Akwamu

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Akwamu
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Ghana
Kabilu masu alaƙa
Mutanen Akan

Akwamu (ana kuma kiran sa Akuambo) jiha ce da mutanen Akwamu suka kafa a cikin ƙasar Ghana ta yanzu. Babban birnin Masarautar Akwamu ana kiransa Akwamufie. Bayan yin ƙaura daga jihar Bono, Akan waɗanda suka kafa Akwamu suka zauna a Twifo-Heman. Akwamu ya jagoranci daular faɗaɗa a ƙarni na 17 da 18. A lokacin daular su, Akwamu sun kirkiro al'adu masu tasiri wadanda suka ba da gudummawa ga Ghana.

Tarihin jihar Akwamu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Alamar Jiha ta Kasa

Akwamuman ko a Turanci: Aasar Akwamu, al'umma ce ta Akan. Akwamu suna daya daga cikin tsoffin jihohin Akan tare da jihohin Fante da Akyem. A Akwamu suna ƙarƙashin sarkin dukan Aduana abusua (masu juna biyu kabila). Aduana tare da Asona sune kawai rukunin da aka ba da izinin yin auratayya tsakanin membobin dangi ɗaya tsakanin Royals.[1]

SBisa ga al'adar baka, Akan ya samo asali ne daga gabashin Sahara da Sahel na Afirka. Zuwa shekara ta 750 AD, bayan jerin ƙaura zuwa yamma masarautar ta zama tsohuwar Daular Ghana ytt Daular ta kasance daga 750 AD zuwa 1200 AD kuma ta faɗi sakamakon rashin zaman lafiya na siyasa, koma bayan kasuwanci da haɓakar masarautun Sosso da Mali . Kakanninsu sun tafi Kong (watau Ivory Coast ta yanzu). Daga Kong suka koma Wam, daga Wam suka koma Bono Manso, sannan suka koma Dormaa (a yankin Bono na Ghana a yanzu).[ana buƙatar hujja]

Mitsubishi daga Kong ya zama dalilin sha'awar mutane don nemo yanayin Savannah masu dacewa tunda ba'a saba dasu da rayuwar Daji ba.[ana buƙatar hujja] Around 14th karni, suka koma kudu daga Dormaa gabashin to Twifo-Hemang (North West Cape Coast). Motsi ya motsa saboda kasuwanci kuma suka zauna a dajin Twifo-Heman a ƙarshen ƙarni na 16. Bayan sasantawa, rikicin rikici ya haifar da Otomfuo (brass-smith) Asare ya watsar da dangin don kafa sabuwar birni mai suna Asaremankesee (babbar jihar Asare). Akwamus ne ya kafa garin Asamankese na zamani kuma ya mamaye shi.

Fadada Akwamu ya fara ne tsakanin 1629 da 1710. Sun fadada zuwa yankin Akuapem, gami da Kyerepon da Larteh, Denkyera, Ga-Adangbe; da jihohin Ladoku na filayen Agona, Winneba da Afram. Sarki mai iko Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku I ya haɗu da Guan kuma ya karɓi yankunan gargajiya na Kyerepon. Ya mallake su har sai Asonaba Nana Ofori Kuma da mabiyansa, bayan takaddama da suka biyo baya a kokarin kafa Jiharsu, suka tsunduma su cikin mummunan yaki. An kori Akwamu daga tsaunuka. Wadannan dangin Asona da mabiyansu Guan da Kyerepon, wadanda suka fara zama sun basu wani yanki, don kafa kasar Akuapem. Yawancin Akuapem na yanzu har yanzu suna da tushe daga Akwamufie, musamman waɗanda ke ɗauke da suna Addo da Akoto, waɗanda suka fito daga gidan Aduana.[2]

A al'adar Akwamu, Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku I, shima ya taka muhimmiyar rawa a rayuwar Sarki Osei Tutu I na Asante ta hanyar kare shi daga Denkyera. Sunan mahaifin Osei Tutu shine Owusu Panin daga Akwamu sannan mahaifiyarsa kuma sunanta Manu Kotosi daga Kwaaman. Ta kasance 'yar'uwar Oti Akenten da Obiri Yeboah marigayi sarakunan Kwaaman. Lokacin da Manu ba ta iya haihuwa ba, dan uwanta Obiri Yeboah ya aike ta zuwa wurin bautar gumaka da ake kira Tutu a Akuapem don neman taimako. Daga baya ta yi ciki kuma ta haifi ɗa namiji (Osei Kofi) kuma ta sa masa suna bayan wurin bautar da ake kira Tutu; a lokacin Kwaaman yana karkashin Denkyera don haka lokacin da Osei yake saurayi, an tura shi yayi aiki a kotun Odeefuo Boa Amponsem, sarkin Denkyera na lokacin. Daga baya, Osei ya sami kansa cikin matsala ta hanyar yiwa 'yar'uwar sarki Akobena Bensua ciki kuma ya gudu zuwa wurin mahaifinsa a Akwamu don kariya. Lokacin da Osei ya isa Akwamu, Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku ya karbe shi kuma yayi masa kyakkyawar kulawa; kuma sun kare shi daga Denkyeras. Daga baya, Osei Tutu ya sadu da Kwame Frimpong Anokye (aka Okomfo Anokye) kuma ya zama abokinsa. Jim kaɗan bayan wannan kawun Osei, Obiri Yeboah, sarkin Kwaaman na lokacin ya mutu a yakinsu da Domaa ; kuma sakamakon haka, dole ne Osei ya zama sarki na gaba amma yana jin tsoron Denkyeras ya koma Kwaaman don haka Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku ya ware mayaƙan Akwamu 300 don yi masa jagora zuwa Kwaaman. Lokacin da sojoji suka zo Kwaman, sai suka zauna a tsakaninsu kuma daga baya suka zama 'yan asalin Asafo.

Daga nan shugabannin Akwamu sun sake fasalin rundunar Asante a matsayin kwatankwacin kyakkyawan tsarin sojoji. Hakanan tare da taimakon Akwamu, sun fara jerin kamfe wanda ya kai ga kayar da Denkyera. Daga nan Asante Stool ta zama matar Akwamu Stool, alama don nuna kusancin jihohin Akan biyu. Aasar Asante daga baya ta zama Masarauta kuma har ma tana magana da Sarkinta kuma Otumfuo, wanda ya samo asali daga Akwamuman. Lokacin da Akwamu yake fuskantar rundunar hadin gwiwa ta Akyem ( Akyem Abuakwa, Akyem Kotoku da Akyem Bosome ), Ga, Kyerepong, da kuma Dutch, Asante sun nuna kamar basu san komai game da hakan ba kuma basu taimaki Akwamu ba wanda ya haifar musu da kayen su a shekarar 1734. Kodayake Akwamuman ya rasa yankin yamma na Daular, yayi hanzarin sake kafa kansa kuma yana sarrafa gabashin gabashin Daular. Lokacin da Asanteman yayi yaki da turawan Ingila a yakin su na uku da na hudu, Akwamu yayi kokarin taimakawa amma ya janye taimakon su, domin a shekarar 1867. Akwamu da Anlo (abokan biyu na Asante), sun sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar diflomasiyya tare da gwamnatin Burtaniya; saboda haka bisa ga yarjejeniyar, Akwamu ba zai iya ƙara yin aiki tare da Asante don yaƙar Turawan Ingila ba kuma Asante ta sha kashi. Duk da wannan Akwamus da Asantes har yanzu ƙawaye ne masu ƙarfi. Sun yi yaƙe-yaƙe da yawa a matsayin ƙawaye, ɗayan mawuyacin yaƙi shi ne "yaƙin Krepi" a 1869 inda sojojin Peki-Ewe suka yiwa sojojin Asante da na Akwamu mummunan rauni har ta kai ga Otumfuo Kofi Karikari, sannan Asantehene ya yanke shawarar janyewa. daga yakin, don haka ya umarci Adu Bofo, janar din soja na Asante da ya yi watsi da yakin Krepi; amma Bofo ya ci gaba har zuwa ƙarshe, kuma daga baya ya buƙaci zinariya da yawa don mishaneri ɗin Jamus da na Dutch da aka kama. Yaƙin Krepi (Peki) ya ci gaba, tare da haɗuwar Peki daga wasu garuruwan garin Ewe kamar Ho, Kpandu da sauransu suka kayar da Asante da Akamu daga baya. Shaidun tarihi suna nuna wannan. NB: Wannan yakin ya kasance tsakanin Peki (watau wani garin alƙarya) da Asante tare da Akamu. Landsasunan Ewe / mutanen Ewe suna faɗin ƙasar Ghana, Togo, Benin da kuma Najeriya. Yaƙin bai haifar da haɗin gwiwa na dukkan sojojin Ewe a yankin ba (watau irin su Aja, Fon, Mina, Phe Phlera da sauransu).

Nana Osei Tutu Anumfuo (daga baya Adumfuo) wanda ya raka shi daga Akwamu ya taimaka a shari'un zartarwa. A cikin karni na 21, yawancin Asante sun samo asalinsu zuwa Akwamu musamman; wadannan sun hada da mutane daga Asafo da Adum, da kuma bangarorin mutane daga Bantama da Barekese, dukkan garuruwan da ke cikin babban birnin Asante babban birnin Kumasi.

Bayan rasuwar Nana Ansa Sasraku, sarakuna biyu ne suka gaje shi gaba ɗaya, Nana Addo Panin da Nana Basua. A wannan lokacin ne Akwamu suka karɓi mallakin gidan sarautar Danmark da ke Christianborg a Osu, a cikin Accra ta yau.

Saboda kyakkyawar dangantakar da ke tsakanin Akwamu da Asante, a lokacin faɗaɗa ƙarni na 19 na Asante, Akwamu, Anlo da Asante sun yi yaƙi a matsayin ƙawaye. A yayin bikin tunawa da ranar tunawa da Nana Kwafo Akoto II (Regent), Nana Opoku Ware Na tsallaka Kogin Pra don yin kwana biyu a Akwamufie.

A lokacin da suke kan karagar mulkinsu, kasar Akwamu ta mamaye mafi yawan yankin gabashin kasar Ghana ta yanzu.[2] Hakanan Akwamu sun ci mutanen Ga kuma suka mamaye tsohuwar Masarautar Ga.

A shekarar 1693, Asimani na Akwamu suka jagoranci wani samame suka kwace Gidan masarautar Osu daga turawan mulkin mallaka na Denmark. Don haka Akwamu ya mallaki yawancin hanyoyin kasuwanci daga ciki zuwa bakin tekun a gabashin gabashin abin da ke yanzu Ghana kuma ya ƙirƙiri babban birni a Nyanoase. [3]

A cikin 1720s yakin basasa a cikin jihar Akwamu ya haifar da wahala mai yawa. Wadanda suka yi nasara sun sayar da yawancin kawancen Sarki a matsayin bayi kuma aka dauke su zuwa tsibirin Caribbean na St. John . A cikin 1733 suka tayar da tawayen bawa a tsibirin. [4]

A shekara ta 1734 aka sami nasara akan Akwamus daga Akyem (Abuakwa, Kotoku da Bosome), Ga, Kyerepong, da sojojin Holland, kuma suka rasa rabin daular su. An tura Akwamus zuwa Akwamufie, wurin da babban birnin su yake yanzu; amma a 1869 yayin da Akwamu ke fuskantar sojojin Peki (Ewe) a yakin Krepi, Akyem, Akuapem, da sauransu sun ga wata dama ta shiga cikin rundunar Peki (Ewe) don murkushe Akwamu sau daya tak; don haka Dompre, sarkin Akyem Kotoku na lokacin ya shirya rundunonin Akuapem, Ga, da Akyem kuma suka yi daidai da Akwamu.

Jerin sarakunan jihar Akwamu[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Sarakunan Akwamu Lokacin mulki
Otumfuo Agyen Kokobo (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1505-1520
Otumfuo Ofosu Kwabi (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1520-1535
Otumfuo Oduro (Yaa Ansaa Gidan Sarauta) 1535–1550
Otumfuo Addow (Yaa Ansaa Gidan Sarauta) 1550-1565
Otumfuo Akoto I (Yaa Ansaa Gidan Sarauta) 1565–1580
Otumfuo Asare (Yaa Ansaa Gidan Sarauta) 1580–1595
Otumfuo Akotia (Yaa Ansaa Gidan Sarauta) 1595-1610
Otumfuo Obuoko Dako (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1610-1625
Ohemmaa Afrakoma (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1625-1640
Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku I (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1640-1674
Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku II (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1674-1689
Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku III (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1689-1699
Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku IV (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1699–1702
Otumfuo Akonno Panyin (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1702-1725
Otumfuo Ansa Kwao (Yaa Ansaa Gidan Sarauta) 1725–1730
Otumfuo Akonno Kuma (Regent) 1730–1744
Otumfuo Opoku Kuma (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1744–1747
Otumfuo Darko Yaw Panyin (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1747-1781
Otumfuo Akoto Panyin (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1781-1835
Otumfuo Darko Yaw Kuma (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1835-1866
Otumfuo Kwafo Akoto I (Yaa Botwe na Aboabo) 1866-1882
Otumfuo Akoto Ababio (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1882-1887
Otumfuo Akoto Ababio II (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1887–1909
Otumfuo Akoto Kwadwo (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1909–1910
Otumfuo Akoto Ababio III (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1910–1917
Otumfuo Ansa Sasraku V (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1917–1921
Otumfuo Akoto Ababio IV (Yaa Ansaa Royal Family) 1921–1937
Kwafo Akoto II (Yaa Botwe Iyalan Aboabo) 1937–1992

Bayani[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. ^
  2. ^ http://www.asanteman.org/akan-abusua.html
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c Muḥammad Zuhdī Yakan, Almanac of African Peoples & Nations, p.161
  5. ^
  6. ^ Kwamina B. Dickson, A Historical Geography of Ghana, p.23
  7. ^ Hartman, Saidiya. Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007) pp. 91-93
  1. http://www.asanteman.org/akan-abusua.html
  2. 2.0 2.1 Muḥammad Zuhdī Yakan, Almanac of African Peoples & Nations, p.161
  3. Kwamina B. Dickson, A Historical Geography of Ghana, p.23
  4. Hartman, Saidiya. Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007) pp. 91-93