (ISA) don ba da izinin bincike da hako ma'adinai a cikin teku da tattara da rarraba sarakunan hakar ma'adinai a teku.

Amurka ta ki amincewa da tanade-tanaden Sashe na XI na Yarjejeniyar bisa dalilai da dama, tana mai cewa yarjejeniyar ba ta da kyau ga muradun tattalin arziki da tsaro na Amurka. Saboda Sashe na XI, Amurka ta ƙi amincewa da UNCLOS, kodayake ta bayyana yarjejeniya da sauran tanade-tanaden Yarjejeniyar.

Daga 1982 zuwa 1990, Amurka ta yarda da duka banda Sashe na XI a matsayin dokar kasa da kasa ta al'ada, yayin da take ƙoƙarin kafa wata sabuwar gwamnati don cin moriyar ma'adanai na zurfin teku. An yi yarjejeniya da wasu ƙasashe masu hakar ma'adinai a teku kuma an ba da lasisi ga ƙungiyoyin ƙasa da ƙasa guda huɗu. A halin yanzu, an kafa Hukumar Shirye-shiryen don yin shiri don aiwatar da da'awar da masu nema suka amince da Yarjejeniyar, wadanda suka sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar. An dai shawo kan takun-saka tsakanin kungiyoyin biyu, amma raguwar bukatar ma'adanai daga bakin tekun ya sa tsarin mulkin tekun ba ya da amfani sosai. Bugu da ƙari, raguwar gurguzu a ƙarshen 1980s ya kawar da yawancin goyon baya ga wasu tanadin Sashe na XI mai rikitarwa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A cikin 1990, an fara tuntuɓar juna tsakanin masu rattaba hannu da waɗanda ba su rattaba hannu ba (ciki har da Amurka) game da yiwuwar yin kwaskwarima ga yarjejeniyar don ba da damar ƙasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu su shiga cikin yarjejeniyar. Sakamakon 1994 Yarjejeniyar Aiwatar da Aiwatar da shi an amince da shi a matsayin Yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa. Ya ba da umarnin cewa, ba za a yi amfani da muhimman kasidu, da suka haɗa da na ƙayyadaddun samar da gaɓar teku, da canja wurin fasaha na tilas ba, cewa Amurka, idan ta zama mamba, za ta ba da tabbacin zama a Majalisar Hukumar Kula da Teku ta Duniya, kuma a ƙarshe., cewa za a yi kada kuri'a a kungiyance, tare da kowace kungiya za ta iya hana yanke shawara kan batutuwa masu mahimmanci. Yarjejeniyar ta 1994 ta kuma kafa Kwamitin Kudi wanda zai samo asali ne daga shawarwarin kudi na Hukumar, wanda mafi yawan masu ba da gudummawa za su kasance mambobi kai tsaye kuma za a yanke shawara ta hanyar yarjejeniya.

A ranar 1 ga Fabrairu, 2011, Ƙungiyar Rigingimu ta Seabed na Kotun Duniya ta Shari'ar Teku (ITLOS) ta ba da ra'ayi na ba da shawara game da alhakin doka da wajibcin ƙungiyoyin Jihohin da ke cikin Yarjejeniyar game da ɗaukar nauyin ayyuka a yankin daidai da abin da ya dace. tare da Sashe na XI na Yarjejeniyar da Yarjejeniyar 1994. An ba da shawarar ba da shawarar ne a matsayin martani ga wata buƙata ta hukuma da Hukumar Kula da Teku ta Duniya ta yi biyo bayan aikace-aikace guda biyu da Hukumar Shari'a da Fasaha ta Hukumar ta samu daga Jamhuriyar Nauru da Masarautar Tonga game da ayyukan da aka tsara (shirin aiki don ganowa). polymetallic nodules) da 'yan kwangila biyu da Jihohi suka dauki nauyin gudanarwa a yankin - Nauru Ocean Resources Inc. (Jamhuriyar Nauru ta dauki nauyin) da Tonga Offshore Mining Ltd. (Masarautar Tonga ta dauki nauyin). Ra'ayin ba da shawara ya bayyana alhakin shari'a na kasa da kasa da wajibai na Kasashe Masu Tallafawa da Hukuma don tabbatar da cewa ayyukan da aka ba da tallafi ba su cutar da yanayin ruwa ba, daidai da tanadin da ya dace na UNCLOS Sashe na XI, dokokin hukuma, dokar shari'ar ITLOS, sauran yarjejeniyoyin muhalli na duniya., da kuma ka'ida ta 15 na sanarwar Rio na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. [6]

Sashe na XII - Kare Muhallin Ruwa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sashe na XII na UNCLOS ya ƙunshi tanadi na musamman don kare muhallin ruwa, wanda ya wajabta wa dukkan Jihohi yin haɗin gwiwa a cikin wannan harka, da kuma sanya wajibai na musamman kan ƙasashen tuta don tabbatar da cewa jiragen ruwa da ke ƙarƙashin tutocinsu suna bin ƙa'idojin muhalli na ƙasa da ƙasa, waɗanda galibin ƙasashen duniya suka amince da su. IMO . Yarjejeniyar MARPOL misali ne na irin wannan ƙa'ida. Sashe na XII ya kuma bai wa jihohin bakin teku da tashar jiragen ruwa tare da faɗaɗa haƙƙoƙin hukumci don aiwatar da ka'idojin muhalli na ƙasa da ƙasa a cikin yankinsu da kan manyan tekuna . [7] Manufar ci gaba mai dorewa ta Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya 14 kuma tana da manufa game da ra'ayin mazan jiya da dorewar amfani da tekuna da albarkatunsu daidai da tsarin doka na UNCLOS.

Dokar ɗinke bambance-Bambance[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin 2017, Majalisar Dinkin Duniya (UNGA) ta kada kuri'a don kiran taron gwamnatoci (IGC) don yin la'akari da kafa wata doka ta kasa da kasa da ke daure doka (ILBI) kan kiyayewa da dorewar amfani da bambancin halittu fiye da ikon kasa (BBNJ). IGC za ta yi taro don jerin zama huɗu tsakanin 2018 da 2020 don yin aiki don cimma yarjejeniya. [8]

Jam'iyyu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea parties.svg

An buɗe taron don sanya hannu a ranar 10 ga Disamba 1982 kuma ya fara aiki a ranar 16 ga Nuwamba 1994 bayan ƙaddamar da kayan aikin 60th na amincewa. Jam’iyyu 168 ne suka amince da taron, wanda ya hada da kasashe mambobin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya 164, da kasa daya mai lura da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ( Palestine ) da kasashe biyu masu alaka ( tsibiran Cook da Niue ) da Tarayyar Turai .

Matsayi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Muhimmancin UNCLOS ya samo asali ne daga yadda yake tsarawa da daidaita ka'idoji da ka'idojin dokokin teku na kasa da kasa, wadanda suka dogara ne akan kwarewar teku na ƙarni kuma an bayyana su da yawa a cikin Yarjejeniya ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ka'idodin dokokin teku na duniya na yanzu, kamar haka. Kamar yadda Yarjejeniyar Geneva ta 1958. An ƙara ƙarfafa babban ɓangare na waɗannan buƙatun kuma an fadada su. [9]

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Tsarin Ganewa Ta atomatik
  • Dokar Admiralty
  • Gudanar da kamun kifi
  • Kotun kasa da kasa na shari'ar teku
  • Dokar teku
  • Dokar ceto
  • Kimanin shari'a na harin jiragen ruwa na Gaza
  • Hukumomin Tsaro na Maritime
  • Taron Montreux Game da Mulkin Mashigin Turkiyya
  • Operation Sharp Guard
  • Yankunan ruwa
  • Rashin amincewar Amurka na UNCLOS
  • Bayanin Haɗin gwiwa na Amurka/USSR kan Yarda da Uniform na Dokokin Dokokin Ƙasashen Duniya da ke Gudanar da Wurin Lantarki
  • Kudurin Majalisar Dinkin Duniya
  • Yarjejeniyar Kula da Makamai na Seabed
  • Manufofin ci gaba mai dorewa na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya
  • Jerin yankunan da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ke mulki

Ci gaba da karatu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Akashi, Kinji (2 October 1998). Cornelius Van Bynkershoek: His Role in the History of International Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 150. ISBN 978-9041105998. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  2. "The Freedom of the Seas (Latin and English version, Magoffin trans.) – Online Library of Liberty". oll.libertyfund.org. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  3. UNCLOS I
  4. Jennifer Frakes, The Common Heritage of Mankind Principle and the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica: Will Developed and Developing Nations Reach a Compromise?
  5. This principle was developed in the Convention on Transit Trade of Land-locked States.
  6. International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea Finally Renders Advisory Opinion Establishing that the Precautionary Principle is Incorporated Within UNCLOS Law, ITSSD Journal on the UN Law of the Sea Convention (22 March 2011)
  7. Jesper Jarl Fanø (2019).
  8. INTERGOVERNMENTAL CONFERENCE ON MARINE BIODIVERSITY OF AREAS BEYOND NATIONAL JURISDICTION un.org
  9. capt.

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Laccoci[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Lakcoci a cikin jerin laccoci na ɗakin karatu na Audiovisual na Dokokin Duniya na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya
    • [1] Shabtai Rosenne Memorial Lecture na John Norton Moore mai suna Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Dokar Teku: Daya daga cikin Manyan Nasarorin da aka samu a Tsarin Doka na Duniya
    • Jerin lacca a sassa shida na Tullio Treves mai suna The Law of Teku a kan cika shekaru talatin na yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta teku.
    • Lakca na Helmut Turk mai taken Jihohin da ba su da iyaka da kuma dokar teku
    • Lecture daga Tullio Treves mai taken Sabuwar Dokar Teku da sasanta rigingimu
    • Lecture daga Emmanuel Roucounas mai take masu amfani da Dokar Teku ba Jiha ba
    • Lecture daga David Freestone mai taken Shekaru 25 na Dokar Teku - Shin Ya Yi Nasara?
    • Laccoci na Tommy Koh mai suna The Art and Science na Gudanar da Manyan Taro na gwamnatoci da Tsarin Tattaunawa na Babban Taron Majalisar Dinkin Duniya na Uku kan Dokar Teku.
    • Lecture daga Jin-Hyun Paik mai taken tsarin shari'a na kasa da kasa na kamun kifi
    • Lecture daga Tullio Scovazzi mai taken Yarjejeniyar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan Dokar Teku da Ta Ketare.