Nelson Mandela

Daga Wikipedia
A tsallaka zuwa: Shawagi, nema
Mai Girma, Nelson MANDELA (ha) His Excellency, Nelson MANDELA
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela (A dama, Bill Clinton a Hagu )

An haife sa wani gari mai suna Qunu dake gabar kogin Mbashe a yankin gabacin birnin Cap. A lokacin da ya samu shekara bakwai ya zama ɗan zuri´arsa na farko da ya shiga makarantar boko. Ma´aifinsa, ya rasu da cutar tarin fuka a yayin da Mandela ya samu shekaru tara a duniya. Saidai duk da halin maraici da ya tsinci kansa a ciki, Nelson Mandella ya ci gaba da karatu. Amma a lokacin da ya kammalla shekarar ta farko a jami´ar Fort Hare, an fidda shi daga makaranta a dalili da jagorancin da yayiwa ´yan makarantar na tada tarzoma. Bayan haka, Nelson Mandela ya ƙaura a Jami´ar birnin Johannesburg, inda a nan ya cigaba da karatu har saida ya samu digirin digirgir ta fannin shari´a. A ɓangaren harakokin siyasa kuwa a shekara ta 1942 ne Nelson Mandela ya shiga Ƙungiyar ANC mai yaki da wariyar launin fata da ake nunawa baƙaƙen fatar Afrika ta Kudu. A shekara ta 1944 tare da haɗin gwiwa da Walter Sizulu da kuma OLivier Tambo Mandela ya girka kungiyar matasan ANC wadda daga nan ta duƙufa wajen neman ´yancin baƙaƙen fata da sauranal´umomin da ake nuawa wariya a ko ina cikin duniya. Don cimma wannan buri, Nelson Mandela ya shiga kafar wando guda gwamnatin Daniel Malam wace ta ƙaddamar da mulkin Apartheid wato wariyar launin fata a Afrika ta Kudu. Ta la´akari da yadda Ƙungiyar matasan yaƙi da Apartheid ke samun gidin zama sai gwamnati ta cafke Nelson Mandela tare da wasu muƙƙarabansa 150, wanda a jefa kurkuku har tsawan shekaru biyar. A shekara ta 1960 turawan dake mulki a Afrika ta kudu, su ƙadamar da kissan kiyasun da aka fi sani da suna ta´adin Sharpeville, wanda a saka makonsa, mutane kusan suka rasa rayuka. Wannan ta´adi ya harzuƙa Nelson Mandela, a game da haka, yayi kira ga jama´a ta ƙadamar da yaki ga haramtaciyar gwamnatin wariyar launin fata. A dalili da haka aka ƙara ɗaure shi, a kurkuku, har tsawan shekaru biyar. A yayin da kotu ke gudanar da shari´a akan al´amarin Mandela ƙarara yace kotun haramttata ce, domin itama ta nuna wariya. Wannan kalami ya sa ɗaurin na shekaru biyar ,ya rikiɗa zuwa ɗaurin rai rai a gidan yari na Robben Island, inda ya share shekaru kussan 28 ɗaure. Ranar 11 ga watan februaru na shekara ta 1990, ranar mai dubun tarihi ga ƙasar Afrika ta Kudu da ma Afrika baki ɗaya, domin a wannan rana gwamnatin Afrika ta Kudu ta bada umurnin belin Nelson Mandela kamar yadda shugaba Fredrick Declerck ya bayyana a cikin wannan jawabi: "Gwamnati ta yanke shawara sallamar Nelson Mandela ba tare da gitta wani sharaɗi ba, kuma za ta tabbatar da hakan take yake". Kammalla jawabin na shugaban ƙasa Declerck ke da wuya, sai aka sallami Mandela, inda dubban jama´a suka tarɓe sa cikin taɓi da harerewa. A lokacin da yayi jawabin farko bayan belin nasa, Nelson Mandela ya bayyana matuƙar farin ciki, to saidai a ɗaya hannun ya bayyana baƙin ciki, ta la´akari da cewar har yanzu, ba ta cenza zane ba, a game da ƙuncin rayuwar baƙaƙen fata na Afrika ta Kudu. Bayan fitowar sa daga kurkuku,Mandela yayi alƙawarin ci gaba da gwaggwarmaya har sai ya ga abunda ya turewa buzu naɗi. A game da haka, ya samu lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya, wato Nobel Price, kokuma "Prix Nobel de la Paix" tare da Fredrick De Clerck. Jam´iyarsa ta ANC ta tsaida shi, ɗan takara a zaɓen shugaban ƙasar Afrika ta Kudu ranar 27 ga watan Afrul na shekara ta 1994. ANC ta sami gagaramin rinjaye da kashi 60 %, a game da haka,Mandela ya zama baƙar fata na farko da ya jagoranci Afrika ta Kudu, tare da mataimaka guda biyu, Thabon Mbeki shugaba mai ci yanzu ,da kuma Fredrik De Clerck tsofan shugaban ƙasa. Wasu daga mahimman ƙudurorin da Mandela ya ƙadamar a zamanin mulkinsa sun haɗa da girka komitina mussamman wanda ya tattara illahirin wulaƙanci da azabar da baƙaƙwen fata suka yi fama da ita, a zamanin mulkin wariya, da zumar yafewa juna tare da ɗaukar matakan kauda wannan tsarni daga dokokin Afrika ta Kudu. Mandela ya taka muhimmiyar rawa ta fannin farfaɗo da martana da ƙimar Afrika ta Kudu a idanun duniya, sannan ya kasance tamkar uba ga sauran ƙasashen Afrika. Nelson Mandela, ya sauka daga karagar mulki a shekara ta 1999. Har bayan saukar sa daga karagar mulki, Nelson Mandela ya cigaba da fafatakar ƙwato ´yancin bani adama,a game da haka ne, Hukumar kare haƙƙoƙin bai adama ta Amnesty International ta naɗa shi jikadan zaman lafiya na duniya, daga jami´an Amnesty Bil Shipsey ya bayyana dalilan ɗorawa Mandela wannan yauni. Tun belin sa daga kurkuku a shekara ta 1990, ya zama tauraruwa sha kallo, kuma abun koyi ne a duk ko´ina cikin duniya. A lokacin da yayi shugabanci ya bada cikkakar shaida, cewar ana iya gudanar da mulki cikin adalci, sannan babu matsalar da za ta gagara a magance, muddun akwai kyakkyawar niya. A lokacin da ya maida martani ga wannan yauni da Amnesty ta ɗora masa, Mandela ya jaddada aniyarsa, ta cigaba da gwagwarmaya muddun ya na raye. A yanzu nayi ritaya daga harakokin mulki, amma muddun rashin adalaci ya cigaba a duniya nima zan cigaba da fafatakar ƙwatar ´yancin jama´a, domin a duk lokacin da talauci ya mamaye jama´a, babu batun ´yanci. Nelsnon Madela ya taka rawar gani ta fannoni dabam dabam hasali ma ta fannnin yaƙi da cutar Sida. A shekara ta 2005, ya fito ƙarara ya bayyana cewar, ɗansa na cikinsa Makgatho Mandela, ya rasu a dalili da kamuwa da cutar Sida. Yayi hakan domin taimakawa jama´a ta daina samun ɗaurin kai a game da wannan cuta da masu ɗauke da ita ke fama da ƙyama. Wannan bayyani na Nelson Mandella ya taimaka mutuƙa, wajen rage ƙyamar masu cutar Sida. Bikin cikwan shekaru 90 da haifuwar Nelson Mandela