Ciwon zuciya

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Ciwon zuciya (MI), wanda kuma aka sani da ciwon zuciya, yana faruwa ne lokacin da jini ya ragu ko ya tsaya zuwa wani ɓangare na zuciya, yana haifar da lalacewa ga tsokar zuciya.[1] Alamar da aka fi sani shine ciwon ƙirji ko rashin jin daɗi wanda zai iya tafiya cikin kafada, hannu, baya, wuya ko muƙamuƙi.[1] Sau da yawa yana faruwa a tsakiya ko gefen hagu na ƙirji kuma yana ɗaukar fiye da ƴan mintuna.[1] Rashin jin daɗi na iya zama lokaci-lokaci kamar ƙwannafi. Sauran alamomin na iya haɗawa da ƙarancin numfashi, tashin zuciya, jin suma, gumi mai sanyi ko jin gajiya.[1] Kusan kashi 30% na mutane suna da alamun da ba a iya gani ba.[2] Mata sukan kasance ba tare da ciwon ƙirji ba kuma a maimakon haka suna fama da wuyan wuyansa, ciwon hannu ko jin gajiya.[3] Daga cikin wadanda suka haura shekaru 75, kusan kashi 5% sun sami MI tare da kadan ko babu tarihin alamun.[4] MI na iya haifar da gazawar zuciya, bugun zuciya mara ka'ida, bugun zuciya ko kamawar zuciya.[5][6]

Yawancin MIs na faruwa ne saboda cututtukan jijiyoyin jini.[5] Abubuwan da ke haifar da haɗari sun haɗa da hawan jini, shan taba, ciwon sukari, rashin motsa jiki, kiba, hawan jini, rashin abinci mai gina jiki da yawan shan barasa.[7][8] Cikakken toshewar jijiya na jijiyoyin jini da ke haifar da fashewar plaque atherosclerotic yawanci shine tushen tsarin MI.[5] MIs ba su da yawa ta hanyar spasms na jijiyoyin jini, wanda zai iya zama saboda hodar iblis, tsananin damuwa da matsanancin sanyi, da sauransu.[9][10] Yawancin gwaje-gwaje suna da amfani don taimakawa tare da ganewar asali, ciki har da electrocardiograms (ECGs), gwajin jini da angiography na jijiyoyin jini.[11] ECG, wanda shine rikodin ayyukan wutar lantarki na zuciya, na iya tabbatar da ST elevation MI (STEMI), idan hawan ST yana nan.[2][12] Gwaje-gwajen jini da aka saba amfani da su sun haɗa da troponin da ƙarancin creatine kinase MB.[11]

Jiyya na MI yana da mahimmancin lokaci.[13] Aspirin magani ne da ya dace na gaggawa ga wanda ake zargi da MI.[14] Ana iya amfani da Nitroglycerin ko opioids don taimakawa tare da ciwon kirji; duk da haka, ba su inganta gaba ɗaya sakamakon.[2][14] Ana ba da shawarar ƙarin iskar oxygen a cikin waɗanda ke da ƙarancin iskar oxygen ko ƙarancin numfashi.[14] A cikin STEMI, jiyya na ƙoƙarin dawo da kwararar jini zuwa zuciya kuma sun haɗa da shiga tsakani na jijiyoyin jini (PCI), inda ake tura arteries kuma ana iya tashe su, ko thrombolysis, inda aka cire toshewar ta amfani da magunguna.[2] Mutanen da ke da ciwon bugun jini maras ST (NSTEMI) galibi ana sarrafa su tare da heparin na jini, tare da ƙarin amfani da PCI a cikin waɗanda ke cikin haɗari mai girma.[14] A cikin mutanen da ke da toshewar arteries masu yawa da ciwon sukari, ana iya ba da shawarar tiyata na jijiyoyin jini (CABG) maimakon angioplasty.[15] Bayan MI, gyare-gyaren salon rayuwa, tare da magani na dogon lokaci tare da aspirin, beta blockers da statins, yawanci ana ba da shawarar.[2]

A duk duniya, kimanin miliyan 15.9 na ciwon zuciya sun faru a cikin 2015.[16] Fiye da mutane miliyan 3 suna da ST elevation MI, kuma fiye da miliyan 4 suna da NSTEMI.[17] STEMIs na faruwa kusan sau biyu a cikin maza kamar mata.[18] Kimanin mutane miliyan ɗaya suna da MI kowace shekara a Amurka.[5] A cikin ƙasashen da suka ci gaba, haɗarin mutuwa a cikin waɗanda suka sami STEMI ya kai kusan 10%.[2] Yawan MI na shekarun da aka ba su ya ragu a duniya tsakanin 1990 da 2010.[19] A cikin 2011, MI na ɗaya daga cikin mafi tsada yanayi a cikin marasa lafiya a Amurka, tare da farashin kusan dala biliyan 11.5 na asibitoci 612,000.[20]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

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