Bugun jini

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Bugun jini wani yanayi ne na likita wanda rashin kwararar jini zuwa kwakwalwa ke haifar da mutuwar kwayar halitta.[1] Akwai manyan nau'ikan shanyewar jiki guda biyu: ischemic, saboda karancin jini, da zubar jini, saboda zubar jini.[1] Dukansu suna sa sassan kwakwalwa su daina aiki yadda ya kamata.[1] Alamu da alamun bugun jini na iya haɗawa da rashin iya motsi ko jin a gefe ɗaya na jiki, matsalolin fahimta ko magana, diwanci, ko rasa hangen nesa a gefe ɗaya.[2][3] Alamu da alamu sukan bayyana nan da nan bayan bugun jini ya faru.[3] Idan alamun sun wuce sa'o'i ɗaya ko biyu, bugun jini shine harin ischemic na wucin gadi (TIA), wanda kuma ake kira ƙaramin bugun jini.[3] Hakanan ana iya haɗa bugun jini na jini da ciwon kai mai tsanani.[3] Alamomin bugun jini na iya zama na dindindin.[1] Rikice-rikice na dogon lokaci na iya haɗawa da ciwon huhu da asarar sarrafa mafitsara.[3]

Babban abin da ke haifar da bugun jini shine hawan jini.[4] Sauran abubuwan haɗari sun haɗa da shan taba, kiba, hawan jini cholesterol, ciwon sukari mellitus, TIA da ta gabata, cututtukan koda na ƙarshe, da fibrillation.[2][4][5] An sami bugun jini na ischemic yawanci ta hanyar toshewar magudanar jini, ko da yake akwai kuma ƙananan dalilai.[6][7][8] Ana haifar da bugun jini ta hanyar ko dai zubar jini kai tsaye zuwa cikin kwakwalwa ko kuma cikin sarari tsakanin mabudin kwakwalwa.[6][9] Jini na iya faruwa saboda karyewar aneurysm na kwakwalwa.[6] Ganowa yawanci dogara ne akan gwajin jiki kuma ana goyan bayan hoton likita kamar CT scan ko MRI scan.[10] CT scan na iya kawar da zubar jini, amma maiyuwa ba lallai ba ne ya kawar da ischemia, wanda da wuri ba ya nunawa akan CT scan.[11] Sauran gwaje-gwaje kamar na'urar lantarki (ECG) da gwaje-gwajen jini ana yin su don tantance abubuwan haɗari da kawar da wasu dalilai masu yiwuwa.[10] Ƙananan sukari na jini na iya haifar da irin wannan alamun.[10]

Rigakafin ya haɗa da raguwar abubuwan haɗari, tiyata don buɗe jijiyoyi zuwa kwakwalwa a cikin waɗanda ke da matsala ta kunkuntar carotid, da warfarin ko wasu magungunan kashe jini a cikin mutanen da ke da fibrillation.[2] Ana iya ba da shawarar aspirin ko statins don rigakafi.[2] Ciwon bugun jini ko TIA yakan buƙaci kulawar gaggawa.[1] An gano bugun jini na ischemic, idan an gano shi a cikin sa'o'i uku zuwa hudu da rabi, ana iya magance shi tare da magani wanda zai iya rushe jini.[2] Wasu cututtukan bugun jini suna amfana daga tiyata.[2] Magani don ƙoƙarin dawo da aikin da ya ɓace ana kiransa gyaran bugun jini, kuma yana faruwa a cikin sashin bugun jini; duk da haka, ba a samun waɗannan a yawancin duniya.[2]

A cikin 2013 kusan mutane miliyan 6.9 sun kamu da bugun jini kuma mutane miliyan 3.4 sun sami bugun jini.[12] A cikin 2015 akwai kusan mutane miliyan 42.4 waɗanda a da suka kamu da bugun jini kuma har yanzu suna raye.[13] Tsakanin 1990 zuwa 2010 adadin bugun jini da ke faruwa a kowace shekara ya ragu da kusan kashi 10% a cikin kasashen da suka ci gaba kuma ya karu da 10% a cikin kasashe masu tasowa.[14] A cikin 2015, bugun jini shine na biyu mafi yawan sanadin mutuwa bayan cutar jijiya, wanda ya yi sanadiyar mutuwar mutane miliyan 6.3 (11% na jimlar).[15] Kimanin mutane miliyan 3.0 ne suka mutu sakamakon shanyewar ischemic yayin da miliyan 3.3 suka mutu sakamakon bugun jini.[15] Kimanin rabin mutanen da suka yi fama da bugun jini suna rayuwa kasa da shekara guda.[2] Gabaɗaya, kashi biyu bisa uku na bugun jini ya faru a cikin waɗanda suka haura shekaru 65.[16]

Manazarta[gyara sashe | Gyara masomin]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "What Is a Stroke?". www.nhlbi.nih.gov/. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Donnan GA, Fisher M, Macleod M, Davis SM (May 2008). "Stroke". The Lancet. 371 (9624): 1612–23. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60694-7. PMID 18468545.Template:Paywall
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 "What Are the Signs and Symptoms of a Stroke?". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Who Is at Risk for a Stroke?". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  5. Hu, A; Niu, J; Winkelmayer, WC (November 2018). "Oral Anticoagulation in Patients With End-Stage Kidney Disease on Dialysis and Atrial Fibrillation". Seminars in Nephrology. 38 (6): 618–28. doi:10.1016/j.semnephrol.2018.08.006. PMC 6233322. PMID 30413255.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 "Types of Stroke". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  7. Roos, Karen L. (2012). Emergency Neurology (in Turanci). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 360. ISBN 978-0-387-88584-1. Archived from the original on 2017-01-08.
  8. Wityk, Robert J.; Llinas, Rafael H. (2007). Stroke (in Turanci). ACP Press. p. 296. ISBN 978-1-930513-70-9. Archived from the original on 2017-01-08.
  9. Feigin VL, Rinkel GJ, Lawes CM, Algra A, Bennett DA, van Gijn J, Anderson CS (December 2005). "Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systematic review of epidemiological studies". Stroke. 36 (12): 2773–80. doi:10.1161/01.STR.0000190838.02954.e8. PMID 16282541.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "How Is a Stroke Diagnosed?". www.nhlbi.nih.gov. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2015.
  11. Yew KS, Cheng E (July 2009). "Acute stroke diagnosis". American Family Physician. 80 (1): 33–40. PMC 2722757. PMID 19621844.
  12. Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (August 2015). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". The Lancet. 386 (9995): 743–800. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)60692-4. PMC 4561509. PMID 26063472.
  13. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". The Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
  14. Feigin VL, Forouzanfar MH, Krishnamurthi R, Mensah GA, Connor M, Bennett DA, et al. (January 2014). "Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". The Lancet. 383 (9913): 245–54. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61953-4. PMC 4181600. PMID 24449944.
  15. 15.0 15.1 GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". The Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
  16. Feigin VL, Forouzanfar MH, Krishnamurthi R, Mensah GA, Connor M, Bennett DA, et al. (January 2014). "Global and regional burden of stroke during 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". The Lancet. 383 (9913): 245–54. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61953-4. PMC 4181600. PMID 24449944.