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Bamyan

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Bamyan


Wuri
Map
 34°49′N 67°49′E / 34.82°N 67.82°E / 34.82; 67.82
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaAfghanistan
Province of Afghanistan (en) FassaraBamyan (en) Fassara
Babban birnin
Bamyan (en) Fassara
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 100,000 (2014)
• Yawan mutane 2,857.14 mazaunan/km²
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 35 km²
Altitude (en) Fassara 2,550 m
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 2800 "BCE"
Muhimman sha'ani
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
UTC+04:30 (en) Fassara

Bamyan wanda kuma aka rubuta Bamiyan ko Bamian, babban birnin lardin Bamyan ne a tsakiyar Afghanistan. Yawan jama'arta kusan mutane 70,000 ya sa ya zama birni mafi girma a Hazarajat.[1] Bamyan yana kan tsayin kusan ƙafa 8,366 (m2,550) sama da matakin teku. Filin jirgin saman Bamyan yana tsakiyar birnin ne.[2] Tazarar tuki tsakanin Bamyan da Kabul a kudu maso gabas yana da kusan kilomita 180 (mita 110). Gidan shakatawa na Band-e-Amir yana zuwa yamma, tafiyar kusan rabin sa'a daga birnin Bamyan.[3][4]

Wasu suna kiran Bamyan da "Hasken Haske" da "Kwarin Allah".[5] Akwai wuraren shakatawa da dama a kusa da birnin, ciki har da Buddha na Bamyan, waɗanda aka sassaka su a cikin tsaunin da ke arewacin birnin Bamyan a karni na 6 da na 7 AZ, wanda ke danganta su da mulkin Hephthalite. Sauran abubuwan jan hankali na kusa da birnin sun hada da Shahr-e Gholghola da Zuhak.[6] A shekara ta 2008, an gano Bamyan a matsayin gidan zanen mai mafi dadewa a duniya.[7] A ƙarshen karni na 10, akwai al'adun addinin Buddha inda 'yan addinin Buddha dubu da yawa ke zaune a cikin kogo da aka sassaƙa a cikin dutsen.[8] Mitoci 53 da aka fi sani da Salsal da kuma mita 35 da aka fi sani da Shahmama su ne manyan mutum-mutumin Buddha da sanannun abubuwan tarihi da mabiya addinin Buddha suka bari, wadanda Taliban suka lalata a shekara ta 2001. Bugu da ƙari, akwai wuraren al'adu da yawa da suka rage daga Buddha da kuma zamanin Musulunci na kwarin. Bayan hambarar da kungiyar Taliban daga mulki a shekara ta 2002, an yi kokari sosai don kiyaye abubuwan tarihi na al'adu a cikin kwarin. Birnin Bamyan yana da gundumomi guda hudu da kuma yawan fili mai fadin hekta 3,539. Jimillar gidaje a wannan birni guda 4,435 ne.

Kwarin Bamyan ya kasance alama mafi girma na fadada addinin Buddha kuma ya kasance muhimmiyar cibiyar kasuwanci don yawancin karni na biyu AZ. Wuri ne da Gabas ta hadu da Yamma kuma ilimin kimiya na kayan tarihi ya nuna hadewar tasirin Girkanci, Turkawa, Farisa, Sinawa da Indiyawa. Kwarin yana daya daga cikin wuraren yawon bude ido a Afghanistan.

Birnin Bamyan ya shiga Cibiyar Ƙirƙirar Biranen Ƙirƙira ta UNESCO a matsayin Crafts da Folk Art a cikin 2017. "UNESCO ta lura cewa kwarin Bamiyan shine mafi girman furci na addinin Buddha na yamma." Yanzu UNESCO ta sanya Bamiyan a matsayin Gidan Tarihi na Duniya a cikin Haɗari.

A ranar 15 ga Agusta 2021, mayakan Taliban sun sake kwace Bamyan, wanda ya zama babban birnin lardi na ashirin da tara da Taliban za ta kwace a wani bangare na hare-haren Taliban na 2021.

Asalin Suna

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Sunan "Bamiyan" ya samo asali ne daga Bamikan Farisa ta Tsakiya.

Kwarin mai tsayin mita 2,500 yana da nisan kilomita 230 daga arewa maso yammacin Kabul kuma ya raba tsaunukan Hindu Kush daga tsaunin Koh-e Baba. A gefen arewa, akwai kusan kilomita 1.5 tsayi, tsayi, kusan dutsen dutsen yashi a tsaye wanda glacier ya yi. Mutum-mutumin Buddha da yawancin kogo da ke cikin kwarin an sassaka su cikin wannan fuskar dutsen. A cikin kwarin da kansa da kan gangara, akwai kango masu yawa daga zamanin da.

"Bamiyan yana tsakanin yankin Indiya (zuwa kudu maso gabas) da Asiya ta tsakiya (a arewa), wanda ya mayar da shi muhimmin wuri kusa da daya daga cikin muhimman rassa na hanyar siliki". Garin yana kan tsohuwar hanyar siliki, yana kan mashigar gabas da yamma lokacin da duk wani ciniki tsakanin Sin da Gabas ta Tsakiya ya ratsa ta cikinsa. Huna sun mai da shi babban birninsu a karni na 5. Saboda dutsen Buddha, rugujewar kogon Monk, Shahr-e Gholghola ('Birnin Sighs', rugujewar wani tsohon birni da Genghis Khan ya lalata a lokacin 1221 kewaye da Bamiyan), da kuma wuraren da ke cikin gida. yana daya daga cikin wuraren da aka fi ziyarta a Afghanistan. Tudun Shahr-e Zuhak mai nisan mil goma kudu da kwarin wuri ne na wani kagara da ke gadin birnin, kuma ana iya samun rugujewar katafaren dutse a wurin tun a shekarun 1990.

Garin dai cibiyar al'adun kabilar Hazara ce ta kasar Afganistan. Yawancin jama'a suna zaune a cikin garin Bamyan. Kwarin yana kwance tsakanin jeri na dutsen Hindu Kush da Koh-i-Baba.

Tsaunuka sun mamaye kashi casa'in cikin dari na lardin, kuma sanyi, tsawon lokacin sanyi, wanda ke dadewa na tsawon watanni shida, yana kawo yanayin zafi na ma'aunin Celsius uku zuwa ashirin a kasa da sifili. Yawancin mutanen Daizangi Hazara suna zaune a yankin. Hanyoyin sufuri suna karuwa, amma ba su da yawa. Musamman ma, yanzu an haɗa Bamyan ta hanya zuwa Kabul ta lardin Parwan da Maidan Wardak. Haɗin da ke tsakanin Maidan Shar da Bamyan - tsawon kilomita 136 - ya ba da damar isa Kabul a cikin tuƙi na sa'o'i 2. Haɗin ya kusa ƙare bacewar kilomita 15 kawai na shimfida.

Babban amfanin gona shine alkama, sha'ir, mushung, da baquli, waɗanda ake girma a lokacin bazara. Lokacin da aka lalata amfanin gona saboda tsananin yanayi da ba a saba gani ba, mazauna yankin na kiwon dabbobinsu har zuwa lardunan Ghazni da Maidan don musanya abinci.

Bamyan yana da yanayin hamada mai sanyi (Köppen BWk), tare da lokacin sanyi da dumi, bushewar bazara. Hazo mafi yawa yana faɗuwa a ƙarshen hunturu da bazara.

Climate data for Bamyan
Watan Janairu Fabrairu Maris Afrilu Mayu Yuni Yuli Ogusta Satumba Oktoba Nuwamba Disamba Shekara
Record high °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
12.5
(54.5)
20.6
(69.1)
28.7
(83.7)
29.4
(84.9)
31.2
(88.2)
33.2
(91.8)
32.2
(90.0)
31.4
(88.5)
26.2
(79.2)
20.6
(69.1)
13.0
(55.4)
33.2
(91.8)
Average high °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
2.0
(35.6)
7.9
(46.2)
15.6
(60.1)
19.9
(67.8)
24.1
(75.4)
26.3
(79.3)
26.1
(79.0)
22.9
(73.2)
17.4
(63.3)
11.0
(51.8)
5.1
(41.2)
14.9
(58.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
1.4
(34.5)
8.6
(47.5)
12.4
(54.3)
16.3
(61.3)
18.4
(65.1)
17.4
(63.3)
12.8
(55.0)
7.8
(46.0)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.8
(27.0)
6.9
(44.4)
Average low °C (°F) −10.1
(13.8)
−6.1
(21.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
2.9
(37.2)
5.7
(42.3)
8.5
(47.3)
10.0
(50.0)
8.8
(47.8)
4.2
(39.6)
0.0
(32.0)
−4.9
(23.2)
−8.6
(16.5)
0.5
(33.0)
Record low °C (°F) −30.5
(−22.9)
−28.4
(−19.1)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−6.5
(20.3)
−2.5
(27.5)
0.6
(33.1)
5.4
(41.7)
3.0
(37.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
−7.9
(17.8)
−14.5
(5.9)
−25
(−13)
−30.5
(−22.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.3
(0.33)
15.7
(0.62)
27.4
(1.08)
29.8
(1.17)
26.0
(1.02)
5.7
(0.22)
1.0
(0.04)
0.0
(0.0)
3.1
(0.12)
4.2
(0.17)
7.5
(0.30)
4.3
(0.17)
133
(5.24)
Average rainy days 0 0 2 7 6 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 21
Average snowy days 5 7 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 24
Average relative humidity (%) 43 54 52 52 52 46 45 45 43 44 48 52 48
Mean monthly sunshine hours 196.7 174.6 210.7 239.4 356.9 372.9 357.8 325.3 276.7 245.5 198.0
Source 1: Hong Kong Observatory[9]
Source 2: NOAA (1960–1983)[10]
Statue of a bearded man with cap, probably Scythian, Bamyan c. 3–4th century.
Head, from Bamyan c. 6–7 century.

Birnin Bamyan wani yanki ne na daular Kushan a farkon ƙarni na zamanin Kiristanci. Bayan daular Kushan ta fadi a hannun Sassanid, Bamyan ya zama wani bangare na Kushansha, masu fada da Sassanid. Mahajjacin addinin Buddah Fa Xian ya ziyarci Bamyan a karni na biyar, inda ya rubuta cewa, sarkin ya kira sufaye na yankin domin yin alwashi da addu'o'i. Har ila yau Fa Xian ya ba da rahoton zabtarewar kasa da dusar kankara a tsaunuka da yadda dusar ƙanƙara ta kasance a lokacin hunturu da bazara. Wannan bayanin na ƙarshe yana nuna canjin yanayi wanda zai iya ba da gudummawa ga mahimmancin tarihi da tattalin arzikin yankin na shekaru masu zuwa. Wani matafiyi na addinin Buddah, Xuanzang, ya ratsa ta Bamyan a karni na bakwai. Bayanan nasa ya nuna cewa an riga an gina Buddha na Bamiyan da gidan sufi da ke kusa da shi. Har ila yau, ya rubuta cewa addinin Buddha a yankin ya lalace tare da mutanen da suke "masu wuya kuma ba a noma ba". Hephthalites sun ci Bamyan a karni na 5. Bayan da Sassanid da Turkawa suka lalata su Khanate a shekara ta 565, Bamyan ya zama babban birnin karamar hukumar Kushano-Hephthalite har zuwa 870, lokacin da Saffarid suka ci ta. An sami tagomashi da wurin da yake a daya daga cikin manyan hanyoyin kasuwanci daga Yamma zuwa China da Indiya, kwarin yana da matukar muhimmanci a cikin dabaru. Ya zama tasha ga ayarin fatauci, sanannen wurin fasaha kuma ya kasance babbar cibiyar addinin Buddah tsawon ƙarni. Daga baya ya fada hannun Ghaznavids a karni na 11. Bamiyan ya musulunta ne a karkashin mulkin Sultan Mahmud. Wannan ya kasance kusan lokacin ƙarni na farko AD. A wannan lokacin, an ƙaura tsakiyar birnin Bamiyan daga arewa maso yammacin kwarin, inda dutsen da ke da mutum-mutumin Buddha yake, ya kara zuwa kudu maso gabas. Wasu daga cikin katangar da ke cikin kwari kuma sun samo asali ne tun daga wannan lokacin[19]. A lokacin mulkin Ghurids, Bamiyan ya kasance babban birnin wata babbar masarauta na kimanin shekaru 60, wato daga shekara ta 1155 zuwa 1212, wadda ta yi arewa zuwa kogin Oxus (Amu Darya na yau).[19][18] A cikin 1221 an ce Genghis Khan ya shafe birnin da mutanensa gaba daya. An yi ikirarin cewa yana daukar fansa ne a kan jikansa da aka kashe. Bamiyan ya kasa murmurewa daga wannan taron na tsawon lokaci. Ko da shekaru da yawa bayan haka, har yanzu birnin ya lalace kamar yadda wani masanin tarihi na Farisa ya ruwaito.[20] Shekaru da yawa sun wuce kafin wani gari ya sake bayyana a cikin kwarin, amma yana iya samun mahimmancin yanki kawai. Qarlughid sun kafa babban birninsu ba da jimawa ba. Akwai wasu shaidun da ke nuna cewa Bamyan ya ɗan ƙaru kuma an sake gina shi a lokacin Timurid a ƙarni na 15. Tun zamanin Timurid, an ce an sake yin wani birni a Bamiyan. Koyaya, gabaɗayan raguwar kasuwancin teku zuwa teku a wannan lokacin yana nufin cewa birnin ba zai iya girma zuwa girmansa ba kuma ba zai iya samun mahimmancin yanki ba.

Har ila yau an sake ambaton Bamiyan a cikin littattafan tarihi a lokacin daular Mughal, musamman dangane da Aurangzeb, wanda aka harba gunkin Buddha mai tsayin mita 53 da harbe-harbe a lokacin da ya kwashe.

A lokacin mulkin daular Afganistan, Bamiyan ya kasance katanga a yankin tsakiyar tsaunuka. A lokacin, duk da haka, har yanzu yankin yana da'awar ikon Uzbek Miren da ke mulki a arewa. Sun bukaci a biya su haraji, musamman ta hanyar isarwa daga bayi daga kabilun Hazara na tsaunukan da ke kewaye.

A cikin 1840, yankin ya kasance cikin rikici saboda yakin Anglo-Afghanistan na farko lokacin da Burtaniya ta fatattaki Dost Mohammad Khan da dakarunsa[18]. Bature na farko da ya ga Bamyan shine William Moorcroft (mai bincike) kimanin 1824. A cikin 1998-2001, Bamyan ta kasance cibiyar yaƙi tsakanin dakarun Taliban da ƙawancen da ke adawa da Taliban; musamman Hizb-i-Wahdat - a cikin arangama tsakanin sarakunan yaki na dakarun sa kai na yankin. Bamyan kuma ana kiranta da babban birnin Daizangi.

Buddha na Bamiyan

Kabilar Bhudda

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Ashoka, mai mulkin tsohuwar daular Maurya ta Indiya, bisa ga wani tsohon rubutu, an aiko shi a shekara ta 261 BC. don maida yankin. Wannan ya kasance ne kafin Masarautar Greco-Bactrian ta ayyana 'yancin kai a yankin Kush na Hindu na arewacin.

A karkashin mulkin daular Kushana, addinin Buddha a hankali ya kafa kansa a yankin Kush na Hindu. Tsakanin karni na 2 zuwa na 4 AD, rukunin gidajen addinin Buddah da yawa sun tashi tare da hanyoyin kasuwanci a wancan. Bamiyan da kansa zai zama mafi girma kuma mafi shahara a cikin waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon Buddha. Koyaya, ainihin lokacin da addinin Buddha ya sami hanyar shiga Bamiyan ba a san shi ba.

Wannan fasaha ta addinin Buddha ta sami tasiri sosai daga al'adun Gandhara na farko, wanda aka haɓaka a kudanci, kuma al'adun Gupta na Indiya ya kasance sakamakon wannan halittar al'ada ta musamman ta irinta. Al'adun Gandhara sun riga sun koma baya ko kuma sun ruguje sosai lokacin da addinin Buddha ya sami farfaɗo a nan.

An gina manyan mutum-mutumin Buddha guda biyu akan babban dutsen da ke fuskantar arewacin kwarin a karni na 6. An zana tituna da wuraren tarihi a cikin dutsen da ke kewaye da alkalumman kuma an samar da ɗaruruwan wuraren addu'o'i da kogo, waɗanda aka ƙawata wasu da zane-zanen bango.

An kiyasta adadin kogo a Bamiyan ya kai kusan 1,000. An ƙididdige lokacin asali zuwa lokacin daga 450 zuwa 850 AD. An bayyana wasu daga cikin bangon bangon a matsayin sanannun zane-zanen mai a duniya, tun daga karni na 7. Wani tarihin da ya gabata ya kiyasta adadin a kogo 12,000, adadin da aka yi karin gishiri ga kwarin Bamiyan kadai, amma da alama ya dace da daukacin yankin, gami da kusan kilomita 50 na kwaruruka da ke kewaye. Zanen mai na Bamyan Buddha yana da alaƙa da ƙarni na 5 zuwa 9 kuma waɗannan zane-zanen an yi su ne da mai, ɗaruruwan shekaru kafin a ƙirƙiri fasahar a Turai. Masanan sun gano cewa 12 daga cikin kogo 50 an yi musu fenti da fasahar fentin mai, ta hanyar amfani da kila goro da busar da mai.

A ƙarshen zamanin da, ɗakin da ke kusa ya kasance a hannun kabilu waɗanda aka ƙidaya a cikin Hun Iran kuma suna rikici da Daular Sassanid. Bayan 560, Turkawa Gök sun zama babban iko a Transoxania.

Kyan Garin Bamyan

[gyara sashe | gyara masomin]

Afganistan ta kafa wurin shakatawa na farko a ranar 22 ga Afrilu, 2009, don haɓakawa da kare kyawawan dabi'un tafkuna masu tsananin shuɗi da madatsun ruwa masu tsayi a cikin Kush Hindu. Band-e-Amir jerin tafkuna shida ne a cikin hamada mai tsaunuka na tsakiyar Afghanistan. Tafkunan sun samo asali ne daga ruwa mai arziƙin ma'adinai wanda ke zubowa daga kurakurai da tsagewar wuri mai faɗi. Bayan lokaci, ruwan ya ajiye nau'o'in ma'adinai masu tauri (travertine) wanda ya gina cikin ganuwar da yanzu ke dauke da ruwa. A cewar kungiyar kare namun daji, wadda ta taimaka wa gwamnatin Afganistan ta kafa wurin shakatawa, Band-e-Amir na daya daga cikin tsirarun tsarin dajin a duniya.[33] Bamyan Duk da kasancewa ɗaya daga cikin yankuna mafi talauci da ƙarancin ci gaba a ƙasar, Bamiyan ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin mafi aminci a cikin Afghanistan a yau. Ga waɗanda suka taimaka ƙirƙirar wurin shakatawa na ƙasa a cikin 2009 bayan shekaru da yawa na jinkiri saboda yaƙi, filin shakatawa na Band-e-Amir mai zaman lafiya ya ba da labari daban-daban na ƙasar da tashe-tashen hankula suka bayyana tarihinta na baya-bayan nan. Gidan gandun dajin na Band-e-Amir yana tsakiyar lardin Bamiyan na kasar Afganistan, .WCS, tare da wasu hukumomin kasa da kasa da abokan hadin gwiwa da suka hada da USAID da hukumar raya kasashe ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, sun taimaka wa karamar hukumar Afganistan wajen taimakawa wajen kafa da gudanar da ayyukan raya kasa. wurin shakatawa.[34] a cikin Band-e-Amir launin ruwan shuɗi mai zurfi na tabkuna ya faru ne saboda tsabtar iska da kuma tsabtar ruwa. Yawan ma'adinan da ke cikin tabkunan kuma yana haifar da tsananin launuka iri-iri na ruwan tafkin. Bugu da kari, Band-e-Amir da aka yi daga tafkuna shida; Daga cikin tabkuna shida, Band-e Panir shine mafi ƙanƙanta, tare da diamita na kusan 100 m (330 ft). Mafi girma shine Band-e Zulfiqar, wanda tsawonsa ya kai kimanin kilomita 6.5 (mil 4). Mafi dacewa daga cikin tabkuna shine Band-e-Haibat, a zahiri an fassara shi da Dam of Awe.[35]

  1. Samfuri:Cite dictionary
  2. "About this Collection". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  3. Samfuri:Cite Merriam-Webster
  4. e.g. Unesco Archived ga Janairu, 28, 2007 at the Wayback Machine, BBC
  5. "Information about Bamyan". Bamyan Foundation (in Turanci). Retrieved 2022-04-19.
  6. "Top 10 Discoveries of 2008 - Oldest Oil Paintings - Bamiyan, Afghanistan - Archaeology Magazine Archive". archive.archaeology.org. 2009. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  7. "Why Bamyan province brings out the best of Afghanistan".
  8. "The State of Afghan Cities report 2015". UN-Habitat. 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-31. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
  9. "Climatological Normals of Bamiyan". Hong Kong SAR Government. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  10. "Bamiyan Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 26, 2012.