Banditry

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File:Briganti 1862 from Bisaccia.jpg
Laftanar Carmine Crocco Agostino Sacchitiello da membobin ƙungiyar sa daga Bisaccia, Campania sun ɗauki hoto a 1862

Banditry wani nau'in laifi ne da aka shirya ta hanyar aikata laifuka da suka shafi barazana ko amfani da tashin hankali. Mutumin da ya shiga aikin 'yan fashi an san shi da ɗan fashi kuma da farko yana aikata laifuka kamar ƙwace, fashi, da kisan kai, ko dai a matsayin mutum ɗaya ko cikin ƙungiyoyi. Banditry ra'ayi ne mara ma'ana game da aikata laifi kuma a cikin amfani na zamani na iya zama daidai da ƙungiya-ƙungiya, ɓarayi,, da ɓarayi .

Ma'anoni[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kalmar ɗan fashi (wanda aka gabatar da Ingilishi ta hanyar Italiyanci kusan 1590) ya samo asali ne daga farkon aikin shari'ar Jamus na haramtattun masu laifi, wanda ake kira *bannan ( haramcin Ingilishi). Kalmar doka a Daular Roman Mai Tsarki ita ce Acht ko Reichsacht, wanda aka fassara shi da " haramtacciyar sarauta ".[ana buƙatar hujja] A cikin Italiyanci na zamani kalmar daidai "bandito" a zahiri tana nufin haramtacce ko wanda aka hana.

The New English Dictionary kan Historical Principles (Ned) ayyana "ɗan fashi" a 1885 a matsayin "wanda aka proscribed ko haramta . Saboda haka, a m matsananciyar marauder, a brigand : yawanci amfani da mambobi ne na shirya gangs wanda infest da duwatsu gundumomi na Italiya, Sicily, Spain, Greece, Iran, and Turkey ”.

A cikin amfani na zamani kalmar na iya zama ma'anar "ɓarawo", saboda haka kalmar " ɗan fashi da makami ɗaya " don injin caca wanda zai iya barin mai caca ba tare da kuɗi ba.

Dan fashi na zamantakewa[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  "' Yan ta'adda na zamantakewa " kalma ce da ɗan tarihi Eric Hobsbawm ya ƙirƙira ta a cikin littafinsa na dubu daya da dari tara da hamsin da tara 1959 Primitive Rebels, nazarin shahararrun nau'ikan juriya wanda shima ya haɗa halayen da doka ta bayyana a matsayin haramtacce. Ya ci gaba da faɗaɗa filin a cikin Nazarin 'Yan fashi na dubu daya da dari tara da sittin da tara 1969. Rikicin barayi ya zama ruwan dare gama gari wanda ya faru a cikin al'ummomi da yawa a cikin tarihin da aka yi rikodin, kuma har yanzu akwai nau'ikan ɓarna na zamantakewa, kamar yadda ya nuna ta hanyar fashin teku da ƙungiyoyin masu aikata laifuka . Daga baya masana kimiyyar zamantakewa sun kuma tattauna yadda ake amfani da kalmar don ƙarin nau'ikan laifuka na zamani, kamar ƙungiyoyin titi da tattalin arziƙin da ke da alaƙa da fataucin muggan kwayoyi .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Tarihi[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Membobin Dalton Gang da aka nuna bayan Yaƙin Coffeyville a 1892 - hagu zuwa dama: Bill Power, Bob Dalton, Grat Dalton, da Dick Broadwell

Turai[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Lokacin Medieval[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Paparoma Sixtus na V ya kashe kimanin yan bindiga dubu biyar 5,000 a cikin shekaru biyar kafin mutuwarsa a dubu daya da dari biyar da casa'in 1590, amma akwai ƙarin dubu ashirin da bakwai 27,000 a cikin 'yanci a duk tsakiyar Italiya.

Nazi Jamus[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

A cikin Nazi Jamus, koyarwar Bandenbekämpfung ("yaƙin 'yan fashi") yana nufin cewa an nuna abokan adawar jam'iyyar Nazi a matsayin "' yan fashi" - masu laifi masu haɗari waɗanda ba su cancanci la'akari da su a matsayin mutane ba. Duk wani 'yan adawa da aka kamo yawancinsu na da matsakaicin karfi da kuma, hakan yaja da tare da kisan fararen hula da suke zaune a killatattun yankunan partisan.

China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Kasar China[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Banditry (Dao, qiangdao) a cikin Ming China dubu daya da dari uku da sittin da takwas zuwa dubu daya da dari shida da arbain da hudu (1368 - 1644) gwamnatin Ming ta ayyana shi a matsayin “'fashi da karfi' wanda hukuncin kisa ne”. Amma a cikin daular, mutane sun shiga aikin 'yan fashi don dalilai daban -daban kuma aikin ɗan fashi yana da ruwa kuma na ɗan lokaci.

Dalilai da Dama[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Ming China galibi al'umma ce ta aikin gona kuma masu sa ido na zamani sun lura cewa yunwa da wahalar da ke biyo baya kan haifar da fashi. A cikin littafinsa na dubu daya da dari tara da casa'in da daya 1991 Rashin Lafiya a ƙarƙashin Sama: Rikicin gama -gari a daular Ming, James W. Tong yana amfani da bayanai daga gazetteers na lardin da na lardin Ming da daular Qing don nazarin tsarin tashin hankali a lokacin daular Ming. Tong yayi nazarin cewa dole manoma su yi "zaɓin hankali" tsakanin tsira da mawuyacin yanayi da tsira ta hanyar ayyukan haram na 'yan fashi. Ya gano muhimman abubuwa da yawa a cikin lissafin manoma na ko su zama 'yan fashi ko a'a, kamar ikon gwamnati na hukunta' yan fashi. Tong ya kammala da cewa "ƙirar zaɓin sa mai hankali ya yi hasashen cewa za a sami ƙarin tawaye da 'yan fashi inda yuwuwar tsira da wahala ta kasance kaɗan amma yuwuwar rayuwa a matsayin mai ƙetare iyaka ce mafi girma." A sakamakon haka, Tong ya gano cewa 'yan fashi, kamar sauran nau'ikan tashin hankalin gama gari, yana da yanayin sarari da na ɗan lokaci. Yan fashi sun mamaye ko'ina a lardunan kudancin (galibi Guangdong da Fujian) da rabi na daular dubu daya da dari biyar da shida zuwa dubu daya da dari shida da arba'in da hudu (1506-1644).

Koyaya, Arewacin China da tsakiyar Ming (1450 - 1525) suna da rabonsu na fashi. Bandan fashi da makami sun kasance babba da yaɗuwar ofan fashin da ke addabar hanyoyi a kusa da babban birnin Beijing da kewayenta, ana sarrafa su kuma ana kiransu da Babban Birnin. Xiangmazei ('yan fashin kibiya masu busawa) wani rukuni ne na' yan fashin da aka saka mai suna bayan aikinsu na harba kibiyoyi don fadakar da wadanda abin ya shafa. [1] Itsan bindiga masu harba iska sun dami yankin Babban Birnin a cikin shekaru talatin na farko na ƙarni na sha shida. [1] Sun yi irin wannan babbar barazanar cewa an ba su kulawa ta musamman ta 'yan sanda kuma rashin kama su a kan lokaci ya haifar da hukunci mai tsanani (ana iya samun ƙarin bayani kan tsarin shari'ar Ming a Tarihin shari'ar manyan laifuka) .

Masanin tarihin Ming David M. Robinson ya gano wasu fitattun abubuwan da ke haifar da fashi a Yankin Babban Birnin. Yankin ya kasance talaucin aikin gona saboda ambaliyar ruwa akai -akai, don haka manoma ke rayuwa cikin talauci. Bugu da ƙari, tattalin arzikin Yankin ya ba da dama mai yawa na satar manyan hanyoyi. Baya ga bunkasuwar tattalin arzikin Beijing, Yankin ya kuma kunshi biranen kasuwanci da yawa; wadannan garuruwa ba wai kawai sun ja hankalin 'yan kasuwa ba har ma da' yan fashi. [2] Har ila yau, Robinson ya yi nuni da cewa babba da yawa a Beijing sun koma yin fashi. Kamar yadda Shih-Shan Henry Tsai ya yi bayani, jefa kai kawai wata hanya ce ta kubuta daga talauci; kuma lokacin da gungun bābān ya kasa samun aikin yi a cikin gidan sarauta, sukan juya zuwa tashin hankalin jama'a.

Yankin Babban Birnin kuma ya ƙunshi sojoji da yawa tare da tsarin Ming na sojoji na gado kuma babban ɓangaren 'yan fashi ainihin sojoji ne da aka girke a yankin. A shekara ta 1449, sojojin Mongoliya da ke aikin Ming sun kai hari da kwace yankin Beijing. Wani rahoto na 1489 ya tabbatar da cewa sojoji sun kai hari a lardin Henan. Robinson ya yi nuni da cewa "matsanancin matsin tattalin arziki" ya tilasta wa sojoji amfani da haramtattun hanyoyi don yin rayuwa. Hakanan, manufofi da yanayi a Yankin Babban Birnin sun ba da dama ga sojoji/'yan bindiga su guji hukuncin gwamnati. A lokacin daular Ming, an raba ikon soja da na farar hula. Wannan ya kasance abin damuwa musamman lokacin da sojoji ke zaune nesa da manyan su: lokacin da sojoji suka yi fashi, jami'an farar hula ba su da ikon kama su. [3] Manufar jigilar garuruwan da ke kusa zuwa Beijing don horon shekara -shekara ya kuma samar da damar yin fashi da makami. Wani jami'i ya ba da rahoton cewa sojojin da ke tafiya ta Babban Canal daga garuruwan da ke kusa da su zuwa babban birnin sun yi fashi da kisa kan matafiya da 'yan kasuwa; a kasa, wadannan sojoji sun fada cikin 'yan fashi ma.

Dabaru, ƙungiya, rayuwa, da haɗari[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Dabarar yan bindiga ta ƙunshi dabarun yaƙi don amfani da makamai iri-iri, daga baka da kibiyoyi zuwa takubba. Wata muhimmiyar fasaha kuma ita ce doki/dawakai, musamman a yankin Babban Birnin Arewa, inda 'yan fashi da makami suka fi yawa. Kamar yadda aka nuna a sama, da yawan yan fashi haƙiƙanin sojoji ne kuma suna da damar yin amfani da makamai. Wata fasaha ita ce iya tura tubalan hanyoyi don tsayawa da farautar matafiya.

Da zarar sun mallaki kayayyaki da karfi, sai 'yan bindiga su sayar da su. Wani rahoton hukuma na 1485 ya bayyana cewa mutanen yankin, wataƙila wasu suna aiki a zaman shinge (duba Fences a Ming China ), sun sayi dabbobin da aka sata da kayayyaki daga 'yan fashin manyan hanyoyi a farashi mai rahusa. Robinson ya ci gaba da nuna cewa "[cibiyar sadarwa] mai tartsatsi don zubar da garuruwan da aka sace da aka haɗa" a cikin Babban Birnin zuwa lardunan da ke kusa. [4]

Aikinsa ko asalin ɗan fashi ya kasance na dindin. Wasu 'yan fashi a zahiri sun sami kwanciyar hankali har ma sun yi aure. Veritable Records of the Ming Daular Ming ya ba da labarin cewa babban ɗan fashin nan Zhang Mao yana zaune a cikin wani babban gida a garin Wenan. Hakazalika, abokan Zhang Liu Brothers da Tiger Yang suna da mata da yara.

'Yan ta'adda galibi suna yin aiki a ƙungiyoyi a ƙarƙashin shugabanni ɗaya ko fiye. Waɗannan shuwagabannin masu kwarjini ba ƙwararru ba ne kawai wajen faɗa da hawa amma kuma sun mallaki jari da jari. Daya daga cikin jagororin abin koyi shine Zhang Mao na Wenan. Ya tara dimbin mabiya kuma ta hanyar amfani da alaƙar sa da dukiyar sa, ya sami damar cin hanci da yin mu'amala da manyan fāda a kotun.

Tabbas, gwamnatin Ming ta yi amfani da hannu mai ƙarfi don murƙushe 'yan fashi. Kwamandoji da 'yan sanda na cikin gida ne ke da alhakin cafke' yan fashi, amma sarakuna kan aika da naurar musamman don shawo kan matsalar 'yan fashi. Ning Gao yana daya daga cikin masu tace 1509, kuma ya yi amfani da munanan hanyoyi kamar nuna kawunan da aka yanke da sassan jiki don kashe 'yan fashin da ke akwai da kuma tsoratar da wadanda za su iya. Ban da tserewa zuwa filaye masu wahala, 'yan fashi masu ƙarfi sun yi amfani da haɗin gwiwar su da manyan mutane a babban birnin don tattauna lafiya. A wani lokaci, mashahurin marubuci Zhang Zhong ya taimaki ɗan'uwansa da aka rantsar Zhang Mao don tattaunawa da kwamandan da aka aika don farautar 'yan fashin. Koyaya, irin wannan tallafin bai bada garantin rigakafi ba. Wani jami'i mai tasiri da ƙuduri, wanda manyan masu fada aji ko fadawa ke ba da karfi, na iya yin babbar barazana ga rayuwar 'yan fashi. Ta hanyar kai farmaki mai kyau, Ning Gao, abokin hulɗar wani babban mashahurin Liu Jin, ya sami nasarar raunata kuma ya kama Zhang Mao, wanda daga nan aka kai shi Beijing aka kashe shi.

Hanyoyin 'yan Fashi a nan Gaba[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

Duk da cewa 'yan fashin sun fuskanci hukuncin kisa, har yanzu ana iya sanya su cikin tsarin mulki, suna aiki a matsayin' yan sanda na gida da sojoji na sirri da jami'ai ke aiki da su don samun tsari da murkushe 'yan fashi. Irin wannan canjin ba na dindindin bane kuma ana iya juyawa sau da yawa. Tiger Yang ya taɓa yin hidimar soja na sirri na Ning Gao da aka ambata kafin ya koma ɗan fashi; Hakazalika, lokacin da ake fuskantar rashin aikin yi, wasu daga cikin tsoffin 'yan fashi na Ning sun shiga cikin shugabannin' yan fashi Liu Brothers.

Aikin bandit yan ta'adda sau da yawa yakan jagoranci shugabanni don tara ƙarin yan fashi da yan gudun hijira da tsara kananan ƙungiyoyin farauta cikin ƙungiyoyin tawaye. Misali ɗaya shine Gao Yingxiang, wanda ya fara zama ɗan fashi a Shaanxi kuma daga baya ya zama babban jagoran 'yan tawaye a ƙarshen Ming. Wani misalin zai kasance Deng Maoqi, ɗan fashi a Fujian wanda ya yi fashi a kan hanyoyi da ƙauyuka a ƙarshen 1440s. Gangan ƙungiyarsa ta yan ta'adda sun girma zuwa rundunar 'yan tawaye kuma Deng ya kai hari kan gwamnati a Fujian. [5] 'Yan tawayen' yan ta'adda ba kowa bane a ƙarshen Ming. A cikin dubu daya da dari biyar da goma 1510 da 1511, ƙungiyoyin 'yan fashi da yawa a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Liu Brothers, Tiger Yang sun kai farmaki Shandong da Henan. Ayyukansu ba bisa ƙa'ida ba sun haifar da tawaye a bayyane ga Daular Ming yayin da suka mamaye biranen da ba a san su ba, suka kwace makamai na masarautar, faɗaɗa yankin aiki zuwa kudu, har ma sun ɗauki maganganu da suturar daular sarauta. Tawayen ya ɗauki Ming kusan shekaru biyu don murkushe.

Hakazalika, ƙananan ƙungiyoyin 'yan fashi na cikin gida na iya ƙarasa shiga cikin manyan kungiyoyin' yan tawaye. Robinson ya yi nuni da cewa a bayyane 'yan fashi sun fahimci fa'idar tallafawa yan tawaye amma kuma za a iya kore su su shiga; a sakamakon haka, 'yan tawayen na 1510 sun ja hankalin' yan fashi da yawa na cikin gida yayin da suke tafiya daga wannan wuri zuwa wani.

Yawon sace-sacen yan fashi yana daya daga cikin halayen da manoma suka saba gani na zalunci da wahala. A farkon Jamhuriyyar China, haɓakar rundunonin mayaƙan yaƙi a lokacin Yaƙin Mulki shima yana tare da ƙaruwa mai yawa na ayyukan 'yan fashi da ke amfani da rashin bin doka. Ya zuwa shekarar 1930, an kiyasta jimillar yawan ‘yan fashi miliyan 20.

Duba kuma[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  • Bagaudae, 'yan fashi a kusa da Pyrenees a Daular Roma
  • 'Yan fashi a Chile
  • Hajduks, 'yan fashi a yankin Balkan
  • 'Yan bindigar Sardiniya
  • Dacoity, kalmar Hindi don fashi
  • Fence, yana taimaka wa 'yan fashi sayar da kayan da aka sace. 
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