Yarukan Chadi

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Yarukan Chadi
Linguistic classification
ISO 639-5 cdc
Glottolog chad1250[1]

Yarukan Chadi suna kafa reshe na dangin yare na Afroasiatic . Ana magana da su a sassan Sahel. Sun haɗa da harsuna 150 da ake magana da su a arewacin Nijeriya, da kudancin Nijar, da kudancin Chadi, da Jamhuriyar Afirka ta Tsakiya, da arewacin Kamaru. Harshe Chadic wanda akafi magana da shi shine harshen Hausa, babban harshen tarayyar al'umma na da yawa daga mutanen gabashi da Yammacin Afrika .

Abinda ke ciki[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Newman (1977) ya rarraba harsunan zuwa rukunoni huɗu waɗanda aka yarda da su a cikin dukkan wallafe-wallafe masu zuwa. Subarin ƙaddamar da yanki, duk da haka, bai kasance mai ƙarfi ba; Blench (2006), misali, kawai yana karɓar rabe-raben A / B na Gabashin Chadi. [2] An kara Kujargé daga Blench (2008), wanda ke ba da shawarar Kujargé na iya rabuwa kafin ɓarnatar da Proto-Chadic sannan daga baya ya sami tasiri daga Gabashin Chadi. [3] Aiki na gaba da Lovestrand yayi jayayya da ƙarfi cewa Kujarge memba ne na Gabashin Chadi. Sanya Luri a matsayin farkon raba yankin Yammacin Chadi kuskure ne. Caron (2004) ya nuna cewa wannan yaren shine a Kudancin Bauchi kuma da wani ɓangare ne na tarin Polci.

  • Yammacin Chadi Rassa biyu, wadanda suka hada da
(A) harsunan Hausa, Ron, Bole, da Angas ; kuma
(B) harsunan Bade, Warji, da Zaar.
(A) yaren Bura, Kamwe, da Bata, a tsakanin sauran rukunoni;
(B) yaren Buduma da Musgu; kuma
(C) Gidar
  • Gabashin Chadi sassa biyu, waɗanda suka haɗa da
(A) harsunan Tumak, Nancere, da Kera ; kuma
(B) harsunan Dangaléat, Mukulu, da Sokoro
  • Masa
  • ? Kujargé
Shafi na reshen Chadi na harsunan Afroasiatic.

Asali[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Manyan masu magana da yaren Cadi a Najeriya.
Yankunan da ke magana da harshen Hausa a Najeriya da Nijar.

Nazarin kwayar halittar zamani na yankin Arewa maso Yammacin Kamaru masu magana da harshen Chadi sun lura da yawan mitar Y-Chromosome Haplogroup R1b a cikin waɗannan yawan jama'ar (nau'ikan R1b-V88 [4] ). Wannan alamar ta uba ta zama gama gari a sassan Yammacin Eurasia, amma in ba haka ba ba safai a Afirka ba. Cruciani et al. (2010) don haka aka gabatar da cewa masu magana da yaren Proto-Chadic a lokacin tsakiyar Holocene (~ shekaru 7,000 da suka gabata) sun yi ƙaura daga Levant zuwa Sahara ta Tsakiya, kuma daga can suka zauna a Tafkin Chadi .

Koyaya, wani bincike na baya-bayan nan a cikin 2018 ya gano cewa haplogroup R1b-V88 ya shiga Chadi sosai kwanan nan yayin "Baggarization" (hijirar Larabawan Baggara zuwa Sahel a cikin ƙarni na 17 AD), ba tare da samun wata hujja ta tsoffin ƙwayar Eurasia ba.

Kalmomin aro[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Harsunan Chadi suna ƙunshe da kalmomin aro na Nilo-Sahara da yawa daga ɗayan rassan Songhay ko Maban, suna nuna alaƙar farko tsakanin masu yaren Cadi da Nilo-Saharan yayin da Chadic ke yin ƙaura zuwa yamma.

Kodayake ana magana da harsunan Adamawa kusa da harsunan Chadic, hulɗa tsakanin Chadi da Adamawa tana da iyaka. [5]

Karin magana[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Karin magana a cikin Proto-Chadic, idan aka kwatanta da karin magana a cikin harsunan Proto-Afroasiatic (Vossen & Dimmendaal 2020: 351): [6]

Karin magana Yarjejeniyar-Chadi Proto-Afroasiatic
1 *ní *i ~ *yi
2M *ka *ku, *ka
2F *ki (m) *kim
3M *nì *si, *isi
3F *ta
1PL *mun (hada), *na (sama.) (*-na ~ *-nu ~ *-ni) ?
2PL *kun *kuuna
3PL *rana *su ~ *usu

Kwatanta ƙamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Samfurin kalmomin asali a cikin rassa daban daban na Chadi da aka jera daga yamma zuwa gabas, tare da sake gina wasu rassa na Afroasiatic kuma an basu don kwatancen:

Turanci eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water eat name
Hausa ido kunne hanci haƙori harshe baki jini ƙashi itace; bishiya ruwa ci suna
Proto-Chadic *ydn *km/*ɬm *ntn *s₃n; *ƙ-d *ls₃- *bk *br *ƙs₃ *ymn *hrɗ (hard); *twy (soft) *s₃m
Proto-Ron *kumu **atin *haŋgor *liʃ *fo ɟɑ̄lɑ̄, tɾɔ̃̄ *kaʃ *sum
Polci yiir kəəm cin shen haƙori bii buran; bəran gooloo pət maa ci suŋ
Proto-Central Chadic *hadaj; *tsɨʸ *ɬɨmɨɗʸ *hʷɨtsɨnʸ *ɬɨɗɨnʸ *ɗɨrɨnɨhʸ; *ɣanaɗʸ; *naɬɨj *maj *ɗiɬ; *kɨrakaɬʸ *hʷɨp *ɗɨjɨm *zɨm *ɬɨmɨɗʸ
Proto-Masa *ir *hum *cin *s- *si *vun *vuzur *sok *gu *mb- *ti *sem
Kujarge[7] kunɟu kumayo ~ kime kaata kiya aliŋati apa ɪbɪrí (kaɟeɟa), kàyɛ́ya kaʃíè ʃia (tona), tuye [imp. sg.]; tuwona [imp. pl.] rúwà
Other Afroasiatic branches
Proto-Cushitic[8] *ʔil- *ʔisŋʷ- *ʔiɬkʷ- *caanrab- *ʔaf-/*yaf- *mikʷ’-; *moc’- *-aħm-/*-uħm-; *ɬaam- *sim-/*sum-
Proto-Maji[9] *ʔaːb *háːy *aːç’u *eːdu *uːs *inču *haːy *um
Tarifiyt Berber[10] ŧit’t’ aməžžun, aməz’z’uɣ ŧinzā ŧiɣməsŧ iřəs aqəmmum iđammən iɣəss aman šš isəm
Coptic ia ma'aje ša šol, najhe las ro snof kas šēn mou wōm ran
Proto-Semitic *ʕayn- *ʔuḏn- *ʔanp- *šinn- *lišān- *dam- *ʕaṯ̣m- *ʕiṣ̂- *mā̆y- *ʔ-k-l (*šim-)
Proto-Afroasiatic *ʔǐl- *-ʔânxʷ- *sǐn-/*sǎn- 'tip, point' *-lis’- 'to lick' *âf- *dîm-/*dâm- *k’os- *ɣǎ *âm-; *akʷ’- *-mǎaʕ-; *-iit-; *-kʷ’-̌ *sǔm-/*sǐm-

Kalmomin Proto-Chadic[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmomin Proto-Chadic:[11]

Turanci Proto-Chadic Hausa Hausa (furucci)
sleep *(w)sn/*swn yi barci yí bárcíi
come, go *b₂-; *l-
night *bɗ dare dárée
seed *bdr/*bzr iri írìi
five *bɗʸɬ biyar bìyár̃
mouth *bk baki bàakíi
hole *bk rami ráamìi
house *b-n gida gídáa
give *br ba báa
blood *br jini jíníi
ashes *bt- toka
fall *d₂-; *g₂ɮ faɗi fáaɗì
hear *d₂gw ji
sit *dmn zauna záunàa
beat, pound, kill *dwk
neck *gɗʸr wuya wúyàa
do, make *gə́n-; *ly; *ɗm
laugh *gms₂ dariya dàaríyáa
ten *gʷm/*gʷ-m goma góomà
sand *gʷsk yashi; ƙasa yàashíi; ƙásáa
eat hard things *hrɗ
burn *kɗ ƙone
skin *k-d; *zm feɗe féeɗèe
fly (insect) *ƙdb
crocodile *kdm kara
one *kɗn ɗaya ɗáyá
head *kɗn kai kâi
dog *kɗn kare kàrée
finger *kl- yatsa yátsàa
earth *ƙɬɗ kasa
fish *klp kifi kíifíi
ear *km/*ɬm kunne kûnnée
hand *ƙmn hannu hánnúu
three *knɗ uku úkù
bark *krp; *ɓ-r ɓawo ɓáawóo
bone *ƙs₃ ƙashi ƙàshíi
rat *ksm
tail *kṣr wutsiya wútsíyàa
fire *-kw wuta wútáa
cow, buffalo *ɬ-
root, vein, medicine *ɬ₂rw
lick *lkɗ lasa làasáa
tongue *ls₃- harshe hárshèe
meat *ɬw nama náamàa
new *mrb sabo sáabóo
man, husband, person *mtm mutum
die *mwt mutu mútù
hunger *my
see *ngn gani gáníi
nose *ntn hanci háncìi
ripen *nwk
cat *patu mage; ƙyanwa màagée; ƙyânwáa
four *-pɗ huɗu húɗú
flower *pl fure fùrée
sun *p-t rana ráanáa
cut *pt; *ɬ₂wl yanke yánkèe
drink *s₂w- sha; abin sha sháa; àbín shâa
name *s₃m suna súunáa
tooth *s₃n; *ƙ-d hakori hákóoríi
know *s-n sani sánìi
two *sr biyu bíyú
sheep *tmk tunkiya túnkìyáa
spit *tp tofa tóofàa
moon *t-r wata wátàa
eat soft things *twy
goat *wk-/*kw- akwiya àkwíyàa
stand (up) *wɬk
open *wn buɗe búuɗèe
full, fill *wn cikakke
hair *yàɗ gashi gáashìi
bird *yɗ tsuntsu tsúntsúu
eye *ydn ido ídòo
saliva *ylk
water *ymn ruwa rúwáa
give birth *yw/*wy
body *zk jiki jìkíi

Kalmomin Proto-Ron[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmomin Proto-Ron:[12]

Turanci Proto-Ron Hausa Hausa (furucci)
nose **atin hanci háncìi
crocodile **haram kada
navel **mutuk cibiya cíibíyàa
friend **mwin aboki; amini àbóokíi; àmíinìi
land **nɗoro ƙasa; sauka ƙásáa; sàuká
molar *ɓukum
open (door) *ɓwali
chest *cin ƙirji ƙìrjíi
mouth *fo baki bàakíi
breast (female) *fofo nono
thigh *for cinya cínyàa
blow (mouth) *fuɗ
fall *fur faɗi fáaɗì
throat *goroŋ maƙwagwaro màƙwágwàróo
tooth *haŋgor hakori hákóoríi
head *hay kai kâi
bone *kaʃ ƙashi ƙàshíi
put *kin sa sâa (2)
elbow *kukwat gwiwar hannu gwíiwàr̃ hánnúu
ear *kumu kunne kûnnée
call (summon) *lahyal
tongue *liʃ harshe hárshèe
flesh *lo nama náamàa
saliva, spittle *lyal
person *naaf mutum mùtûm
chin *njumut haɓa háɓàa
urine *sar
name *sum suna súunáa
meet *tof sadu sàadú
I *yin ni níi

Kalmomin Proto-North Bauchi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmomin Proto-North Bauchi:[13]

Turanci Proto-North Bauchi Hausa Hausa (furucci)
grass *(a)was ciyawa cìyáawàa
give *ča/iy- ba báa
ask *c̣aɣ-
egg *caḥʷi ƙwai ƙwái
stink *čam-
pull *c̣am- ja jáa (1)
sour *c̣am- mai tsami mài tsáamíi
bitter *č̣am- mai ɗaci mài ɗáacíi
night *č̣amaz- dare dárée
goat *č̣ang- akwiya àkwíyàa
herd *caQʷ-
rip *č̣ar-
middle *cawɣ- tsakiya tsákíyàa
sit *c̣əg- zauna záunàa
change *c̣ək- sake; canja sáakèe; cánjàa
cut *cəḳər- yanke yánkèe
swell *c̣əm-; *puč-
sweat *cən-; *zukum-
nail *č̣ərf- ƙusa ƙúusàa
wring *č̣ey-
two *či/ar- biyu bíyú
dig *ciḳ- haƙa; tona háƙàa; tóonàa
sew *ĉ̣im- ɗinka ɗínkàa
send *čin-; *ǯikʷ- aika àikáa
worm *ĉ̣iy- tsutsa tsúutsàa
fish (v.) *ču
dry *c̣uf- a bushe à bùushé
foot *cum- ƙafa ƙáfàa
swear *cum- rantse rántsèe
stand *c̣urw- tashi táashì
morning *cuwy- safe sáafée
heart *č̣Vnk- zuciya zúucìyáa
urine *cVpr-
bird *č̣VT- tsuntsu tsúntsúu
head *ɣ/ḥam- kai kâi
hair *gəz- gashi gáashìi
roast *gəẑ-
fish *ɣʷad- kifi kíifíi
see *ḥan- gani gáníi
fill *ḥʷan-
mount *ḥʷum-
build *ḥʷun- gina gínàa
bone *ḳas- ƙashi ƙàshíi
war *ḳas-
count *ḳin- ƙirga ƙírgàa
bite *ḳiy- ciza cìizáa
nine *kuč̣- tara tár̃à
forge *ḳuf- ƙera ƙéeràa
deep *ḳulḳul- mai zurfi mài zúrfíi
buy *ḳʷan- saya sàyáa
angry *ḳʷar-
hunt *le[ḥ]- farauta fàráutàa
sell *məč̣- sayar da sáyár̃ dà
chest *mVc̣- ƙirji ƙìrjíi
descend *pəc̣-
fat *rəvəz-; *ĉ̣əb-
earth *riĉ̣-
flower *riẑ- fure fùrée
tooth *ṭiḥn- hakori hákóoríi
kill *tuḥ- kashe káshèe
five *vaĉ̣- biyar bìyár̃
pour *vʷaḥ- zub da zúb dà
throw *vʷaḥ- jefa jéefàa
close *zaḅʷ-
stab *zaḳʷ- soka sòokáa
beans *zam-
open *ẑar- buɗe búuɗèe
call *zar-; *ḳiy-
tremble *ẑaẑar-
bow *zaʔ- baka bàkáa
stone *zəḳəy
to skin *zəl-
body *zər- jiki jìkíi
fowl *ẑirkiy- kaza kàazáa
ground corn *zu
awaken *zuḳʷ-
run *ẑVẑV gudu gúdù
rope *zʸaw- igiya ígíyàa
turn *ǯiKal mayar da máyár̃ dà
allow *ǯu
pound *ǯu/iw- doka; kutufo dòokáa; kùtùfóo
life *ǯukʷ- rayuwa ràayúwáa

Kalmomin Proto-Masa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmomin Proto-Masa:[14]

Turanci Proto-Masa Hausa Hausa (furucci)
father *b- uba ùbáa
bat *babay jemage jéemáagèe
vulture *bak ungulu ùngùlúu
mushroom *bik naman kaza náamàn kàazáa
tail *c-- wutsiya wútsíyàa
nose *cin hanci háncìi
star *ciw tauraro tàuràaróo
dog *d- kare kàrée
flute *d-f sarewa; sarewa sàareewàa; sàréewàa
penis *ɗiw bura; azzakari bùuráa; àzzákàr̃íi
chin *d-m haɓa háɓàa
mud *dorɓo taɓo tàɓóo
liver *duk hanta hántàa
sun *fat rana ráanáa
four *fiɗi huɗu húɗú
blow *fo busa; hura búusàa; húuràa
navel *fuk cibiya cíibíyàa
flour *fut gari gàaríi
small *g- ƙarami ƙàrámíi
knee *gif gwiwa gwíwàa
heart *g-l-s zuciya zúucìyáa
ten *gup goma góomà
left *guɾ hagu hágú
cold *hep mura; mai sanyi; mai ɗari múr̃àa; mài sányíi; mài ɗáaríi
three *hindi uku úkù
goat *hu akwiya àkwíyàa
ear *hum kunne kûnnée
eye *ir ido ídòo
seed *ir iri írìi
six *kargi shida shídà
year *kim sheƙara, shekara shèeƙáràa, shèekáràa
yesterday *k-mb- jiya jíyà
fish *k-ɾf- kifi kíifíi
fire *ku wuta wútáa
mat *ɮat tabarma tàabármáa
red *ɬew ja jáa (2)
feather *ɮ-m gashi gáashìi
water *mb- ruwa rúwáa
dew *mb-ɗ- raɓa ráaɓáa
milk *mbir nono; tatsa nóonòo; tàatsáa
horn *mek ƙaho ƙàhóo
darkness *nduvun duhu dúhùu
sand *ŋeɬ yashi; ƙasa yàashíi; ƙásáa
hair *ŋgusa gashi gáashìi
breast *po nono nóonòo
pus *ɾ-- mugunya múgúnyàa
hunt *ɾam farauta fàráutàa
fly *raw ƙuda; tashi ƙúdáa; táashì
time *ɾi lokaci; sa’a lóokàcíi; sáa'àa
place *ɾi wuri; waje wúríi; wájée
bean *ɾit wake wáakée
tooth *s- hakori hákóoríi
person *s- mutum mùtûm
grass *-s- ciyawa cìyáawàa
broom *samat mashari másháaríi
spear *sap mashi máashìi
egg *se ƙwai ƙwái
name *sem suna súunáa
sleep *sen yi barci yí bárcíi
tongue *si harshe hárshèe
seven *siɗa bakwai bákwài
wind *simbet iska ískàa
field *sine gona góonáa
bone *sok ƙashi ƙàshíi
root *s-r jijiya; saiwa jíijíyàa; sâiwáa
people *su jama’a; mutane jàmá'àa; mútàanée
beer *sum giya; burkutu gíyàa; bùr̃kùtù
sheep *time tunkiya túnkìyáa
moon *tiɾ wata wátàa
brain *toʔon ƙwalƙwalwa ƙwálƙwálwáa
body *tu jiki jìkíi
grave *us kabari kábàr̃íi
five *vaɬ biyar bìyár̃
wasp *viŋ zanzaro zànzáróo
monkey *vir biri bírìi
charcoal *v-n gawayi gáwàyíi
hare *v-t zomo zóomóo
salt *vu gishiri gíshíríi
mouth *vun baki bàakíi
blood *vuzur jini jíníi
girl *way yarinya yáarínyàa
black *wura baƙi báƙíi
rope *zew igiya ígíyàa
hole *z-ɾ rami ráamìi

Bibiyar Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Caron, Bernard 2004. Le Luri: quelques notes sur une langue tchadique du Najeriya. A cikin: Pascal Boyeldieu & Pierre Nougayrol (eds. ), Langues et Al'adu: Terrains d'Afrique. Gidaje a Faransa Cloarec-Heiss (Afrique et Langage 7). 193-201. Louvain-Paris: Peeters.
  • Lukas, Johannes (1936) 'Halin ilimin harshe a yankin Tafkin Chadi a Afirka ta Tsakiya.' Afirka, 9, 332 – 349.
  • Lukas, Johannes. Zentralsudanische Studien, Hamburg 1937;
  • Newman, Paul da Ma, Roxana (1966) 'Kwatancen Cadiic: salon magana da kalmomi.' Jaridar Harsunan Afirka, 5, 218 – 251.
  • Newman, Paul (1977) 'Tsarin Chadi da sake ginawa.' Harsunan Afroasiatic 5, 1, 1 – 42.
  • Newman, Paul (1978) 'Chado-Hamitic' adieu ': sabbin tunani kan rabe-raben harshen Chadi', a Fronzaroli, Pelio (ed. ), Atti del Secondo Congresso Internazionale di Linguistica Camito-Semitica . Florence: Instituto de Linguistica e di Lingue Orientali, Jami'ar di Firenze, 389 – 397.
  • Newman, Paul (1980) Theididdigar Chadic a cikin Afroasiatic. Leiden: Jami'ar Pers Leiden.
  • Herrmann Jungraithmayr, Kiyoshi Shimizu: Tushen lafazin Chadic. Reimer, Berlin 1981.
  • Herrmann Jungraithmayr, Dymitr Ibriszimow: Tushen lafazin Chadic. 2 kundin. Reimer, Berlin 1994
  • Schuh, Russell (2003) 'Tsinkayen Chadic', a cikin M. Lionel Bender, Gabor Takacs, da David L. Appleyard (eds. ), Zaba Comparative-Historical Afrasian ilimin harsuna Nazarin a Memory of Igor M. Diakonoff, LINCOM Europa, 55 – 60.
Bayanin bayanai
  • Robert Forkel, & Tiago Tresoldi. (2019). lexibank / kraftchadic: Chadic Wordlists (Shafin v3.0) [Saitin bayanai]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3534953

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/chad1250 |chapterurl= missing title (help). Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. Blench, 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List (ms)
  3. Blench, Roger. 2008. Links between Cushitic, Omotic, Chadic and the position of Kujarge. 5th International Conference of Cushitic and Omotic languages.
  4. https://yfull.com/tree/R-Y7771/
  5. Blench, Roger. 2012. Linguistic evidence for the chronological stratification of populations South of Lake Chad. Presentation for Mega-Tchad Colloquium in Naples, September 13–15, 2012.
  6. Vossen, Rainer and Gerrit J. Dimmendaal (eds.). 2020. The Oxford Handbook of African Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  7. Doornbos, Paul. 1981. Field notes on Kujarge, language metadata, 200-word list plus numerals and pronouns.
  8. Ehret, Christopher. 1987. Proto-Cushitic reconstruction. In Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 8: 7-180. University of Cologne.
  9. Aklilu, Yilma. 2003. Comparative phonology of the Maji languages. Journal of Ethiopian studies 36: 59-88.
  10. Kossmann, Maarten. 2009. Tarifiyt Berber vocabulary. In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) World Loanword Database. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  11. Jungraithmayr, Herrmann; Ibriszimow, Dymitr. 1994. Chadic Lexical Roots. Tentative reconstruction, grading, distribution and comments. (Sprache und Oralität in Afrika; 20), volume I, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.
  12. Blench, Roger. no date. Ron comparative wordlist.
  13. Takács, Gábor 2004. Comparative dictionary of the Angas-Sura languages. Sprache und Oralität in Afrika (SOA) 23. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.
  14. Shryock, Aaron. 1997. The classification of the Masa group of languages. Studies in African Linguistics 26(1): 29‒62.